LPN-San: Lehrbuch für Rettungssanitäter, Betriebssanitäter und Rettungshelfer. Front Cover. Markus Böbel, Hans P. Hündorf, Roland Lipp, Johannes Veith. City College of San Francisco · CCSF Library · Research Guides · Licensed Licensed Vocational/Practical Nursing: Books & ebooks. Nursing - Practical and Vocational (LPN/LVN) 20 eBook Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking eBook Maternity and Pediatric Nursing . Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Helena, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan.
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Download Instructions for Vitalsource eBooks. To open your book in Bookshelf on your computer, please do the following. Available in: Bound Book, Digital, Ebook???raudone.infoImageAlt??? Ethics of Health Care: A Guide Ethics of Health Care: A Guide for Clinical Practice4th. For Librarians Available on Taylor & Francis eBooks >> Developing Practical Nursing Skills, Fourth Edition helps you learn and perfect the practical skills.
Resources to the following titles can be found at www. What are VitalSource eBooks? For Instructors Request Inspection Copy. Patient-focussed and adopting a caring approach, this essential text will also help you to integrate nursing values alongside physical skills in your daily practice. Key features include:. Foundations for compassionate care Joanne Sale and Nicola M. An introduction Hand hygiene Use of personal protective equipment, including gloves, aprons and gowns Healthcare waste disposal and linen management Sharps disposal Healthcare environmental hygiene and multiuse equipment Aseptic technique Specimen collection: Practice scenarios Legal and professional issues in medicine administration Safety, storage and general principles of medicine administration Administering oral medication Applying topical medication Administering medication by injection routes Administering inhaled and nebulised medication Intravenous fluid and blood administration Calculating medicine and intravenous fluid administration doses Preventing and managing anaphylaxis Chapter summary Acknowledgement Answers to exercises References Caring for people with impaired mobility Glynis Pellatt.
Practice scenarios Pressure ulcer risk assessment Pressure ulcer prevention Prevention of other complications of immobility Key principles of moving and handling people Assisting with mobilisation and preventing falls Chapter summary References Principles of wound care Janine Ashton.
Practice scenarios The phases of wound healing Classification of wounds and wound closure Factors affecting wound healing Wound assessment Wound management Chapter summary References Useful websites Meeting personal hygiene needs Moira Walker. Practice scenarios Rationale for meeting hygiene needs and potential hazards Bathing a person in bed Bathing and showering in the bathroom Facial shaving Oral hygiene Care of the body after death Chapter summary Acknowledgement References Meeting elimination needs Lesley Baillie and Rachel Busuttil Leaver.
Practice scenarios Assisting with elimination: Helping people to use the toilet, bedpans, urinals and commodes Urinalysis Collecting urine and stool specimens Caring for people with urinary catheters Preventing and managing constipation Stoma care Promoting continence and managing incontinence Chapter summary References Assessing and meeting fluid and nutritional needs Sue Maddex.
Practice scenarios Nutrition in healthcare: Practice scenarios Equipment required for this chapter Recognising and responding to people who are deteriorating: An overview Airway management problems and related skills Breathing problems and related skills Circulatory problems and related skills Unconsciousness and related skills Chapter summary References Useful websites Managing pain and promoting comfort and sleep Dee Burrows, Lesley Baillie and Stephanie Forge. Practice scenarios Managing pain in a variety of settings Promoting comfort Promoting sleep Chapter summary Acknowledgement References Websites.
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Legitimation Legitimation, a critical element within the process of professional socialization, occurs when those around learners affirm that they are actually developing an identity as a member of their chosen profession [ 3 ]. As students are professionalized, they are initiated into a new culture wherein they gradually adopt those symbols which represent the profession and its generally accepted authority.
These symbols language, tools, clothing and demeanour establish, identify and separate the bearer from the outsider, particularly from the client and the paraprofessional audience [ 4 ] page Traditional symbols of legitimization in health care fields included white laboratory coats for medical students [ 13 ] and white caps for nursing students [ 3 ]. Today, name badges remain one of the few symbols of authority and legitimation that health care professionals continue to use as socializing agents.
Their admission process did not include interviews, and they completed courses and examinations online at their own pace. Their only opportunity to meet faculty in person and join a cohort group was during their clinical practicums. Finally, people such as faculty, peers, patients, and practitioners are important socializing agents that reinforce legitimation [ 4 , 5 , 17 , 18 ].
Faculty evaluations of student progress and learning experiences that are new and different provide students with affirmation that they are progressing towards being granted professional legitimation and status. As part of an overarching program of research examining Post LPN to BN transitions, our research team questioned how Post LPN to BN students perceived their own processes of professional socialization and the kinds of formal and informal socializing agents of legitimation that contributed to or distracted from their growing identity as Registered Nurses.
