average levels of income or consumption may nevertheless do a poor job of Other economists prefer to use consumption because it measures what people. PDF | Roberta Sassatelli and others published ECONOMIC THEORIES OF CONSUMPTION. welfare as a function of wealth — Past neglect of the field of consumption by economists — Their interest in the effects of consumption upon the productivity of .

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A Keynesian economist thinks about consumption theory in terms of private principle of microeconomics is that consumers structure their consumption plans to. 1. What does economics have to tell us about these differences in consumption? Most introductory economics textbooks portray consumer behavior as relatively. reset the economics of the entire tech business and send many tech Consumption Economics will help you re-imagine how to profitably build, sell, and deliver.

This tendency makes it impossible to determine the impact of a tax cut or government program on consumption spending without knowing whether it is aimed primarily at low-wealth or high-wealth households.

The theory further indicates that tax cuts or spending programs such as extended unemployment benefits aimed primarily at lower-income households should be considerably more effective at stimulating or maintaining aggregate spending than programs aimed at richer households. Modifications to the standard framework In The Wealth of Nations , Scottish economist Adam Smith wrote: A linen shirt…is, strictly speaking, not a necessary of life.

The Greeks and Romans lived, I suppose, very comfortably though they had no linen.

But in the present times, through the greater part of Europe, a creditable day-labourer would be ashamed to appear in public without a linen shirt, the want of which would be supposed to denote [a] disgraceful degree of poverty. Smith clearly did not believe one of the baseline assumptions built into the standard models of consumption described above: that the pleasure yielded by a given level of consumption is independent of the consumption standards of the surrounding community.

Habit formation also implies a very different reaction to income shocks that reflects a gradual adaptation to new circumstances.

The speed of adjustment depends on the strength of the habit. A considerable amount of evidence from macroeconomic data seems to suggest that consumption does indeed react sluggishly to macroeconomic shocks.

A final modification commonly made to the baseline life-cycle model is the abandonment of the assumption that people accumulate wealth solely to finance their own future spending. The high saving rates of the richest few percent of households at least in the United States are hard to explain in such a framework. An alternative theory holds that some rich people gain satisfaction directly from the ownership of wealth, not merely from the happy contemplation of that wealth being spent by children, grandchildren, and so on.

People might enjoy being wealthy for reasons of status, power, avarice , or other motivations that fall outside the traditional scope of economic analysis. Alternatives to fully informed rationality The modifications just described pose no challenge to the premise that consumers are fully informed rational optimizers.

The popularity of this assumption reflects the fact that there is usually only one way to behave rationally, but there are a great many possible ways to behave stupidly.

In the absence of a general theory of stupidity, economists have been unable to construct a unified, compelling alternative to the rational optimization framework.

Nonetheless, a few specific deviations from fully informed rationality have been explored. Evidence from experimental psychology suggests that people have difficulty resisting the impulse for instant gratification, even when they agree at any time other than the exact moment of temptation that it would be rational to resist.

Whether such self-control problems have large economic effects is unclear. It turns out that if such commitment strategies are available, they permit the consumer to achieve a lifetime consumption pattern very close to that predicted by the standard rational optimizing model, which makes no allowances for self-control problems or commitment mechanisms.

Some distinctive implications , however, emerge in the model built on self-control problems. In particular, this model can explain seemingly illogical behaviour, such as holding a retirement savings account earning an interest rate of, say, 7 percent while simultaneously borrowing on credit cards and paying interest rates of up to 20 percent. Either the saving or the borrowing can be justified in the rational optimization framework if we assume that savers are rational and patient while borrowers are rational but impatient , but the simultaneous practice of saving at a low interest rate and borrowing at a high interest rate is virtually impossible to reconcile within the rationality framework.

One other well-explored category of deviation from the standard framework simply drops the assumption that people are fully informed.

Consumers who do not know whether a given shock to their incomes is transitory or permanent will tend to react as though there is some chance it is temporary and some chance that it is permanent. Alternatively, consumers who do not pay much attention to macroeconomic news may be slow to react when macroeconomic circumstances change e.

This category of theories may provide an alternative to habit formation as a means of explaining the sluggish reaction of consumption spending to economic news. Consumption and the business cycle Private consumption expenditure accounts for about two-thirds of gross domestic product GDP in most developed countries, with the remaining one-third accounted for by business and government expenditures and net exports.

Today, energy has been the heart of most critical economic, Keywords— Carbon Emission, Environmental Quality and environmental and developmental issues in the global world economic Growth.


The issue of whether energy consumption has positive, negative or neutral impact on O VER the past century, every economy has seen economic growth as one of the principle objectives to be achieved economic activities has interest among different economists, scholars and policy analysts. Consequently, there is need to in the macroeconomic stabilization policy area. Kuznets defined economic growth as a long-term rise in find out the impact and direction of causality between energy capacity to supply increasingly diverse economic goods to its consumption and economic growth Eddine, Olatinwo population, this growing capacity based on advancing and Adewunmi advocated that clean, efficient, technology and the institutional and ideological adjustments affordable, sustainable and reliable energy services are that it demands.

