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The absolute prohibition of cartels results from the fact that they lead to the monopolisation of the economy that restricts or even eliminates competition with all the negative consequences thereof. Microeconomics explains it as generating economic profit when intersectorial differentiations cause capital nojxzewska from less to more effective applications until the economic profit reaches zero level, where the economy is in competitive equilibrium The need for an economization of antitrust proceedings, including anti-cartel ones, pointed out in the economics of competition law, should modify the current approach applied to cartels.

The programme was enacted in Poland in February Law: The analysis will be carried out in the context of a single market with an indication of czarnyy choices of consumers. Restricting market power resulting from a dominant position or cartel requires state intervention.

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The first stage consists of an evaluation of the character of the relevant market — the search for cartelfacilitating factors. An economic analysis of their trade policies, of the optimization of distributional logistics and of the relationship between the volume of production and the demand level on a relevant market, may ultimately prove that their market conduct is shaped by the interdependence of business decisions made on a transparent market.

It is characteristic to the legal approach associated with cartels. Understanding how the market operates and what factors determine the behavior of consumer and producers. Competition law finds justification in microeconomic theory, and not only in the concept of social deadweight loss4, but also in the concept explaining the essence, reasons and ways to minimize market failures5. Fines imposed for the use of monopolistic practices fail to perform that function in Poland while their importance is growing in terms of fostering the awareness of entrepreneurs concerning the obligation to observe czzrny law.

It was analysed by the UOKiK in its explanatory proceedings concerning fuel prices at local gas stations28 discontinued nojszeewska the end, when the uniformization retail prices was found to be the result of parallel actions of gas station owners or price following. Additional demand for cheaper goods may only be satisfied subject to production increase.

Kelly Publishers, USA For each problem solved individually at the board, if you volunteer to do so, you can receive a maximum of 6 points depending on the correctness of your solution. Nalebuff, Co-opetition, New Yorkp. This is always posed with wit and irony, and not only to the Poles, but to the whole area east of the former Berlin Wall and west of the Great Wall of China, known as Eurasia.

It is this region that, with their name and manifestos alone, mark as their field of investigation. The artists offer a sharp combination of bibliophile archeology and the enthusiasm of globetrotters, exploring various sets of issues. They always try to combine an academic exactitude with interpretive imagination, analogy, association and wit.

Go East! In Poland it resounds like an intellectual dare: Slavs, discover the Tatar in you. Indeed: what inhabitant of Warsaw or the rest of this European Union country would presently define his or herself as a Slav? The upshot is that, in traveling toward the Orient, the contemporary Polish citizen has the opportunity to discover the Slavic elements of his or her identity and work through the repressed parts of that identity.

Only in the recognition of the various overlapping layers Slavic and Oriental would the Poles get a chance to reconcile themselves with their origins.

Also read: EW 103 PDF

And if the ideology of Sarmatism, which reigned in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from the 16th to the 18th centuries, can be regarded as more than a national myth, perhaps the order of the stages should be different: first Asia, then its Western edge, i.

Maria Janion, photo by Igor Omulecki. This is why even speak of Eurasia, a term which well demonstrates the dependency showing who sets the definitions and the models. In a geographical sense, Asia is indeed many times Europe s size. If we were to consider the space it occupies on the planet, we would sooner speak of Asiope. This name properly reflects the geography, Europe being merely a large peninsula on the edge of Asia.

It is not the Orient, however, that has won the right to name and define the hierarchies, but the Occident. Edward Said once wrote that Orientalism can be discussed and analyzed as the corporate institution for dealing with the Orient dealing with it by making statements about it, authorizing views of it, describing it, by teaching it, settling it, ruling over it.

This is why both Poland s entry into the club of Christian states in , and, for example, the reform of the Abkhazian alphabet, are colonial enterprises, even if the colonizers are not invaders from afar, but rather the local elite. Societies which become foreign to their own selves lose the ability to speak in their own name using their own language.