Research Approach This qualitative descriptive project was framed from a constructivist worldview [ 32 — 34 ] and Haas and Shaffir's [ 4 ] sociological theory of professionalization. Haas and Shaffir theorized that legitimation is a central concept in healthcare professionals' process of socialization. The main purpose of the research was to describe Post LPN to BN student nurses' experiences with professional socialization as they transitioned into a more complex nursing role.
A secondary purpose of the research was to begin to understand how university faculty can best support and facilitate these students' professional socialization as they learn to become Registered Nurses RNs. Data sources included four face-to-face digitally recorded, transcribed focus group discussions which were analyzed for themes. Our rational for collecting and analyzing focus group data centered on our intention to invite our participants to converse and interact in ways that stimulated new insights.
Focus group methodology, with its emphasis on group interaction [ 35 — 39 ] and goal of collaborative discussion [ 40 , 41 ], allowed us to draw out participants' views and to explore their ideas and conversational exchanges with one another in depth. They are a useful method for gaining insight into phenomena where little is known [ 44 ].
When focus group data has been collected from multiple groups and multiple sites, researchers can have increased confidence in the reliability and validity of the findings [ 45 ].
The focus groups were guided by following questions.
Perceptions of Professional Socialization. Share memories of your experiences becoming socialized into the role of Licensed Practical Nurse and developing your identity in this role. How is the experience of developing your new role and identity as a Registered Nurse the same?
How is it different? What distracted? How do your existing professional Licensed Practical Nurse commitments contribute to your process of becoming socialized into the role of Registered Nurse? How do they distract? Talk about the sorts of things that are going on in your life with family and friends that impact your changing role and professional identity.
Transcripts from the focus group discussions were analysed for themes [ 46 — 48 ]. Our research team thoroughly read and reread the transcripts and met regularly to develop a systematic process of thematic analysis. We used investigator triangulation [ 49 , 50 ] to create and agree upon the categorizations and coding schemes that led to our themes.
Our themes appeared consistently in each of the four focus groups. Trustworthiness was established by member checking with participants to ensure authenticity.
Several strategies were utilized to increase rigor [ 45 , 51 ]. Stability was enhanced through the use of multiple focus groups in geographically different areas. Credibility was strengthened through sustained engagement and observation over the course of four focus groups, researcher triangulation, debriefing as a research team, and member checking.
Reflexivity, where researchers strive to understand their own experiences as well as the research question, in order to remain objective, neutral, and nonbiased, was supported through regular face-to-face and teleconference meetings.
Transferability was enriched through dense sample description and rich description of the data.
Where to go to take a LPN exam? I am a MA and want to challenge the test.
Confirmability was heightened through peer debriefing and maintaining our audit trail. Dependability was attained by recording a log of our plans, meetings, and ongoing interpretations.
Tracking individual responses in addition to the group account [ 53 ] assisted us in avoiding the risk of analyzing data from only vocally dominant members of the groups. Practical issues such as organizing groups at a time and place to minimize disruption and avoiding power differential dynamics [ 55 ] were addressed.
The groups were held when participants, who were normally separated by distance, were together in the same city for a required practicum experience. They were held at change of shift in lieu of a post conference. Knowing the power differential between students and teachers, moderators who did not have teaching responsibilities in the Post LPN to BN program were chosen to facilitate the focus groups. Instructors were not present during any of the discussions and had no involvement with the transcript data.
Participants were recruited through a Letter of Invitation sent via email by a Research Assistant who was also not involved with the program. Four focus groups were held with 5 to 9 participants each.
All the students who were invited chose to participate. We reasoned that this may have been because they were all from out of town and appreciated an opportunity to interact and share their views. Pseudonyms ensured participant confidentiality. Full ethical approval was granted by the university. The following two overarching themes emerged from analyzing the data. Results 4. At my work, I would say I need this ordered, Dr … and he'll just say, okay, it's ordered.
And then it seems like I make the decision and I just need his signature. They will speak with you and then thank you for whatever you did. The culture of night shift—it's different. Talking with the family. My first job that I had as an LPN, I was alone on the floor as the only official nurse for more than half of my shift. I had the full responsibility of all 60 residents in my care … that all happened as an LPN.
I feel equally professional in both roles. It was a little like patronizing. I did not like being patronized in that sense. We are not newbies. We have been around.
We do bring experience …. I'm still very proud of the work I do as an LPN. I already feel I do think like an RN. It's very frustrating and almost devalues the work that I've already put into the profession. Same cover, same everything. I found that so frustrating because I thought, I've read this textbook already.
