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The task of foreign policy making is complicated and is best executed when professional diplomats are recruited and then assigned to design long-term foreign policy strategies and goals.
Like other institutions of the state. India refused to turn over Pakistan's share of the military and financial assets inherited from British India. Farhan Hanif Siddiqi There are the challenges of the deeper structural and environmental type that both India and Pakistan face.
India's behaviour. Department of International Relations. Shahid Amin contends that Pakistan's foreign policy has been tainted with the problematic of ad hocism 'or the tendency to take decisions to tide over an immediate exigency without any long-term planning.
Indian actions in Kashmir to block access to the waters of the Indus in early forcing Pakistan to sign an agreement heightened such fears that India did not accept its neighbour's existence and intended through bullying tactics to drive it to collapse quickly. The writer is Assistant Professor. Pakistani identity. One of the terrorists Ajmal Kasab was arrested alive who admitted that he is Pakistani.
The Pakistan army prepared a secret plan to enter its forces into Indian-held Kashmir. This summit did not produce any result. Musharraf indicated a solution of Kashmir which was contrary to traditional Pakistani stand on this issue.
In November This led to a summit meeting which. Pakistan army repulsed this attack. The Agra Summit in between Musharraf and Vajpayee broke the ice that had frozen relations for two years after Kargil. In May This tragic incident injured severally Pak-India relations. Water issue is also major irritant between CS SF oru m. In these attacks.
India is rapidly constructing several dams on Indus river which may convert Pakistan lands into desert. Pakistan and India secured agreement through Tashkent Declaration. It must understand that it cannot be fulfilled until or unless the Kshmir Issue is resolved according to the aspirations of the people of both countries. Vajpayee travelled on the first bus to visit Lahore in February The Pakistani and Indian prime ministers were stunned to know about Kargil episode.
Pakistani troops were discovered to have occupied. The US promised to help Pakistan and use its influence over India to give people of Kashmir their right of self-determination. The public opinion is divided about offering MFN status to India.
Pakistan army was forced to surrender.
This era of good feeling lasted only about three months. The US betrayed its old ally Pakistan and stopped the defence supplies during war. India is dreaming for the status of big world power. Kargil adventure deteriorated Pak-India relations.
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President Bhutto won back the West Pakistan territory and release of Indian army. India reacted and declared war against Pakistan. But by the grace of Allah.
Indian army attacked Lahore from three sides. The Pakistan army initiated this adventure. The fact is that the loss of Muslim majority Kashmir undercuts the rationale for a separate Muslim state in South Asia and.
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Similar enterprises can be established between India and Pakistan. Bangladesh very wisely decided to hitch its future to it and is reaping impressive benefits. Pakistan becomes the automatic candidate to be on the fast-moving bandwagon of economic growth and development. India and Pakistan. Pakistan can miss a golden opportunity if we do not jump onto the bandwagon of economic growth that originated in East Asia.
There are the challenges of the deeper structural and environmental type that both India and Pakistan face. The increasing gap between poor and rich. Bangladesh and India have recently agreed to establish joint industrial ventures.
When nations seize the historical moment they reap great benefits. These contextual changes redefine the relationship between the media and foreign policy decision-making process. CS SF These days live news coverage provided information to the audiences 24 hours a day from anywhere in the world.
Kennedy and his advisers had the chance to deliberate in secrecy about which course of action they were to take. It is also confirmed that the media of a particular country plays a pivotal role in framing public opinion not only within the country but also persuade masses of other states. Media advisors and public relation professionals participate in this procedure.
Many journalists. This information is processed through various image components and than the policy or decision formulating process is set in motion. Media is involved in all stages of foreign policy formulation processes and political leaders take media into consideration in its national and international aspects. Previous research studies on foreign policy decision-making portrays media mainly as a tool for delivering messages only during the course of action.
Involvement of media in this regard is complex. During first six days of the crisis. Kennedy's government is often mentioned. Co When an external. Free-market media economics is limited in authoritarian states where the media are state-owned. How are media financed? Who appoints the editors? Social Responsibility and Libertarian and two additional theories included 'Development' and 'Democratic-Participant'. Setting has two aspects: Setting is really a set of categories of potentially relevant factors and conditions that may affect the action of any state.
Following are the other trends which define this field. These theories define the specific press-government relation which provides the ground to set the main rules of the communication policy of the government towards the media which finally influence the foreign policy.
