PDF | On Jan 1, , Kang-Tsung Chang and others published Introduction to Geographic Information Systems. PDF | There is no single definition for geographic information system (GIS). There are many working definitions and most of them are. Introduction. Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer based information system used to digitally represent and analyse the geographic features.
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1 A gentle introduction to GIS Computer representations of geographic information. .. The book is also made available as an electronic PDF document. raudone.infoli - Introduction to. Geographic Information Systems. 3. We define GIS ( Geographic Information System) as a structure constituted by a powerful set of. 1) Introduction. This manual was prepared for GIS training courses organised by the Crop Crisis Control. Project (C3P) in the “Great Lakes” region of East Africa.
With this in mind, an on-line series of laboratory classes have been created to accompany the book. These are available, free of charge, to any individual working in an institution that has an ESRI site license see www. They are cross-linked in detail to individual chapters and sections in the book, and provide learners with the opportunity to refresh the concepts and techniques that they have acquired through classes and reading, and the opportunity to work through extended examples using ESRI ArcGIS.
This is by no means the only available software for learning GIS: we have chosen it for our own lab exercises because it is widely used, because one of us works for ESRI Inc. Redlands, CA. GIS is not just about machines, but also about people.
It is very easy to lose touch with what is new in GIS, such is the scale and pace of development. Many of these developments have been, and continue to be, the outcome of work by motivated and committed individuals many an idea or implementation of GIS would not have taken place without an individual to champion it. In the rst edition of this book, we used boxes highlighting the contributions of a number of its champions to convey that GIS is a living, breathing subject. In this second edition, we have removed all of the living champions of GIS and replaced them with a completely new set not as any intended slight upon the remarkable contributions that these individuals have made, but as a necessary way of freeing up space to present vignettes of an entirely new set of committed, motivated individuals whose contributions have also made a difference to GIS.
As we say elsewhere in this book, human attention is valued increasingly by business, while students are also seemingly required to digest ever-increasing volumes of material. We have tried to summarize some of the most important points in this book using short factoids, such as that below, which we think assist students in recalling core points. Short, pithy, statements can be memorable. We hope that instructors will be happy to use this book as a core teaching resource.
At the end of each chapter we provide four questions in the following sequence that entail: Student-centred learning by doing.
A review of material contained in the chapter. A review and research task involving integration of issues discussed in the chapter with those discussed in additional external sources. A compare and research task similar to the review and research task above, but additionally entailing linkage with material from one or more other chapters in the book.
The book that you have in your hands has been completely restructured and revised, while retaining the best features of the highly successful rst edition published in Summary This is a book that recognizes the growing commonality between the concerns of science, government, and business.
The examples of GIS people and problems that are scattered through this book have been chosen deliberately to illuminate this commonality, as well as the interplay between organizations and people from different sectors. To differing extents, the ve sections of the book develop common concerns with effectiveness and efciency, by bringing together information from disparate sources, acting within regulatory and ethical frameworks, adhering to scientic principles, and preserving good reputations.
This, then, is a book that combines the basics of GIS with the solving of problems which often have no single, ideal solution the world of business, government, and interdisciplinary, mission-orientated holistic science. In short, we have tried to create a book that remains attuned to the way the world works now, that understands the ways in which most of us increasingly operate as knowledge workers, and that grasps the need to face complicated issues that do not have ideal solutions.
As with the rst edition of the book, this is an unusual enterprise and product. It has been written by a multinational partnership, drawing upon material from around the world. One of the authors is an employee of a leading software vendor and two of the other three have had business dealings with ESRI over many years. Moreover, some of the illustrations and examples come from the customers of that vendor. We wish to point out, however, that neither ESRI nor Wiley has ever sought to inuence our content or the way in which we made our judgments, and we have included references to other software and vendors throughout the book.
Whilst our lab classes are part of ESRIs Virtual Campus, we also make reference to similar sources of information in both paper and digital form.
We hope that we have again created something novel but valuable by our lateral thinking in all these respects, and would very much welcome feedback through our website www.
