History of Computers. Earliest Computer. • Originally calculations were computed by humans, whose job title was computers. • These human computers were. using punched cards. Considered first computer programmer. Ada programming language named after her A Brief History Of Computing. Pre-Electronic Computing (up to the 's). Principles of Computing, Carnegie Mellon University Based on Slides.

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5. Explain how networking technology and the Internet has changed our world. 6. Discuss the lessons that can be learned from studying the computer's history. A Brief History of Computers. By. Debdeep Mukhopadhyay. Assistant Professor. Dept of Computer Sc and Engg. IIT Madras. History of Computers: From. Abacus to Smart-phones. Aim: In this lesson, you will learn: Various devices that have been used for computations in the past.

Input was based on punched cards and paper tape. Output came out on print-outs. They were a big improvement over the vacuum tube, despite still subjecting computers to damaging levels of heat. However they were hugely superior to the vacuum tubes, making computers smaller, faster, cheaper and less heavy on electricity use.

This meant programmers could create instructions in words. The early versions of these machines were developed for the atomic energy industry.

This led to a massive increase in speed and efficiency of these machines. These were the first computers where users interacted using keyboards and monitors which interfaced with an operating system, a significant leap up from the punch cards and printouts.

This enabled these machines to run several applications at once using a central program which functioned to monitor memory.

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What filled a room in the s now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel chip housed thousands of integrated circuits. The year saw the first ever computer IBM specifically designed for home use and saw the MacIntosh introduced by Apple.

Microprocessors even moved beyond the realm of computers and into an increasing number of everyday products. Side rule was specially designed for performing only multiplications, divisions, roots, trigonometry and logarithms.

Pascaline Blaise Pascal invented pascaline in ; it was the expensive machine which has the limitations in performing additions and subtractions. Stepped Reckoner In , Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz invented Stepped Reckoner which was automatically performing the operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

Jacquard Loom Joseph- Marie Jacquard invented a mechanical loom called Jacquard loom in the year It was controlled by punch cards and was an automatic loom. Arithmometer In , Thomas de Colmar invented a mechanical calculator called arithmometers.

It was a successful and useful machine which could perform the basic mathematical calculations. Difference Engine and Analytical Engine: Charles Babbage invented difference engine and analytical engine in the year and respectively. It was the foremost mechanical computer used to tabulate the polynomial functions.

First computer programmer Augusta Ada Byron wrote the programs for analytical engine and suggested Charles Babbage aid the binary system in Scheutzian calculation engine Per George Scheutz invented the first printing calculator having a base on difference engine in For instance, an ARM architecture computer such as may be found in a smartphone or a hand-held videogame cannot understand the machine language of an x86 CPU that might be in a PC. In practical terms, a computer program may be just a few instructions or extend to many millions of instructions, as do the programs for word processors and web browsers for example.

In , the use of 5 instead of 6 gave birth to the second generation of computers which were able to 7 calculations ten times 8 than their 9. The British Computer Society.

The fundamental concept of Turing's design is the stored program , where all the instructions for computing are stored in memory. By remembering where it was executing prior to the interrupt, the computer can return to that task later. With its oversized processors and resistors, the prototype looks like a relic from a bygone age—and, to an extent, it was, replicating the power of the BBC Micro on which Upton cut his teeth in the early s.

It is a hand-operated analog computer for doing multiplication and division.

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