Although media does not make policy. It can be described as the tool which expresses the nongovernmental interpretations and expectations of the various members or groups of the society. In an authoritarian regime.. If we adopt a revised perspective on this setting. These regimes are characterizes as. The communication regime. Media effects on foreign policy decision making can not be ignored. Thus media provide support to the established authority and its norms.
In authoritarian states where media are not located in an open market. Surveillance of the environment Correlation of the parts of society in responding to the environment Transmission of the social heritage from one generation to the next.
In performing these functions. It is important to note that there is a possibility that media can also go against the government in some cases. Co nte Foreign-policy environment demands three of the relevant roles including informative. Entertainment Mobilization py rig ht In the modern democratic state with commercialized media there is hardly any way to differentiate between these two media environments. One of the important media effect is that it accelerants the process of foreign policy making.
TV and modern multimedia interactive technologies. Here the press performs its mobilizing and recruiting role. It directs journalists to follow rules in making such decisions. News values determine the criteria that lead editors to include items concerning war.
This effect is most plausible to appear in conventional warfare. US relationship will remain on a roller coaster unless the whole spectrum of Gen Musharraf's written and unwritten arrangements with the US are revisited to draw new 'terms of engagement' in keeping with the State's interests.
The third likely effect of the media on foreign policy making is that of the media as an agenda setting agent. This kind of effect is likely to appear during conventional warfare. It is presumed that the coverage of humanitarian crises puts the issue in the foreign policy agenda and drives intervention.
The writer is Chairperson. The Pak. Lahore Dr. Anjum Zia Sunday. Department of Mass Communication. As a threat to operational security. Second effect is media as impediment. It is presumed. The US policy goals in Pakistan. The only mutuality in this hinge has been one of expediency with each side always aiming at different goals and objectives to be derived from this relationship.
And its global objectives are driven. IndiaPakistan hostility. It is time to correct this approach. The eastward focus of America's global power. America's larger Asian focus represents its abiding interest in these regions especially those with known but hidden oil and gas reserves. It is important that Pakistan. It represents the long gravity shift of global economic power from the EuroAtlantic to the Asia-Pacific regions. In the post-World War II era. It is an old relationship that has remained fundamentally strong and enduring despite many ups and downs.
It has also had big stakes in the economic power of Japan and other East Asian economic tigers. In addition to invisible emotional fall out. CS SF China's Rise inherent in phenomenal growth of its global power and economy has been of special concern to the US which has been building its own regional equations to contain this phenomenon. For much of its history. In the blinking of an eye. Unpredictability has been another consistent feature of this relationship which has gone through regular interruptions in its intensity and integrity.
Co nte And yet. Even though they were allegedly aimed at suspected Al-Qaeda or Taliban havens. The premeditated November 26 Mohmand attacks killing 24 Pakistani security personnel seem to have crossed all limits. Pakistan has suspended its transit route oru m. Pakistan's Afghan dilemma: But in the actual execution of his AfPak policy.
India-Pakistan peace is critical to the prospect of a stable and peaceful Afghanistan where the implications of US failure are grave. This has had an alarmingly adverse impact on Pakistan's psyche which is already perturbed by America's indifference to its legitimate security concerns and sensitivities.
Obama was convinced the India-Pakistan equation will have to be kept straight. He escalated CIA-operated drone attacks in Pakistan. Our Afghanistan-related problems are aggravated by the complex regional configuration with a growing Indo-US nexus. He knew that no strategy or roadmap for durable peace in the region including Afghanistan would be comprehensive without focusing on the underlying causes of conflict and instability.
President Obama in early days of his presidency understood this linkage. He justified wars to make peace. His June 22 speech on the US troops drawdown was the anticlimax of the one he delivered in Oslo two years ago when receiving an unearned Nobel Peace Prize. Obama was soon detracted from his stated goals. No country.
India's strategic ascendancy in the region and its unprecedented influence in Afghanistan with serious nuisance potential against Pakistan's security interests. For any regional approach to succeed in Afghanistan. CS SF The US-Pakistan relationship will never really be a trusted one again until the grinding conflict in Afghanistan comes to an end in a manner that does not jeopardise Pakistan's legitimate security interests. Even if they had the vague consent of Pakistan's rulers. On our side.
