O'Reilly Media, Inc. VMware Cookbook, the image of a leatherback sea turtle, and location raudone.info With scores of step-by-step solutions, this cookbook helps you work with VMware ESXi in a wide range of network environments. Youll not only learn the. Com VMware Cookbook Download at raudone.info Download at WoweBook. Com VMware Cookbook Ryan Troy and Matthew Helmke Beijing • Cambridge.
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Virtual Machine Hardware Available to vSphere Virtual Machines 13 Clone a Virtual Machine to a Template in the vSphere Web Client Clone a Template. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we VMware vSphere Cookbook is a task-oriented, fast-paced, practical Chapter 1, Upgrading. VMware vCloud Director Cookbook is aimed at system administrators and technical raudone.info
There are also plenty of links to websites containing further details on the topics covered. Italic Used for email addresses, URLs, filenames, pathnames, and emphasizing new terms when they are first introduced Constant width Used for the contents of files and for commands and their output Constant width bold Used in code sections to show commands or text that would be typed by the user, and, occasionally, to highlight portions of code Constant width italic Used for replaceable items and some comments in code sections Indicates a tip, suggestion, or general note relating to the nearby text.
Indicates a warning or caution relating to the nearby text. Using Code Examples This book is here to help you get your job done. In general, you may use the code in this book in your programs and documentation. For example, writing a program that uses several chunks of code from this book does not require permission. Answering a question by citing this book and quoting example code does not require permission. We appreciate, but do not require, attribution.
An attribution usually includes the title, author, publisher, and ISBN. For example: Copyright Ryan Troy and Matthew Helmke, Preface xiii Download at WoweBook. The information in this book has also been verified at each step of the production process.
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I would like to thank my wife, Holly, for her continued support and always- sound advice while I work on projects, which require me to be engulfed in concentra- tion.
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I want to thank my coauthor, Matthew Helmke, for his words of wisdom, great ideas, and never-ending copyediting; you are a true rock star. I would like to thank my wonderful wife, Heather, for her consistently sup- portive attitude and encouragement. I want to thank Ryan Troy for the opportunity to collaborate on this and other projects and also for the hospitality he and Holly showed me during my visit. Together, we would like to thank all those who helped us make this a better book than it would have been without their assistance: Howard, and Beth Cohen; and finally, the people at VMware for allowing us to be a part of the beta cycle for 4.
Preface xv Download at WoweBook. Because of the nature of this cookbook, we will assume from time to time that you have advanced knowledge and understanding of how the products work. Virtualization provides a way for multiple operating systems to be installed on the same physical hardware.
By using virtual technology, we can consolidate hardware and in- stantly build quality assurance and test environments. This is a tremendous break- through, as it allows underutilized equipment to do more than sit around idle, as well as allowing developers and administrators to test and use multiple software configu- rations and packages that require different operating systems on the same piece of equipment, without having to download, set up, and maintain multiple computers.
This savings makes the accounting department and managers happy and gives the technol- ogy lovers an opportunity to do all the things they want or need to do at the same time.
A typical IT scenario goes something like this: This provides some secur- ity, both because if one server is compromised it does not necessarily mean that access has been granted to others, and because a problem with one piece of software will not cause other parts of your IT infrastructure to go down as you deal with it.
Virtualization helps you make better use of those physical resources, without compro- mising the original intent of keeping services isolated. Instead of installing your oper- ating system directly on your hardware, you instead begin with a virtualization layer: Most virtualization platforms limit themselves to specific hardware and present a specific set of virtual components to the operating systems installed on 1 Download at WoweBook. This provides a very stable and consistent presentation to the operating systems you install and allows them to be moved much more easily.
These virtual installations operate exactly as they would normally. They are not aware of the presence of other virtual installations that exist on the same hardware.
Each acts as if it is installed on a predefined piece of equipment by itself, with the virtualization layer controlling what the virtual installation sees and how it interacts with other equipment outside its control. Basically, the virtual installation looks, feels, acts, and is administered exactly the same as a standard in- stallation from the inside, but may be manipulated and configured easily and alongside others from the outside.
