Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking. Malcolm Gladwell experts on Greek sculpture, and she was in Los Angeles visiting the Getty just before the. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Gladwell Malcolm. The tipping point: how little things can make a big difference / by Malcolm Gladwell. p. cm. extremely successful people, a story that focuses on intelligence and ambition. In Outliers Malcolm. Gladwell argues that the true story of success is very different.
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PDF | On Oct 1, , Robin M. Hogarth and others published Blink: the power of thinking without thinking, Malcolm Gladwell. New York: Little. Download full-text PDF. NIH Biomedical Computing Interest Group Book Club Review of. “Outliers: The Story of Success” by Malcolm Gladwell. Summary. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Gladwell, Malcolm. The tipping point: how little things can make a big difference / by Malcolm Gladwell.
Gladwell himself cites the so-called the small world experiment done in the s by psychologist Stanley Milgram, who tried to find out how many steps it would take to connect people from Omaha, Nebraska to a stockbroker in Massachusetts.
About Malcolm Gladwell
Milgram discovered that half the connections were channeled through just three people, whom Gladwell calls Connectors. Gladwell goes on to illustrate the point by pointing out that thirty of his forty closest friends are ultimately linked to him through one particular person.
It means that a very small number of people are linked to everyone else in a few steps, and the rest of us are linked to the world through those special few. My connection to Malcolm Gladwell actually precedes those meetings, though I only found out about the connection through my conversation with Faith Linton.
This is an annual award given in honor of my parents. Then in June Marina and Larry, being publishers, attended the Word Guild gala awards ceremony for books by Canadian authors held in Toronto. Long-term trends such as reducing drug use, aging populations and improving the economy could explain a gradual decline, but not the effect that made crime plummet so fast.
For Gladwell , the sudden drop can be attributed to other factors.
David and Goliath: Summary & Review in PDF
One of them was the cleaning of the graffiti in the subway system. Instead of using cops to stop violent crime, resources were allocated to remove graffiti from the subway and keep it always clean.
If a train was vandalized, it was repainted the next day. It took nearly 5 years to clear all the trains.
The graffiti were a symbol of a city in collapse. When people saw reconstruction and reorganization, the battle against vandalism was won, and this impacted on the morale and safety of people using public transportation.
Malcolm Gladwell appropriates this concept and points out that this distribution is quite common in the pattern of contamination of a virus. In many cases, the proportion is even more extreme: only a small percentage of those infected are responsible for most virus transmissions.
A crew member of a Canadian airline was mapped by several studies as the focal point of the contamination. By having sex with more than 2, people, this patient has greatly accelerated transmission and has been assigned up to 40 transmissions which have resulted in thousands of second level contaminations. Similarly, in the case of social epidemics , we find that there is typically a small group of people who are responsible for speeding up the transmission rate. Social epidemics work the same way.
They are guided by the efforts of a handful of exceptional people. In this case, they are not differentiated by their sexual appetite but by how sociable, connected, or influential they are among their companions. Most of the time, these people have relationships in multiple different areas, and they serve as the nodes that interconnect several networks.
The Tipping Point PDF Summary
Because they belong to diverse groups work, family, online communities, groups of activities these people end up having many, if weak, ties that transmit the epidemic among these diverse groups. For Gladwell, for you to multiply your ideas and become a connector, having a vast network of contacts is much more important than having a small group of close contacts.
The greater the breadth of your network, the greater will be your ability to connect and spread ideas. An interesting fact to show how communicators work is the experience of psychologist Stanley Milgram, who sought to find out how many degrees of separation there are, that is, how many people who know each other exist on average separating one person from another they do not know.
The experience consisted of sending parcels of packages to random people asking them to forward the package to another person who might know the final recipient. If the recipient did not know the recipient, he would send the package again to another person who could possibly know how to deliver the final recipient again.
Most orders went through only six intermediaries, and the most curious fact is that half the orders delivered to the final recipient came from only three individuals. That is, even on a random list of people, these three individuals ended up concentrating deliveries. Communicators can cross different ideological groups, demographics and different channels of communication. Spreading an idea through word of mouth means focusing on people who are connectors, as they are the only ones who can trigger social epidemics.
Experts, although they do not have large networks, constantly pass on their knowledge to others by having a great influence on those in their network. Also, they are socially motivated to be useful and convey information to others. If they are confident about a product or service, they recommend it to their friends and acquaintances — and their friends and acquaintances follow these recommendations and propagate them.
To really convey an idea you need to develop empathy and the ability to connect with others.
Simplify To Improve The Sticky Factor The content of the idea itself, its message, is also important in predicting its ability to spread. It should be easy to remember, simple and thus easy to disseminate.
To settle, a message has to be interesting. Normally, improving something — even a small detail — in the way the message is presented is what makes all the difference. One of the examples cited by Gladwell is a tetanus vaccination campaign at a US university.
In this case, research was done to see if a strong material, portraying the effects of tetanus with strong photos and text, was more efficient than lighter material. In the case, it was concluded, after testing, that the most alarming information left students more interested in preventing the disease. In this case, this message had a low sticky factor and did not go forward.
A simple item was added to the brochure: A map of the campus, with the location of the vaccination posts, which made the content more familiar and brought the vaccine to the student world.
When the advice is practical and personal, it is easy to remember. Power Of Context Is Essential For An Epidemic Power of context means that we can change our attitudes depending on the context in which we are inserted at the moment.
Small or close-knit groups have the potential to create and raise epidemics at high speeds, after all, the environment influences more than our standard behaviors and thoughts.
There is no use having Communicators, Experts, and content with a high sticky factor if the context does not contribute to the dissemination. If it is not in the right season, for example, a Christmas story will not be spread as much as if we were in December. In an experiment called Stanford Prison, made by Stanford University, twenty-four healthy men were selected to spend two weeks in a sham prison where each of them was assigned to serve as a guard or prisoner.
And since reading was difficult for him, he developed an uncanny ability to read witnesses and spot possible lies. Real Life Applications Be Prepared to Unsettle Gladwell says that entrepreneurs are much more disagreeable than the average, and that leaders took social risks by not compromising their beliefs.
The message: to reap big success, sometimes you have to be ready to piss off someone.
Outliers PDF Summary
Steel Yourself Watch out for too much mollycoddle in your life: it can take your hedge off. Keep pushing yourself instead. He says Goliath was probably affected by giantism, was slow and nearly blind. Hence, David was the one with the real advantage there. The story makes no sense to me. Why would the Philistines send an ineffective fighter?Where is the beauty of typical behavior? You will also need an environment that allows you to practice consistently for hours on end until you reach 10, hours.
If it is not in the right season, for example, a Christmas story will not be spread as much as if we were in December. The experience consisted of sending parcels of packages to random people asking them to forward the package to another person who might know the final recipient. The success of purposeful work had a significant impact on the lives of Jewish immigrants in the United States.
In an experiment called Stanford Prison, made by Stanford University, twenty-four healthy men were selected to spend two weeks in a sham prison where each of them was assigned to serve as a guard or prisoner. It is this surreal ability of some individuals to strive for great successes and move beyond their limits.
That means that if you turn 9 on January the 2nd, you will be playing the whole year with 8-year-old colleagues.
Indeed, when analyzing the high rates of violence-related deaths in the southern United States, it is, in fact, a more dangerous place to live. It is almost never just a single cause.