No wonder. The problem is not the relationship. Ambassador Munter is doing a good job for his country.
National interests have no meaning or relevance to them. It is time we set our priorities in terms of our national interests.
CS SF But one thing is clear. They have squandered our sovereignty. But let's be honest. An investigation to determine the facts about the attacks is said to be in progress. Co nte nt Obviously. It seems our diplomacy in Washington has been the victim of cross purposes rooted in our domestic political intrigues as evidenced in the Memogate. We also need in Washington an ambassador with no 'conflict of interest. It is time for both sides now to set a better bilateral perspective for this relationship to make it a mutually beneficial.
The problem is its poor and shortsighted management on both sides. US-Pakistan relationship is an important equation. For Washington.
Sunday, January 01, 2012
And in their success alone lies the very future of Pakistan as a strong and stable democratic country with a moderate and progressive outlook and as a factor of regional and global stability. Even the current crisis in our relationship with the US is the result of commitments made by our self-serving rulers. Co py rig Howsoever enigmatic. To them. Washington as a global sole super power has its own priorities as part of its larger Asian agenda.
The objective must be not to weaken this important equation but to strengthen it by infusing in it greater political. Both countries need each other. This relationship will remain on a roller coaster unless the whole spectrum of Gen Musharraf's written and unwritten arrangements with the US are revisited to draw new 'terms of engagement' in keeping with the State's interests.
The general sense was that agreements to restrain the development of these technologies are unlikely in the present atmosphere. A dedicated communications channel should be established between the Indian National Security Advisor and the Pakistani equivalent. CS SF There was a discussion of possible cooperation on such areas as the safe operation of nuclear power plants and the security of radioactive sources used in medical and industrial applications.
In both cases. The Copenhagen meeting discussed the impact of emerging technologies on strategic stability. Initiate an official. To that end. Initiate a high-level official dialogue over how new and emerging technologies. The members of the Ottawa Dialogue strongly recommend these cooperative research projects. In the field of civilian nuclear cooperation. They further recommended that a bilateral framework should exist to facilitate such projects.
There was consensus that the safe operation of nuclear power plants would be a suitable area for future work in the Ottawa Dialogue. It is led by Peter Jones. Shamshad Ahmad The writer is a former foreign secretary. The ongoing dialogue process has already resulted in the adoption of an ambitious list of nuclear confidence-building measures CBMs which have since been submitted to the two governments for their joint consideration.
However in the event of a conventional conflict breaking out they agreed that all efforts should be made to prevent an escalation of the conflict and suggested that.
Pak-China friendship is of a fundamental significance for ensuring peace and stability in the region. China has a principled position that national sovereignty and territorial integrity of Pakistan must be respected. Pakistan's sovereignty has been violated. China leadership perceives any threat to Pakistan as a threat to China. Leave apart the question of regional stability.
Pakistan independence and sovereignty is quite sacred to the people of Pakistan and we have to defend it ourselves. China has always helped in capacity building in terms of defence of Pakistan. But the Chinese have kept one thing clear that they have remained firm on their principled stance whether on the question of Taiwan. What is the Chinese perspective on this issue? There is absolute trust between Pakistan and China which is a precious commodity.
CS SF Q: What was your feedback about Chinese support to Pakistan in the Envoys Conference? When China expresses such a position or puts forward its logical perspective.
China has asked the world to assist Pakistan and refrain from creating troubles for Pakistan. There is a consensus between the two countries to make collective efforts for regional peace. I believe the collective efforts of Pakistan and China act as a balancing factor for regional stability. Pakistan has always stood shoulder to shoulder with China on all occasions whether it is the issue of Taiwan. Co py rig China has adopted a policy of peaceful engagement with her neighbours for the last 30 years.
How can China support this true friend Pakistan when its sovereignty is violated? China has always assisted in improving Pakistan economy. China has emphasized upon the international community to recognize the contribution and sacrifices of Pakistan in the war against terror.
Tibet or Xinjiang. This policy has helped China in its economic development. International law is a universal fact which cannot be violated. Both are strategic partners and they know how to endure their partnership.
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North China Sea or any other issue. Similar has been the position of China. They have pledged to remain proactive for peace. Certainly they want cooperation and peaceful settlement of disputes in South Asia.
Republic of Korea and even with India despite its issues with these countries. Can you elaborate the Chinese policy? China has always endeavoured that its neighbourhood remains prosperous and peaceful.