Here is the coolest part: If you have 10 physical servers, each with four processors, 4GB of RAM, and an 80GB hard drive, you can segment those resour- ces to provide a small and low-powered server for your in-house email, a powerful and high-memory processor for the number crunchers in accounting, multiple load-balanced servers for your web server, a separate server for your database, and so on, each with a configuration of memory, disk space, processor power, and so on spe- cific for its needs.
You can take a physical server offline for maintenance without losing access to any of your virtual servers and their functions. You can move resources in and out and around your pool as needed, and even automatically. These are the sorts of things we will discuss in this book. We like VMware. If you are reading this book, you probably do, too, but chances are you want to make better use of its potential than you are doing now—either that, or you have been asked to set it up or maintain it and you are wondering how to get started.
Whatever your reason, if you use VMware at all, we hope you will find this book useful and practical. VMware, Inc. VMware is a rapidly growing company that began in and now has over 20, partnerships with companies ranging from somewhat small to extremely large. It is well tested and has been used in applications ranging from very small, localized installations with just a handful of servers to exceptionally large server farms in major corporations.
It is robust, scalable, easy to administer, and flexible. It is also small and fast, which means the virtual installations running on top of it have more processor power and other resources available to them than they would if they were using some of the more resource-heavy virtualization software available.
VI3 is designed to be installed on bare metal, as the base operating system. This design choice eliminates a layer of software between the virtual installations and the hardware and results in faster, smoother performance. We will use the new terminology within the book and reference the versions when appropriate.
The remainder of this chapter will introduce these key pieces of technology within the virtualization environment. This new release not only brings incre- mental improvements but takes the virtualization platform to a whole new level by letting you think in terms of complete installations or deployments instead of managing your site server by server.
Host profiles Host profiles are provided in Enterprise Plus to make it easy to push a template of an already existing ESX host to a new server. This feature is a huge benefit, as it means you no longer need to manually configure networks, storage, and so on in your new ESX Servers.
Performance, graphs, and events CPU, memory, storage, and networking graphs are now displayed on one central page. In additional to improved graphs, customers will benefit from improved event messages, alarm settings, and error reporting. This takes away the need for the command-line management or third-party plug-ins that were popular with the ESX 3.
In es- sence, this means you can now move a running server between hosts using different CPU technologies. Virtual machine hot add support You can add CPU and memory resources to an existing virtual machine without having to reboot. Physical node improvements Physical hosts can now have up to 1TB of memory, 64 logical CPUs, and virtual machines.
The bit architecture of ESX4 allows greater memory capacity, better performance, and seamless hardware support compared to previous releases. Storage improvements ESX 4. Thin provisioning for virtual disks enables virtual machines to utilize storage on an as-needed basis, eliminating a major source of wasted space on a storage area 4 Chapter 1: Distributed switch A distributed switch is provided on Enterprise Plus to let customers create a virtual switch for all their ESX hosts to connect to and utilize.
This helps reduce network maintenance and allows virtual machines to be moved to any host using VMotion without having to worry about network connections. As we mentioned earlier, this is only a small subset of the new features available in vSphere 4. These values can be crucial when planning your virtual environment, and we suggest you read through them to become familiar with the different maximums.
Table Networking vNetwork distributed switch maximums 4. It is the hypervisor, or main software layer that installs on the bare metal and allows everything above it to communicate with the hardware, to allow virtualization. The VMkernel is the base on which all other software in the package is built: For those familiar with Linux, this would be the equivalent of and is built from the Linux kernel, without any other software.
VMware has designed ESX Server to run only on specific pieces of hardware and has removed support for any kinds of devices it is not interested in, thereby reducing the kernel code. What remains is a stripped-down, fast kernel and tool package with little to no extra overhead.
However, everything that a server needs is well supported. This is a sleek operating system designed to put as little as possible between the virtual machines and the hardware. ESX 4. This allows you to install, test, and get a feel for the product before implementing it on physical hardware.
ESX Server has the following hardware requirements refer to Tables through , shown previously, for configuration maximums: The installer has a couple of modes: Graphical mode The recommended method for installation. It uses a mouse and a graphical inter- face to guide you through the installation. This is the method we will be using for our installation as we continue in this section. Text mode A text-only mode for installing ESX; this option is normally used when you have mouse or video problems in the graphical installer.