When you disregard our previous skill and knowledge, it's a blow to our ego, it's degrading. Theme Two: Practicum Interactions with Instructors and New Clinical Experiences Are Key Socializing Agents When participants in this study reflected on changes and growth in their professional identity, it was the practicum interactions with instructors and the opportunities for new experiences that stood out for them as particularly meaningful.
Students consistently emphasized that they viewed the LPN and RN roles as similar during the focus group discussions. But people react to you differently. People are willing to give you more responsibility because you are going through the RN program. People give you more responsibility. This evaluation process was a familiar ritual to Post LPN students. It makes you think more about your reasons for doing something and whether you can justify them well enough to, you know, proceed to doing care.
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And I think maybe that's because you have somebody who's constantly challenging you to prepare. So if you can give a good answer, you know okay, I'm on the way. What can I do better? If you cannot answer the questions, then you're challenged to go and maybe research a little bit better so you do not feel, oh, I did not answer that question very well.
I do not know, because that was my responsibility to continue to learn … oh, I do not understand what this blood work means. Maybe I should look it up. I still should have and would have been doing that as an LPN. Going through this program has forced me to [research patient conditions] because we have homework every night to do, so maybe it's a little bit more forced learning but ….
And what would you do if this happened? They kind of encourage and draw out of me that way of looking at the whole picture. They identified the topic areas where they gained the most new knowledge as acute care, research, leadership, psychiatric mental health, and community nursing. This is awesome. I already work and feel confident in acute care I would have loved to complete the practicum in ICU.
I was never aware of these programs. I get excited about it! There's so many things that we can do.
In hospital nursing it's one on one. You help one person, but in community nursing, you're talking whole communities and populations, and like a long life span too right?
They're going to teach their kids, and their children's children. That was interesting. I did procedure so I got to sort of walk through that with my RN that I was working with. She was really, really open to sharing what she knew about it.
This opportunity was definitely a new skill. It was during these discussions that the interactive nature of our focus groups was most apparent. Discussion The aforementioned two themes, developed from focus group discussions with Licensed Practical Nurses attending university to become Registered Nurses, begin to illustrate the experience of legitimation among this group of learners.
Consistent with MacLellan et al. This acceptance and acknowledgement by others generates confidence and a willingness to risk behaviours expected of those in the new role. Similarly, our project echoes Spoelstra and Robbins [ 28 ] research with Registered Nurses transitioning to an advanced practice role. Like our participants, the practising nurses in Spoelstra et al. Traditionally, university programs did not offer bridging programs to vocationally educated nurses.
In turn, questions about the legitimacy of their new program may be raised. Affirmation from others that their professional identity was extending and changing was especially important to this unique group of learners. The authenticating experiences of completing courses and examinations in cohort groups that Haas and Shaffir [ 4 ] considered foundational to professional socialization were not available to these students.
They completed prepracticum courses and examinations alone and online. Their employment experiences as LPNs did not usually support acting independently.
On their practicum units, their name badges did not effectively communicate what their role was. In some instances, they were prevented from implementing nursing care that was part of their everyday practice. In essence, the typical legitimation agents that historically supported healthcare learners towards new professional identities are not fully available to Post LPN BN students. Limitations of the study included recruiting a small homogenous sample of learners from only one program.
As we were not previously acquainted with participants, group dynamics such as dominance by one or two members, power differentials, or established patterns of communication may have influenced the conversations. Despite our moderators' attention to group process, some participants may have simply agreed with others, not expressed their views fully, or commented only superficially. Conclusion Given these findings, implications for instructing Post LPN to BN students include honoring the feelings of legitimacy they have already developed as practising professional nurses.
Students expect and need the formal acknowledgement that they are progressing or not progressing as expected. Further, the importance of encouraging students to identify individual learning goals should not be underestimated. Traditional undergraduate placements cannot be expected to accommodate all the needs of this diverse group of adult learners. In conclusion, this paper presented findings from a descriptive study that explored Post LPN to BN students' experiences with professional socialization.
The research investigated socializing agents that impacted students' feelings of legitimacy as they developed new identities as Registered Nurses.They completed prepracticum courses and examinations alone and online. To date, educational research examining this group of nurses is limited.
CPD consists of any educational activity which helps to maintain and develop knowledge, problem-solving, and technical skills with the aim to provide better health care through higher standards. We do bring experience …. The methodology of focus group interviews: Haas and Shaffir theorized that legitimation is a central concept in healthcare professionals' process of socialization.
Halcomb E, Andrew S.
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