The on-line lab classes have also been designed to allow learning in a self-paced way, and there are self-test exercises at the end of each section for use by learners working alone or by course evaluators at the conclusion of each lab class. As the title implies, this is a book about geographic information systems, the practice of science in general, and the principles of geographic information science GIScience in particular.
We remain convinced of the need for high-level understanding and our book deals with ideas and concepts as well as with actions. Just as scientists need to be aware of the complexities of interactions between people and the environment, so managers must be well-informed by a wide range of knowledge about issues that might impact upon their actions.
Success in GIS often comes from dealing as much with people as with machines. The new learning paradigm This is not a traditional textbook because: It recognizes that GISystems and GIScience do not lend themselves to traditional classroom teaching alone. Only by a combination of approaches can such crucial matters as principles, technical issues, practice, management, ethics, and accountability be learned. Thus the book is complemented by a website www. The very nature of GIS as an underpinning technology in huge numbers of applications, spanning different elds of human endeavor, ensures that learning has to be tailored to individual or small-group needs.
These are addressed in the Instructor Manual to the book www. We have recognized that GIS is driven by real-world applications and real people, that respond to real-world needs.
Hence, information on a range of applications and GIS champions is threaded throughout the text. Conventions and organization We use the acronym GIS in many ways in the book, partly to emphasize one of our goals, the interplay between geographic information systems and geographic information science ; and at times we use two other possible interpretations of the three-letter acronym: geographic information xiv PREFACE studies and geographic information services.
We distinguish between the various meanings where appropriate, or where the context fails to make the meaning clear, especially in Section 1. We also use the acronym in both singular and plural senses, following what is now standard practice in the eld, to refer as appropriate to a single geographic information system or to geographic information systems in general.
To complicate matters still further, we have noted the increasing use of geospatial rather than geographic. We have organized the book in ve major but interlocking sections: after two chapters that establish the foundations to GI Systems and Science and the real world of applications, the sections appear as Principles Chapters 3 through 6 , Techniques Chapters 7 through 11 , Analysis 12 through 16 and Management and Policy Chapters 17 through We cap the book off with an Epilog that summarizes the main topics and looks to the future.
The boundaries between these sections are in practice permeable, but remain in large part predicated upon providing a systematic treatment of enduring principles ideas that will be around long after todays technology has been relegated to the museum and the knowledge that is necessary for an understanding of todays technology, and likely near-term developments.
In a similar way, we illustrate how many of the analytic methods have had reincarnations through different manual and computer technologies in the past, and will doubtless metamorphose further in the future. We hope you nd the book stimulating and helpful.
Please tell us either way! Many of those listed above also helped us in our work on the second edition. Each of us remains indebted in different ways to Stan Openshaw, for his insight, his energy, his commitment to GIS, and his compassion for geography.
Finally, thanks go to our families, especially Amanda, Fiona, Heather, and Christine. Acknowledgments We take complete responsibility for all the material contained herein.
But much of it draws upon contributions made by friends and colleagues from across the world, many of them outside the academic GIS community. We thank them all for those contributions and the discussions we have had over the years. We cannot mention all of them but would particularly like to mention the following. Harlow: Longman. Longley P. New York, NJ: Wiley.
Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. What is special about it?
Geographic information system
What is information generally, and how does it relate to data, knowledge, evidence, wisdom, and understanding? What kinds of decisions make use of geographic information? What is a geographic information system, and how would I know one if I saw one? What is geographic information science, and how does it relate to the use of GIS for scientific purposes?
How do scientists use GIS, and why do they find it helpful? How do companies make money from GIS? Because location is so important, it is an issue in many of the problems society must solve.
Some of these are so routine that we almost fail to notice them the daily question of which route to take to and from work, for example.
Others are quite extraordinary occurrences, and require rapid, concerted, and coordinated responses by a wide range of individuals and organizations such as the events of September 11 in New York Box 1. Problems that involve an aspect of location, either in the information used to solve them, or in the solutions themselves, are termed geographic problems.
Here are some more examples: 1. Almost everything that happens, happens somewhere. Largely, we humans are conned in our activities to the surface and near-surface of the Earth. We travel over it and in the lower levels of the atmosphere, and through tunnels dug just below the surface. We dig ditches and bury pipelines and cables, construct mines to get at mineral deposits, and drill wells to access oil and gas.