Next, follow these steps: Upon booting from the CD-ROM, you will be presented with a screen that allows you to choose your installation method. Pressing the Enter key accepts the default graphical installer. By typing esx text, you can invoke the text-mode installer Figure The installer will begin to load, displaying another screen that will allow you to test the CD-ROM media for errors. If you want to test the media, use the Tab key to highlight the Test button; otherwise, select the Skip button to continue the installation Figure Figure ESX installation screen Figure CD-ROM media test 1.
A welcome screen will be presented. Click the Next button to proceed to the key- board configuration Figure , where you will select the default keyboard layout. Click Next to continue. Keyboard selection during ESX installation 3. The mouse configuration menu now appears, allowing you to select the mouse type for your ESX Server Figure Accepting the default here is OK because the mouse will not be used at any point after the initial installation.
Proceed by clicking the Next button. The installer will begin to search for already installed versions of ESX Fig- ure If one is found, you will be given the following options: Using Update Manager inside vCenter, as discussed in Chapter 5, is a much safer method.
Install This will install a clean version of ESX and erase any existing installations, including all configuration settings and data. Mouse selection during ESX installation Figure Option to choose Install or Upgrade 1. The ESX license agreement will appear. You have two options here: Recommended Configures the default ESX partitions based on the hard drive size. This is the recommended method, unless you specifically need to set your partitions for a more customized install.
Advanced Allows you to specify all the partition settings and sizes based on your hard drive size Table The values in Table are general best practices, and you may adjust them higher than the listed values if you have more space available. This is primarily used when installing on top of another ESX installation, to preserve any existing virtual machines and their data.
Click the Next button to see the finalized disk partition configuration, then click the Next button to continue. Disk partitioning during ESX installation 16 Chapter 1: In ESX 3.
To be on the safe side, we recommend setting this value to 10GB. There are three options here: From a drive install on the MBR of the drive The first disk will be selected. Checked by default, this is the option that will be used on most ESX installations. From a partition This option will be used for legacy installations where the BIOS is stored on the master boot record. As mentioned previously, we recommend using the default selections for the boot- loader configuration.
As a side note, if you decide you need to use the Back or Next buttons during the installation, ensure that the default selection stays checked. Click the Next button to continue. The network configuration section of the installation Figure allows you to specify the network and address type that will be used on the ESX Server. This screen is broken up into four different sections: We like to use the first interface on the server or add-on card, mainly because 1.
By default, you will be asked for a static IP address. Fill in the rest of the network fields as necessary. If you are unsure, ask your network team for this information. After entering the appropriate network information, click the Next button to continue. Continue by pressing the Next button. ESX installation bootloader options 18 Chapter 1: Networking settings during ESX installation Figure Time zone configuration during ESX installation 1. A new window Figure will appear, asking you to set your root password.
Enter your root password and set up any additional accounts you might need on your ESX Server, pressing the Next button to continue. For more information on account usage in ESX, see Chapter 7. The final window to appear in the installation is the summary Figure This is the last chance you have to make any changes to the installation settings you previously configured, so look over the details carefully.
If everything looks OK, press the Next button to begin the installation. See Also Recipes 1. Installation summary 1. It does not include or rely upon a service con- sole and can perform its hypervisor duties with an installation that takes up a mere 32MB of disk space.
In ESX Server, the service console runs on top of the hypervisor alongside the installed virtual machines. In ESXi, the hypervisor is all you install on your hardware. This allows for very fast hardware additions to existing pools. Want to add a new server to your rack? No problem. This is an amazingly quick way to create or expand an existing ESX hardware cluster. Even more exciting than the installable version of ESXi is the embedded version.
It is now possible to download hardware that is preconfigured with ESXi installed on it. This completely eliminates the installation step and speeds up the configuration process.
Companies like Dell, which graciously allowed us to borrow some of its equipment as we were writing this book, are now selling servers that require only a little more than racking, cabling, and powering on to expand your VMware cluster. ESXi is also available for free and includes the basic functions needed to start a virtual environment. This allows you to install, test, and get a feel for the products before implementing them on physical hardware.