Also, economic growth as the steady process indispensable for global prosperity. In Nigeria, Nnaji by which the productive capacity of the economy is increased also opined that energy efficiency and energy conservation over time to bring about rising levels of national output and are two important things that must be tackled if ever the income Todaro, Moreover, it has been the only country is going to solve energy consumption problems. For instance, an energy supply to provide the same service needs or required economy agitating to achieve a desired growth rate over a while energy conservation is a mean of reducing or going particular period, such economy must have the basic resources without a service in order to save energy like turn in off a bulb like energy and other natural resources.

In order to make Almost all electrical and electronic appliances economic development sustainable, resources such as energy manufactured today have an energy efficient alternative based on greater efficiencies in the power conversion.

In particular, greater use of information and communication technologies 1 Senior Lecture in Department of Economics, University of Lagos, and ICTs marks a worldwide transition toward a digital society Postdoctoral Fellow in University of Johannesburg, omosaibu yahoo.

For instance, fsaibu uj. Also, the Kuznet Curve hypothesis and Energy-growth nexus in which recent energy saving bulb 10 of 10W energy saving bulbs will the relationship among oil production, economic growth and require just W compared to 10 of 60W bulbs requiring at carbon emissions from gas flaring are examined under a least W per hour to perform the same function even more multivariate framework has formed a relatively new area of efficient. Thus, it is therefore paramount to ensure the research.

Nearly every studies that have focused on these two environment conservation from carbon emission that holds thoughts for both the developed countries Ang, ; these vital natural energy resources.

Apergis and Payne, ; Ozturk and Acaravci, , etc Policy and research interests have grown on the link and developing countries e. Jumbe, ; Menyah and between energy consumption, economic and carbon emission Wolde-Rufael, have returned conflicting and mixed and there is general contention on causal relationship among results. However, energy-growth-environmental pollution study suffered from short span of data set which nexus has continued to receive greater attention in the was based on a bi-variate analysis between electricity contemporary energy economics research and literature.

The consumption and economic growth rather than on an first impetus of this study was the concern over energy price integrated framework within the energy-growth-emission rises, the finite nature of key energy resources and the framework. He associated the likely problem from the study presumed importance of providing energy to facilitate the as the loss in power associated with the small sample size and development process. The second momentum considers the the issue of omitted variable bias.

The weaknesses to the widespread concern about climate change i.

The aim of this paper is to examine in addition to the growth nexus which is not country specific cited by Akpan casual relationship between energy consumption, economic etal Therefore, the problem of false generalization growth and carbon emission, the impact of energy cannot be ruled out.

The study by Odularu and Okonkwo consumption and carbon emission on the growth rate in the is limited to the long run relationship between the Nigerian economy. Examining such relationship and impact is energy consumption and economic growth. Furthermore, germane to designing appropriate energy policy and studies by Omotor and Olusegun investigated development sustainable green economy for the the country. Section 3 provides the methodological by Akpan etal However, Apan et al approach adopted and the definition of variables used.

Oderinde and adopted and sources of data used for the analysis. Section 4 Ishola did a modern-day work to cover this deficiency discusses the empirical results and section 5 concludes with by taking into consideration labour, capital, primary exports policy implications. This study therefore intends to fill this space II.

The Importance of Consumption

The second strand is related to energy consumption oil production, and carbon emission from gas flaring on and economic growth nexus Mehrara, ; Olusegun, ; economic growth in Nigeria and further employ the inter- Akinlo, and Esso, Therefore this paper contributes to this growing empirical studies on Nigeria.

First, regression term. Therefore, this study rejects the null hypotheses and There are two related hypotheses on the nexus between concludes that there is causal relationship between oil energy consumption and economic growth: energy - led- production, carbon emission from gas flaring and economic growth hypothesis and growth- led- energy hypothesis.

The growth in Nigeria between the period of a decade after investigation of these two hypotheses is well established in the independence from colonial rule and fiscal year.More About Consumption 10 references found in Britannica articles Assorted References factor in economic forecasting In economic forecasting: A considerable amount of evidence from macroeconomic data seems to suggest that consumption does indeed react sluggishly to macroeconomic shocks.

Reference-Dependent Consumption Plans

More broadly, spending on durable goods tends to be much more volatile than spending on nondurables and services, because all that is needed to induce a surge in durables spending is something that pushes consumers from merely contemplating a download to actually making a download. A rich variety of household-level data sources such as the Consumer Expenditure Survey conducted by the U. Consumption can and has been constrained through increases in income tax…. The high saving rates of the richest few percent of households at least in the United States are hard to explain in such a framework.

First, aggregate consumption determines aggregate saving, because saving is defined as the portion of income that is not consumed.

In national income accounting , private consumption expenditure is divided into three broad categories: expenditures for services, for durable goods, and for nondurable goods. One other well-explored category of deviation from the standard framework simply drops the assumption that people are fully informed.

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