North China Sea or other issues. So I am bound by the decision. M Piracha m. China welcomed it alongwith the United States. China is always helpful but I will remind you again that the primary responsibility of defending our sovereignty is ours own. And that is why China welcomed that. China has taken a particular position on Pak-India trade relations. It has maintained economic connectivity with Japan.
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China always try to make other powers realize about these facts whether on the international fora or during their bilateral diplomatic engagements. You also attended Envoys Conference to review foreign policy of Pakistan. This will help South Asian countries to forge economic connectivity. China wants removal of differences in the region.
What was the most important aspect the conference? We all agreed on one thing that only the Foreign Office Spokesman will speak about it. But the important is that there will be no compromise on the principles.
When we are trying to improve our trade relations with India. Can You elaborate Chinese perspective? China has taken care of economic connectivity and has given it a lot of importance in its own foreign policy. When cabinet accorded in principle approval to granting MFN status to india. What is Chinese perspective on Pak-India peace process? If we want to learn from China. How do you think whether Chinese try to prevail upon the world in favour of Pakistan or just express their solidarity with us?
We should always remember that Pak-China friendship is not built for any war rather it is for ensuring peace and stability. China will encourage us. What are Pakistan's long term and short term interests in Afghanistan and how Pakistan is pursuing these interests?
Ayaz Wazir: We were so unfortunate to have an Army Chief as well as President like him. What was Musharaf's policy towards Afghanistan? Mushraf was a real disaster for Pakistan. Here another example I would like to give. Our main concern and need is a peaceful and prosperous Afghanistan. The short term interests not only of Pakistan but of the entire region are to find out a political solution of the Afghan problem. Being a president of Pakistan the whole country is before you the whole army is with you so whom you are scare of or are you going to kill.
We have the same tribes divided between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Here I would like to mention a saying of Allama Iqbal he said. Pakistan's interests are very deep in Afghanistan. I would again say we were very unfortunate Musharaf has literally ruined the country. He used to call himself 'Commando'. Both of us have strong bonds of relationship but at times some hiccups do come in this relationship. A peaceful and prosperous immediate neighbor on our western border will directly affect our people not only in the border and tribal areas but deeper parts of the country as well.
I had an Indian fellow here yes terday working with me in a conference she asked the same question I replied if the Indians are there to help the Afghanistan. I was there with my ambassador to receive him believe you me nobody in the British government was willing to give us a room to receive the president at the airport.
How do you see the role of India in Afghanistan as a balancer or perpetrator? Pakistan cannot impose any decision on Afghanistan or India but it would be good for both India and Afghanistan to take care of the sensitivities of Pakistan. I would say it is the routine oru m. Decisions made in the Boon Conference are binding on whom and do you foresee any significant change in the Foreign Policy of Pakistan after 'Ambassadors Conference'?
Well 'Boon conference' will not be a boon for the Afghanistan problem because Pakistan a very important immediate neighbor boycotted the conference. Another catastrophe which he brought in was the deploying of Army in tribal areas. Musharaf was the first to shatter his commitment by deploying the army without consulting the tribesmen. So since till today our army is fighting with our own people not with a foreign army.
This region was guarded by the tribes for us for 60 years and we did not spend a penny on them and now the thousand troops are deployed and one can well imagine its cost. I heard from a very credible source that France is going to call back its troops from Afghanistan although it has not a larger share. As far as the recently held 'Ambassador Conference' is concerned. Similarly the 'Taliban'. India and Afghanistan are two independent countries they can make deals even a strategic one.
Pakistan should not interfere in the internal affairs of Afghanistan similarly India and Afghanistan should also not interfere in the internal matters of Pakistan. I would say it is the routine matter of the 'Foreign Office'. Judiciary its own and Foreign office should do their own work.
We have seen the present government from last four years what they had done in these years then how can we expect a miracle in the last one year these all are rhetoric they will do as we say Purani Tankhaw Pay nokri ker lain gay.
For the foreign policy decisions. Now in the light of this input the political leadership is to decide what to do.
Well we have a saying i. If we respect the collective will of our people then the world will respect us. If they were sincere to the nation they would have not disrespect in the Supreme Court so much. He said. Army should do its own. Let the institution should do their own work. My message is that our honor lies in our collective respect.