As of Update 3, ESXi has the following hardware requirements: To ensure complete compatibility, search for your specific hardware at the aforementioned URL. If you are familiar with installing ESX, this will be a breeze. Once the initial boot has completed, the installer will present a couple of options: Once you have selected the appropriate installa- tion type, you will be shown the EULA.
Press F11 to accept and continue the installation. Typically, this will be a local disk. Also, make sure you have disconnected all your SAN and direct-attached storage, to prevent any accidental data removal. Unlike a normal ESX installation, ESXi requires a little more configuration after the initial install, because the only thing being configured during installation is the disk on which the hypervisor is going to be installed. Once the new ESXi server has been rebooted, you will notice a screen that is similar to the ESX console screen but with two new options: F11 to reboot the system and F2 to manage the system.
To begin configuration, make sure you have a keyboard and monitor plugged into the ESXi server. Press F2 to access the menu-based configuration utility, which will be the main screen in which all ESXi configuration will take place Figure Configure Root Password This is the first option that will need to be configured, as it is not set by default. Configure Lockdown Mode This is disabled by default. If enabled, it prevents users from logging into the ESXi server remotely as the root user.
ESXi management menu Figure Changing the password Lockdown mode provides a valuable extra layer of security, but it can prove inconvenient for one function that is common on ESXi: VMware also offers a remote command-line interface RCLI that can perform user account functions, called vicfg-user.
However, you can bypass this and set your network to use a static IP address using the tools provided in the Management Network interface. Using a static IP address is recommended. As shown in Figure , the management network offers a few options to configure your ESXi server. Management network configuration The Network Adapters option allows you to select which network adapter to use for the service console IP address, if you have more than one interface available; the inter- faces will be labeled vmnic0, vmnic1, etc.
This is an optional setting. The next option on the list is IP Configuration. Choosing the latter will allow you to enter the basic in- formation needed, such as the IP address, subnet mask, and gateway Figure Configure Keyboard ESXi supports different keyboard layouts: English is the default, but you can select from French, German, Russian, and Japanese. View System Logs There are three options available here for viewing log entries.
As shown in Fig- ure , you can view system messages, config, and management agent hostd logs. Restart Management Agents From time to time it may be necessary to restart the management agents on the ESXi host without restarting the server itself. If the management agents are restar- ted, all remotely connected clients such as vCenter clients and the vCenter server will be disconnected. Reset Customized Settings Resetting the customized settings will reset all the variables on the ESXi server to factory defaults.
To further configure the ESXi server, you can use the vCenter client. System logs See Also Recipe 1. For some of us, that happens right around the time the second box is added, because we want to use our time for more interesting things than repetitive procedures and maintenance.
VMware vCenter provides a central location for manag- ing all of the virtual machines on your VMware network. It is licensed and sold sepa- rately and requires a dedicated Windows server or a Windows virtual machine and a database Oracle or Microsoft SQL Server. The vCenter Server installation is pretty straightforward. During the course of the in- stallation you will be asked to enter some required information and make some crucial decisions about your environment.
We will walk you through those steps in this section. VMware vCenter 2. Once you have chosen your installation method, follow these steps: A screen similar to Figure will appear. The introduction page tells you the benefits of vCenter Server. Once you have read these, click Next to continue.
Click Next to continue the installation. You will now be prompted to enter information about your company Fig- ure Entering company information 5. Now that the basic elements of the installation have been taken care of, you must decide what pieces of the application to install.
You have three different options, as shown in Figure the names are different in the installer, because although VMware has changed the product names, as of this writing the installers have not been updated to reflect these changes: This option is appropriate for a desktop or workstation that you will use to manage the vCenter server.
The client is automatically installed with the next option. Custom installation This option allows you to install any combination of the four pieces mentioned: Choosing the vCenter installation type 6.
You are now ready to choose the database method Figure Refer to the database requirements list for the exact versions. This can be accomplished in the Control Panel on Windows. Otherwise, enter the username and password. There are a couple of options here Figure This will install the full product, which can be changed from evaluation mode to a licensed product after installation, if required.
To use a license file, first uncheck the evaluation mode checkbox. The default path of C: Press Next to continue. If you choose to do a custom installation, proceed to step 8; otherwise, skip to step 9.