Lamentation of various people over the dead credit. Poland, circa Source: Wikipedia. Golden Liberty. The Royal Election of Source: Wikipedia. A lengthened version of the word kiss in Turkish, the vowel change is presented here as typo or editing error, modernist mini-miracle if not metaphysical mishap. Holy Bukhara A moving example of the syncretism be it linguistic, religious, or ideological found in Central Asia, Bokhori yeh Sharif is an homage to the Jews of Central Asia, aka Bukharan Jews, whose language Boxori provides an unlikely collision of Persian dialect with Hebrew script.

Not by coincidence, the X is a Cyrillic and Greek letter for Slavs and Tatars signature guttural phoneme, [kh], and subject of their publication Khhhhhhh.

Although we often regard the October Revolution as an expression of Asian barbarianism, it was ultimately an attempt to modernize, framed by Marxist discourse from the West.

Colonialism, be it para-colonialism or post-colonial dependency, or whether it be internal or external, is always a form of Westernization. Everything that does not fit the current idiom of the Western world is relegated to a subaltern position. Forms of colonization can be quite diverse, but their essence, in my view, is always in depriving one of the capacity to speak for oneself, or of one s faith in self-presentation.

The colonizers speak on behalf of the colonized, they set up the discourse and govern the narrative.

Paradoxically, once subordinated to the culture, they themselves then want to go West To Beer or Not To Beer An attempt to elevate the dregs of college humour via a transliteration into Arabic, the sacred script of Islam, To Beer or Not To Beer rescues the existential gravitas of the original Shakespearean query: to imbibe alcohol entails a complex web of religious, cultural if not phenomenological questions around identity.

By changing the a of Sakartvelos to a u to make Sakurtvelos, the phrase becomes 'Long Live Kurdistan' and the unresolved geopolitical identity of one mountain people is replaced by that of another. After all, ex oriente lux light, both literally and metaphorically comes from the East. The journey by coach to Tatarstan that the artists organized in also involved a series of performative lectures.

The subsequent visits to the functioning mosques in Bohoniki and Kruszyniany and the meetings with Tatar intellectuals and the local communities were not ethnographic by nature though such trips are never entirely free of colonial ballast.

The enlightened and modern representative of Western civilization meets the foreigner in such cases, a representative of a traditional structure, occupying a lower level of development. Both this action and the ones subsequently performed by worked on an entirely different principle.

The hybrid identity of would not suffice to stave off the imperial-colonial phantoms. The ritual of their exorcism comes not only from laughter, nor from the increasingly sophisticated form of their work pieces that allude to the issues they research. Nor does their success come from always asking questions on their own behalf: who are WE? Significantly more important is the work of the collective within various research projects, which I would call multidisciplinary or even postdisciplinary seminars.

II In the context of the Go East! All these exhibitions are tied to their fifth book, titled Khhhhhhh. As in their Not Moscow Not Mecca, Friendship of Nations and Kidnapping Mountains series, the collective flies in the face of the contemporary art world s prevailing strategies of operations and shortlived projects.

Whenever I look at the work, I have the impression that both use the freedom that comes with the present idiom in the visual arts, and take aboard its responsibility.

They are too artistic for the academics, and too academic for the artists. None of these strategies are enough, however, to make the introduction of art into the field of scholarship and vice-versa a success. Form, here, is key: the pieces presented at the exhibitions. Made of silver-plated brass or blown glass, they translate the contents of Khhhhhhh into objects that prompt desire, in viewers and art collectors alike.

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There are confession booths shaped like early Cyrillic letters made out of less seductive veneer the naughty nasals of the title. Biennale w Berlinie. And who has established the rules of behavior? What in fact are the nasal vowels of the title rebelling against? Against Orientalism, colonialism and imperialism, perhaps, in the above understanding? To subordinate the Orient and foreigners as such, to Orientalize and colonize, as Said once said, you first have to know their language.