Keeping track of all of this activity is important, and knowing where it occurs can be the most convenient basis for tracking. Knowing where something happens is of critical importance if we want to go there ourselves or send someone there, to nd other information about the same place, or to inform people who live nearby.
In addition, most perhaps all decisions have geographic consequences, e. Therefore geographic location is an important attribute of activities, policies, strategies, and plans. Also, what other data could be useful such as roads, infrastructure and trails? Analyze the situation: Satellite data can display where vegetation is, which of course is fuel for the fire.
If you can model fire behavior, you can map potential risks to communities and determine post-fire effects. Post-wildfire satellite image false-colored. Fire appears bright red, vegetation is green, smoke is blue, clouds are white, and bare ground is tan-colored. Respond to the problem: In order to respond to the wildfire, communicate the best plan of attack to wildfire responders.
Also, you can serve webmaps to fire managers with real-time fire perimeter data. Geographic Information Systems answer important questions about location, patterns and trends. For example: Where are land features found?
If you need to find the closest gas station, GIS can show you the way. Or if you want to find an optimal location, you may need traffic volumes, zoning information and demographics.
Tropical Medicine Journal
What geographical patterns exist? Ecologists who want to know suitable habitat for elk can gain a better understanding by using GPS collars and land cover.
What changes have occurred over a given period of time? Also, safety concerns can be better evaluated using GIS such as understanding terrain slope and the probability an avalanche can occur. What are the spatial implications?
If an electricity company wants to build a transmission line, how will this affect nearby homes, the environment and safety. Most environmental assessments use GIS to understand the landscape.
Yes, they have. But in the most part, geographers have not been able to answer these questions very well because of the lack of data and processing. Mapping the Future with Geographic Information Science Paper maps will be completely obsolete in 10 years. Bold statement? But take a step back and ask yourself: How will GIS grow in upcoming years?
This is a question that is best understood with Geographic Information Science.
It draws from computer science, mathematics, geography, statistics, cartography, and geodesy. Geographic Information Systems connects what with the where.
Geographic Information Science discovers how. In summary, Geography Information Science conceptualizes the collection, storage and analysis of spatial data in a Geographic Information System.
Why GIS is not going away anytime soon Click to enlarge infographic Geographic Information Systems allows us to make better decisions using geography.
Analysis becomes simple. Answers become clear. Everyday GIS makes an impact on your life and you might not even realize. For example, your car uses GPS navigation and your job may depend on really accurate weather prediction. One small error will be discovered by students in Figure 4. But other than that, and a few typos, I am impressed with the writing, editing, and overall attention to the subject. Published in , it is now 8 years old, and it seems quite up-to-date.
Yes, some of the references may seem outdated, but Campbell has written the book in such a way that the essentials are not hidden by a fascination with rapidly shifting technology.
For example, the data structures and the computer languages being used in relation to GIS now are mostly the same or simply derivative of those the author describes. It would be impossible to keep up with all the computer language options in this kind of text - any professor will have to supplement the text with updates on that.
This is not a flaw in Campbell's book. The same is true for examples. Campbell tries to avoid using examples that would be easily outdated. Clarity rating: 4 The writing is clear and easy to follow. I think students should have no trouble reading and even being fascinated by the field as presented here. I do think three improvements could be made: A. Many of the diagrams could be better designed. I find quite a few of them to be overly simplistic, to the point where the reality being modeled is too hard to imagine.Problems with Rates Based on Small Numbers.
Somers R. The management of the organizations using our tools, information, knowledge, skills, and commitment is therefore what will ensure the ultimate local and global success of GIS. Almost all countries are now engaged in seeking to protect their citizens against the threat of terrorism. For example, a GIS analysis at the scale of North America is likely to display individual cities and towns as points, but they would not be conceptualized in this manner for an analysis of crime within a single city, where the crime locations would be represented as points.
We distinguish between the various meanings where appropriate, or where the context fails to make the meaning clear, especially in Section 1. There are four primary properties that are correct in a spherical representation of the earth that must be considered when projecting onto a flat surface: area, shape, distance, and direction.