No doubt we have the one commonality. If we see the present year there are four prominent indicators which we have to keep in mind 1. Their arguments were logical. Pakistan thinks that American should have dialogue with the Taliban through them Pak so. The issue of Raymond Davis.
Now as far as Pakistan has a different perception with Chinese in Afghanistan we are comfortable but not with the Indians. Now if you see towards the US they are kept on giving us a response that the cooperation between the Pakistan and the US is inevitable for the stability of Afghanistan.
Mehmood-ul-Hassan Butt. America thinks that Pakistan should built a pressure on Taliban by cutting their support from FATA for which they use the words save hideouts or sanctuaries and then they can negotiate with the Taliban from a position of strength.
Emergence of new global power i. The discussion was chaired by Dr. On the other hand Pakistan is of the opinion if you US have an option of dialogue then why not we. But the problem is that Pakistan and United States see the stability in Afghanistan with different angles both have their own perceptions.
Hillary Clinton also admitted that without Pakistan it would be difficult because Pakistan is the main actor in the Afghan issue so. Now floor is opened for the students. Interesting fact is this in the winter season the supply route Central Asia is not viable due to snow fall. By doing this we could ask the United States at Bonn in front of international community now answer these victims of the brutal attack? But I think our foreign office and other concerned institutions are unaware of this technique.
There is a realization in Pakistan that the revenue which normally we collect from the vehicles carrying supply for the NATO forces in Afghanistan is only Rs per vehicle so we have to raise it.
Now we have to see how long Pakistan can stand with this response. Thank you. When those maneuvers became militarized. Now this is the right time for the overhaul of our foreign Policy. But in my opinion it is very important for Pakistan to redefine the terms of engagements with the US which should be based on mutual respect and strategic partnerships in real terms beyond the rhetoric of non-Nato ally.
Pakistan did some maneuvers which were termed by some as Strategic Depth. These feelings emanating from Islamabad have resonated well in the power circles in Kabul and President Hamid Karzai also made the assertion that Pakistan and Afghanistan are twin brothers. Historically the relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan have not been very casual. Pakistan opted to evolve working relationship with some sections of the Afghan society and in order to achieve that.
These strategists think that Afghanistan can give that strategic depth to Pakistan. The other variants of this concept can be economic strategic depth.
Due to the alliance of India with Afghanistan and incessant danger from both the borders. There are many reasons to believe that the concept of strategic depth is going through an erosion of some sorts. In today's globalized world it is not just a spatial concept anymore. In Pakistan's case it can be explained like.
Military's point of view of the strategic depth is the state's ability to protect its assets and absorb an attack from the enemy. Nevertheless the importance of having some kind of relations has been felt by the both countries under different regimes in the past. Thus they justify Pakistan's actions in Afghanistan.
The security of one state exacerbates the insecurity of the other state. Pakistan felt the need to secure its western borders by developing a strategic depth in Afghanistan. Pakistan feels more comfortable with dealing the Pashtun element within the Afghan government oru m. For that. Pakistan is also conscious to its thinner width and in case of a fully fledged Indian offensive.
Strategic depth must be seen in the perspective of forging friendly relationship with the neighbors.
So if taken in that sense. This can be a point which can be used as an argument to help improve relations and do away with the mistrust. After the fall of Taliban in Both the governments knew that they need to do business and quite positively they agreed on a Tripartite Commission comprising of Pakistan.
It was good news for the Afghan businessmen who could export their products to the region and develop trade links to central Asian republics. Now Afghanistan is number one trading partner of Pakistan as of imports. Pakistan is currently hosting Afghan students in Pakistani schools and hundreds and thousands of Afghan child refugees attend schools in Pakistan.
Afghanistan despite its reservations on Durand line agreed to be a part of it because this commission was also tasked with pushing for the international recognition of the Line. This showed that the ice was breaking in the ties between the two and the trust was developing. Pakistan—Afghanistan Joint Economic Commission is constituted. Pakistan is one of the largest refugee hosting countries in the world and most of the refugees in Pakistan are from Afghanistan.
The joint economic commission is also working to exploit new ways and avenues of bolstering trade. This shows the degree of concern in Islamabad to project an acceptable image to the establishment in Afghanistan. In projects like building Peshawar—Jalalabad and Quetta— Kandahar rail links were set as priorities. Pakistan tried to make it a point with the US when it was attacking Afghanistan in October Pakistan has put into its share in rebuilding Afghanistan.