In the broad terms of post-colonial studies one might claim that the Old Slavic nasals like [x], i.

Lesson 1 Polish

The very long linguistic term I have cited is a good illustration of modernity s problem with natural languages. What is spoken only acquires a permanent existence when it is written down, and thus conquered and disciplined.

Later, the Industrial Revolution also meant a new organization of labor and increasingly technocratic management. For the global system to function well, its mechanisms had to be simplified so that they resembled a well-oiled machine. The cogs and transmissions of the economy had to be molded to fit the relevant measurements and standards.

Meanwhile, the successively conquered South and East eluded the established models, even on a linguistic level. The history of colonialism is thus marked less by the work of ethnographers and anthropologists than, first and foremost, by linguists. It was necessary to learn the languages of the conquered peoples to know their customs, possess knowledge and wield power.

Everything had to be translated not only into English, French or German, but also into the symbolic European codes and concepts, into a comprehensible narrative. Through such translations the majority of nuances must perish, become distorted, lose their meaning. And yet these stores of information ought to be passed on, and thus be clearly recorded, named and codified, every word and sound clearly isolated.

Thus the basic idiom, the heart of both colonialism and modernity, is the division: whether it be the linguists division of sounds, the ethnographers opanowane i zdyscyplinowane. Polish Cyrillic school book for village children, published in division of the clans of the Caucasus, the geographers division of space, or the cultural theorists, politicians and political scientists division of cultures.


The borderlands and the inexplicable hybrids therefore vanish from the story, not only in the 19th century and the revolutionary frenzy of the great narratives after the conclusion of World War I Turkey, Poland, Russia, Italy, Germany. The West s aversion to complex ethnic combinations and mixes has endured into the 21st century.

Samuel Huntington s The Clash of Civilizations, first published in , is a fine example of the reigning idiom of strict divisions. The collective s work does not, however, inscribe itself into a postcolonial context perhaps because this broad field of research suffers from excessive seriousness.

But it is in the collective that we lay our hopes for a creative application of post-colonial studies theory, from the Berlin Wall to the Great Wall of China.

This region, to refer to both Huntington s thesis and that of his opponent, the author of the revolutionary classic Orientalism, is what they complicate the most. Iv The history of Poland, whose traces are so palpable in the Eastern Wall region, is the story of a country that has been both the colonizer and the colonized.

The nobility of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth treated the eastern outskirts of its empire, known as the Kresy borderlands , much like the British East-India Company treated the Indian subcontinent. Samuel P. In the 19th century, Poland became a colonized country the models of modernity came from the partitioning states, from Russia, Prussia and Austria, even if there were attempts to overthrow them in various uprisings for independence. After World War I, though the borders still remained far eastward in comparison to their present state, the mental point of reference was modernization in its Western incarnation.

Said s Orientalism turns a bit hazy here, though I still believe and many other scholars agree that it remains a useful intellectual tool. The Russian Empire was a colonial project in its own right; its expansion, however, unlike that of the Western European powers, reached not into remote coastal territories, but into the adjacent regions. The cases of Poland and Russia incline us to ponder the specifics of Slavic Orientalism, the subject of ' forthcoming I Utter Other lectureperformance.

The Go East! This collective, who began its work years ago as a reading and discussion group, likes to define itself as a think-tank without an agenda.Kantors happenings, besides the happening theatre that he ran at the time, reinforced this medium in Poland. It was a change of focus from what is aesthetic and retinal, to what is intellectual and spiritual. Siy prze- wyszajcej ograniczenia modeli czy prikazw, gdy poprzedzajcej je i prze- kraczajcej.

This creative act, conceived as an event, is something at the same time very easy and very di- cult. Art annexes life, he would say. Gushing here is the spring of rebellion, a pre-expressive element that will oppose the set structure of power. This rebellion, resistance, and passion of freedom is the active unun energy. The history of colonialism is thus marked less by the work of ethnographers and anthropologists than, first and foremost, by linguists.

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