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Isječak iz knjige Totem i tabu: Ono što najrječitije govori o osobi i djelu dr. Sigmunda Freuda, nesmanjena je aktualnost i interes koji pobuđuje u svom vremenu i. The two principal themes, totem and taboo, which give the name to this .. The subclass c forms an exogamous unit with e, and the subclass d. to the challenges of this field because it has lost touch with Freud's Totem and Taboo. Haas, raudone.info (a) Ist Totem und Tabu ein exotischer Tagtraum oder.
An animal that dies accidentally is mourned and buried with the same honors as a member of the tribe. The prohibition as to eating sometimes refers only to a certain part of the animal. If pressure of necessity compels the killing of an animal usually spared, it is done with excuses to the animal and the attempt is made to mitigate the violation of the taboo, namely the killing, through various tricks and evasions. If the animal is sacrificed by ritual, it is solemnly mourned.
At specified solemn occasions, like religious ceremonies, the skins of certain animals are donned. Where totemism still exists, these are totem animals.
Tribes and individuals assume the names of totem animals. Many tribes use pictures of animals as coats of arms and decorate their weapons with them; the men paint animal pictures on their bodies or have them tattooed.
If the totem is one of the feared and dangerous animals it is assumed that the animal will spare the members of the tribe named after it. The totem animal protects and warns the members of the tribe.
The totem animal foretells the future to those faithful to it and serves as their leader. The members of a totem tribe often believe that they are connected with the totem animal by the bond of common origin.
The value of this catechism of the totem religion can be more appreciated if one bears in mind that Reinach has here also incorporated all the signs and clews which lead to the conclusion that the totemic system had once existed.
The peculiar attitude of this author to the problem is shown by the fact that to some extent he neglects the essential traits of totemism, and we shall see that of the two main tenets of the totemistic catechism he has forced one into the background and completely lost sight of the other. In order to get a more correct picture of the characteristics of totemism we turn to an author who has devoted four volumes to the theme, combining the most complete collection of the observations in question with the most thorough discussion of the problems they raise.
We shall remain indebted to J. Frazer, the author of Totemism and Exogamy, 3 for the pleasure and information he affords, even though psychoanalytic investigation may lead us to results which differ widely from his. The connection between a person and his totem is mutually beneficent; the totem protects the man and the man shows his respect for the totem in various ways, by not killing it if it be an animal, and not cutting or gathering it if it be a plant.
As distinguished from a fetich, a totem is never an isolated individual but always a class of objects, generally a species of animals or of plants, more rarely a class of inanimate natural objects, very rarely a class of artificial objects. At least three kinds of totem can be distinguished: 1.
The tribal totem which a whole tribe shares and which is hereditary from generation to generation, 2. The sex totem which belongs to all the masculine or feminine members of a tribe to the exclusion of the opposite sex, and 3.
Sigmund Freud Totem i tabu PDF Download
The individual totem which belongs to the individual and does not descend to his successors. The last two kinds of totem are of comparatively little importance compared to the tribal totem.
Unless we are mistaken they are recent formations and of little importance as far as the nature of the taboo is concerned. The tribal totem clan totem is the object of veneration of a group of men and women who take their name from the totem and consider themselves consanguinous offspring of a common ancestor, and who are firmly associated with each other through common obligations towards each other as well as by the belief in their totem.
Totemism is a religious as well as a social system. He accused Freud of ignoring criticisms directed against his theories, and objected to Freud's basing his investigations on the theory of the Oedipus complex.
He credited Freud with providing a "compact survey" of the confusing state of research into totemism, but believed that it was difficult for psychoanalysts to deal with the subject because they could not base their conclusions on "first-hand experience", and that Freud attached too much importance to "the belief of totemistic acolytes that they are descendants of the totem animal.
He also considered Freud wrong to consider exogamy one of the most important features of totemism. Though believing that Freud showed "sharp wit", he accused him of engaging in "the free play of fantasy" where "logical argumentation" was needed and of misunderstanding the work of Darwin. He wrote that Freud explained morality as the "product of a social contract" and compared the Oedipus complex to the "original sin of the human race.
According to Annemarie De Waal Malefijt, the book produced "angry reactions" from anthropologists even on the basis of its subtitle alone. Wilhelm Reich , following Johann Jakob Bachofen and other authors, maintained that early human societies were matriarchies and that this ruled out Freud's account of the origins of civilization in Totem and Taboo.
Reich argued that Freud's theory that the Oedipus complex was a prime factor in the development of civilization ignored the cultural relativity of the Oedipus complex, which, drawing on the work of Malinowski, he saw as only a result of the patriarchal order.
Harrison's work Themis: A Study of the Social Origins of Greek Religion has been compared to Totem and Taboo, since Harrison and Freud both attempted to find a universal mechanism that would account for the origins of religion. Brown criticized the work in Life Against Death , writing that Freud correlates psycho-sexual stages of development with stages of history, thereby seeing history as a "process of growing up". Brown saw this view as a "residue of eighteenth-century optimism and rationalism", and found it inadequate as both history and psychoanalysis.
Gay observed that Totem and Taboo was in part an attempt by Freud to outdo his rival Jung, and that the work is full of evidence that "Freud's current combats reverberated with his past history, conscious and unconscious. Barash concluded that in Totem and Taboo Freud "combines idiosyncratic, almost crackpot fantasy with startling profundity and originality.
Elliott wrote that, "Freud's attempt to anchor the Oedipus complex in a foundational event displaces his crucial insights into the radically creative power of the human imagination", ascribing to real events "what are in fact products of fantasy". Elliott added that Freud should be credited with showing that "reality is not pre-given or natural", but rather structured by the social and technical frameworks fashioned by human beings, and that "individual subjectivity and society presuppose one another.
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Totem and tabu, or not tabu
The Rise of Anthropological Theory: A History of Theories of Culture. Thomas Y. Crowell Company. Man's Rise to Civilization: The Freudian Left.
Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. The Myth and Ritual School: Frazer and the Cambridge Ritualists. The Second Sex. Vintage Books.
Life Against Death: The Psychoanalytical Meaning of Human History. Wesleyan University Press. The Masks of God: Primitive Mythology. Violence and the Sacred. The American Religion: The Emergence of the Post-Christian Nation. Ingold, Tim, ed.
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The Freud Files: An Inquiry into the History of Psychoanalysis. Cambridge University Press. Sigmund Freud.The American Religion: Obtida de " https: Finally there are the ceremonies at which the totem animal is killed in a solemn manner. Barash concluded that in Totem and Taboo Freud "combines idiosyncratic, almost crackpot fantasy with startling profundity and originality.
If pressure of necessity compels the killing of an animal usually spared, it is done with excuses to the animal and the attempt is made to mitigate the violation of the taboo, namely the killing, through various tricks and evasions.