Pakistan's role as a host to the refugees is also criticized by some quarters. It was mandated with monitoring security and coordinating information and intelligence sharing along the Pak—Afghan border.
The Bilateral trade has grown manifold since Pakistan is also involved in constructing buildings at universities in Kabul. This situation has become more dismal and startling especially in the wake of natural catastrophes and population explosion.
Burhanuddin Rabbani. The reservations on both the sides are reasonable. With an utter neglect towards social sectors. Murad Kassi im e s. The cross border attacks from Afghanistan into Pakistani territory. For the sake of the progress of South Asia. The two countries have the right to forge any kind of relationship with any country. India though granted the same status to Pakistan in , imposed non-tariff barriers to cripple the access of Pakistani products to Indian market.
As a result of which, out of total India-Pakistan trade volume i. This trade imbalance Pakistan is already facing despite not granting India with MFN status and no rocket-science is required to gauge the gravity of the impact if the anticipated status is bestowed to India. Similarly, the number of importable products, which India allowed Pakistan to it were , while Pakistan allowed non-MFN India items to export it. Then if one makes a comparative analysis of the agriculture sectors of both the states, one can assess the huge difference present between the both due to asymmetry of subsidies extended to the farmers of the respective states and unequal availability of water resources.
Prices of fertilizers, availability of modern machinery, energy resources for electric tube-wells and above all allocation of budget for the sector are the areas in which Pakistan is far behind India to match. Especially the scarcity of water and the pace, with which this deficiency is making its way, is really alarming. If Pakistan grants this controversial status without first addressing the concerns and filling the gaps will make Pakistan potent and Pakistan will deprive most of the leverages it already enjoys.
This decision will also assist India to plead its case in the comity of nations for UNSC permanent membership. In short, pursuit of this decision by present government without necessary homework is just like pushing the nation into the swamps of slavery where there are no strong footings. Kennedy Sunday, January 01, Pakistan, with million people, has, to some extent, developed transport infrastructure.
Over the years, road traffic has grown significantly faster than national economy. The 3. Road density, an indicator of the level of prosperity and development, is. Lowering domestic production cost, timely delivery of raw material, integrating markets, linking different areas, bringing economic opportunities for people and enhanced productivity are the macro economic benefits associated with the development of road infrastructure. This also encourages tourism, foreign investment and brings competitive advantage over other economies.
The economic impact of transportation can be direct and indirect. The direct impact includes. The European Union in its policy statement emphasized its approach towards building transport system: This is particularly true in Europe where for goods and people to circulate quickly and easily between member states, we must build the missing links and remove the bottlenecks in our transport infrastructure. The trans European network is a key element in the relaunched Lisbon strategy for competitiveness and employment in Europe for that reason alone; to unblock major transport routes and ensure sustainable transport, including through major technological projects.
In the history of civilizations, each great power had made progress and successfully prolonged and strengthened their rule to the benefit of their subjects. Roman, British, Muslim Empires of Umayyad and Abbasid and in subcontinent Mughal Empire all had built roads, to move their army and to facilitate commerce. Similarly, the American settlers had rivers and canals to move their produce to the market. The Industrial Revolution brought about significant change and the countries began to develop their transportation system to fully utilize the potential of enhancing their mobility to increase trade and commerce.
With the arrival of Railway a new dimension was added in the transport sector. In the twenty-first century the importance of transport to economic well-being of a nation has necessitated more and continued investment in transportation sector for economic development of the country and to compete with other nations.
The economic multiplier effect, indirect impact, helps in drop of commodities price, enhances service and increases variety. It is incumbent upon policy makers to diversify transport system to move goods from highways to other modes including railway but unfortunately the performance of railway instead of improving has gone down over the years resultantly not only railway sustaining heavy losses but the national economy as a whole is suffering a lot.
In the wake of above the following is suggested: I-Transportation sector be treated as investment rather as a cost. National economy can prosperous and compete other economies if necessary tools required for competition are provided by the govt. II-Investment should be prioritized and the identification of projects should be carried out. Pakistan's geostrategic position has made it unique in the region, and the future of Central Asian economies, Afghanistan, China, India and regional trade is highly dependent on development of transportation system in Pakistan.
The economic dividends for Pakistan are enormous and will ultimately bring prosperity and better economic opportunities across the board. For a developing country like Pakistan the return on investment in highway is greater than return on an average investment. If seen historically the return on investment in highway capital has been highest when the existing highway capital was smallest in those countries which started to make progress and achieved significant economic development.
Micro economic view of benefits of road infrastructure is bit difficult to quantify more accurately since it deals with specific action taken in business in response to changes in efficiency or reliability of transportation services. In a country like Pakistan the development of road infrastructure brings equal economic opportunities for lower income or previously neglected areas.
And consequently enhances national income and integration. In Pakistan, National Highway Authority NHA plays a major role in development of new projects, operation and maintenance and has reasonably performed well in ensuring road safety and all weather reliability.
Besides undertaking different projects, one of the top priorities includes to expand north-south highway network which will ultimately reduce travel time in addition to making traffic more efficient and saving transport costs. Moreover cheaper transport cost will increase private sector productivity which will further diversify and deepen the industrial base necessary to provide jobs for the growing population.
This project on completion will cut travel time from 72 hours to 36 hours from Karachi to Peshawar. The importance of this artery for transportation moving between Arabian Sea ports in the South and Central Asia and People's Republic of China in the north is crucial for regional trade and development of our economy.
Trade relations. It is important to understand the evolution of WTO and how its rules affect developing countries such as Pakistan. These objectives are to be achieved by following the optimal use of the world's resources in accordance with the objective of sustainable development. In other words. The four basic rules of WTO are 1.
In the next 47 years. CS SF The WTO is an institution with the broader legal and constitutional elements that incorporate and standardize the strategies for global economic integration. Its basic objective is to create a liberal and open trading system under which business enterprises from respective member countries can trade with one another in a fair and undisclosed competitive system with an agenda to raising standards of living.
The Great Depression had profound effect on the people and nations who lived through it. It tries to provide market access to countries for their products and services and promotes friendly investment policies by eliminating trade distortions between countries. The agendas of the eight rounds of the GATT from to can be glanced through the following table. The organization officially commenced on January 1. With a view to achieving greater coherence in global economic policy-making. It provides the forum for negotiations among its members concerning their multilateral trade relations in matters dealt with under the agreements and a framework for the implementation of the results of such negotiations.
It also has rules that protect local businesses and industry from foreign goods and services using unfair practices like dumping or transfer pricing mechanisms. After the WWII. In January This first round resulted in Protection to Domestic Industry through Tariffs. This economic mayhem started with the Stock Market Crash wiping out savings of people and creating unemployment of the highest level in Western World. The WTO has rules to address quality issues.
As a developing country Pakistan has enjoyed the extra time given for preparations to abide by the Agreements of WTO upto The reduced tariffs are bound against further increases by listing them in each country's national schedule and the schedules are an integrated part of the GATT legal system.
Tariff and other regulations should be applied to imported or exported goods without discrimination among countries. WTO negates anything which blocks the way of free movement of goods and services from one market to another on a basic assumption of improving the human lifestyle. It prohibits the use of quantitative restrictions. Generalized System of Preferences GSP where developed countries apply preferential or duty free rates to imports from developing countries.
It demands open market access for foreign goods and services in the local market without any discrimination by creation of tariff or non-tariff barriers.
Exceptions to the rules are to regional arrangements subjected to preferential or duty free trade agreements. Pakistan is required to provide a Most Favored Nation MFN status to all trading partners which means nondiscriminatory treatment among the members implying on any imports or exports origination from respective countries. National Treatment Rule The rule prohibits member countries from discriminating between imported products and domestically produced goods in the matter of internal taxes and in the application of internal regulations.
In simple terms. The implications to adopt the free liberalization under WTO has many pros and cons but until now there has been no comprehensive study to capitulate the total impact in economic terms focusing overall and individual sectors of the economy in particular.
To enter into the intricacies of WTO Agreements and applying them on sectors of the economy is a huge and difficult task and out of scope of this essay. Under WTO it is partly the mutual consent of the negotiating parties to determine tariff bind and tariff bound rates but under IMF it is more enforcement of the loan requirements.
India having the sole patents refrains all Pakistani rice exports to be referred as "Basmitti" until the patents rights are paid for. An ideal example is of Basmitti Rice. Now this implies to the question why like India Pakistan is not reciprocating to given the same MFN status.
Pakistan should have a vision i. But in reality. Trade relations have become so influential that CS SF oru m. This requires preparation of the case in context with the legalities of WTO rules. Like all other relations. In case of GATT. Indian products.
A developing country like Pakistan which does not have ample resources or know-how of the subject of WTO rules and references usually are trapped to pay hefty foreign exchange to international lawyers which are almost unaffordable.
Take any industry or sector of economy i. The developing countries require an AoA that is fair just to meet both ends. Pakistan should also develop an indigenous model of economic development based on local stakeholders rather than following blindly the policies and guidelines of WTO. Pakistan has comparative advantage in many primary commodities. Gramine Bank and Gramine Telecom of Dr. WB and IMF. As far as Pakistan is concerned. Pakistan being an agrarian economy is still a net importer of food items.
Younas are an epic story of mobilizing the poorest fraction of the country especially women by providing credit loans to them to invest in local self-employment and business opportunities. The developing countries and the developed world are at loggerheads over agriculture.
The issues in AoA include subsidies. Ban gladesh is a key example in this respect which has achieved formidable success in developing socio-economic strategies focusing the Small and Medium Enterprises SMEs of the country. If Pakistan has to choose between the options international trade relationship can work wonders for Pakistan. WTO directly effects the local industry both at the import and export ends from the beginning to end focusing more on quality standards.
But in order to fully utilize our comparative advantage. Furthermore we need to exploit our comparative advantage in the production of halal meat. It is important to analyze the foreign policy pursued during the tenure of longest serving prime minister and his party.
Same is the case with the services which are the largest and most dynamic component of both developed and developing economies. All valuable export brands like Basmati rice. The pro-establishment right wings in Pakistan. They have agitated PPP's inherited alliance in war on terror and vehemently opposed its pursuits and gestures towards India. The process still continues despite four years and progress has to be seen. Hue and cry in Pakistan created irritants rather than goodwill about the United States among the people of Pakistan.
The United States considers Pakistan 's support to those who attack its soldiers across the border. The future look of the Pak-US relations does not seem very encouraging to the level of friendly allies. And the United States has recently tied its military assistance to oru m. Co nte It has been during the PPP government that the Strategic Dialogue between the two countries has been upgraded to ministerial level incorporating 13 areas for cooperation including the much-desired energy cooperation in Pakistan.
And that has been the path so far. They are still allies as Pakistan has not still opted out of war against terror but harnesses grave mistrust between them. The massive assistance was purely for social sector development in Pakistan.
Guddu and Jinnah Thermal Power Project. There is a general fear among policy makers in Pakistan about The PPP tried to carry forward the thread of composite dialogue process with India where it inherited from Musharraf regime. It is a thorny road and time will tell whether the PPP can succeed in this pursuit. The roadmap provides full normalization by December The Obama administration in its re-election bid.
The present government has also tried to keep up with this promise. Memogate is a manifestation on this account. President Zardari announced to undertake tour to China after every three months. This is the foreign policy issue wherein the PPP has tried to keep its promise but with hardships. It notes that India and China have a border dispute and yet enjoy tension free relations.
President Zardari has been proactive in consolidating relations with neighbourly country. The talks about the future of relations between the two countries are under discussion on media. Co nte Pak-US Marriage: Can it Lead to Divorce? The challenge to the PPP is two-dimensional: President Hamid Karzai was the only head of state who was invited to attend the oath-taking ceremony of President Zardari.
This article aims at to contribute to this discussion in factual and analytical terms. Afghanistan 's tilt towards India or the United States creates problems for the government. The foreign policy of the present government does have internal political implications.
The Afghan problem remains a problem till date. The relationship with China has seen an upward trend and would continue to be the same in future as well. Pakistan became the key ally of US in its war on terror but there remained a significant trust deficit.
The first main crisis of this list was the incident of a killing of two Pakistanis in Lahore at the hands of a CIA contractor Raymond Davis.The two countries have had three marriages and two divorces.
China has emerged as the major economic power as well as has a substantial military might. Even though they were allegedly aimed at suspected Al-Qaeda or Taliban havens. The content is short, crisp and up to the point fashion.
Americans will have to withdraw at all costs. Both these presidents have an uncanny intimacy as they continue exchanging smiles whenever they meet in person and barbs when they For their forgeries deceive them as to their own religion. M Piracha m. But in reality. Lahore Dr.