License server configuration 8. If you selected the custom installation option, you will be allowed to modify the ports in which the vCenter Server applications run Figure Modify these or accept the defaults, and click Next to continue the installation. Custom install only, changing ports 1. You will be asked to enter information about the system on which the vCenter Server components are going to be installed Figure Normally, both options will appear in the drop-down menu.
VC Server Port This value can be changed only during a custom installation. If you chose to do a custom installation, proceed to step 10; otherwise, skip to step 12 to continue the installation.
During a custom installation, you will be asked to enter information for the VMware Update Manager. You can use the same database as the one you used earlier for the vCenter server, or a separate database Figure When you are satisfied with the settings, click the Next button to continue the installation.
Custom installation Update Manager settings After configuring the Update Manager settings, if you are doing a custom instal- lation, you will be asked to enter information for the Converter piece of vCenter Figure Enter your port and IP information or accept the defaults, and click Next to con- tinue the installation.
Custom installation Converter settings 1. Click the Install button Figure to start the installation. During the installa- tion process each piece will be installed, along with. NET if it is missing from your server. Begin the installation After the installation has completed, click the Finish button to begin configuring your ESX Servers.
It is included with the vCenter Server download.
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NET Framework 2. However, it is possible to install the vCenter client by itself on other computers by going to https: The installation is very intuitive. However, it is much more convenient, especially as networks grow large, to set up one VMware license server as a repository and use it to manage your licenses, allowing them to float between hosts.
Doing so also opens up new options that are not available when using individual host-based licenses, such as using VMotion to move virtual machines from one physical host to another.
In particular, a license server en- ables the distributed resource scheduler and high availability features in ESX and vCenter.
However, it is possible to install the license server on another server. The installer will begin. Accept the license agreement and continue the installation by clicking the Next button. You will be prompted for your license file; either enter the path or use the Browse button to navigate to its location. Click Install to begin the installation. When finished, click Finished to complete the license server install.
There are two ways this can be done. In a cold migration, you power down a server and convert it while it is offline. With vConverter, though, you can also perform a hot migration, which allows you to convert and migrate a live, operating server while it is in use. VMware Converter also allows you to take older virtual machines and migrate them into a new network while upgrading them to the current version.
Installation on Windows To install vConverter on Windows: Download the Windows executable. Run the installer, clicking Next at the introduction screen. Choose the directory in which to install the files. The installer will default to C: Select the type of installation you want to do. There are two options here, as shown in Figure Local installation This installs vCenter Converter on the server. It allows you to create and man- age conversion tasks from this local server only.
The advanced installation choice gives you the option to specify which ports vCenter Converter will use Figure The defaults are: You are now ready to proceed with the installation. Click Install to continue. When the installation has completed, you will have the option to automatically launch the vCenter Converter client. Click the Finish button to complete the install. Installation on Linux On each of the various Linux distributions we have tested, we have found that the default options worked well.
Here are the steps to follow: Download the Linux-based installer. This will pro- duce a directory called vmware-converter-distrib. Change to the vmware-converter-distrib directory. Run the vmware-install. You will be presented with the license agreement. Press the space bar to read through it. When asked, type yes to agree and press Enter to continue the installation.
After accepting the license agreement, you will be asked if you wish to install the vCenter Converter Standalone client. The default is Yes, so you can press Enter. You will be asked if you wish to install the vCenter Converter Standalone server. Again, the default is Yes, so you can press Enter to continue. The installer will ask for the directory in which you wish to install the executable files. Press Enter to accept either the default or your custom path.
You will now be asked where the VMware vCenter Converter Standalone library files should be installed. Next, the installer will ask if you wish to create the path for the library files. The default is Yes, so you can press Enter to continue the installation.
Enter the path that contains the init directories for rc0. Press Enter to accept the default, or after entering a custom path if required. You have the option to enable remote access in vCenter Converter Standalone. The default is No, but you can change this to Yes if you wish to allow other vCenter Converter clients to connect to this instance.
Press Enter to accept the default, or after changing the value. Press Enter to accept the default, or after entering a custom path. Enter the directory that contains your.
The installation will now begin. Once the installation has completed, you can check the System Tools menu in your X11 windows environment or launch the client from the command line by running the vmware-converter-client application. If you have previously installed ESX 3. Red Hat Enterprise 5. VMware suggests Intel or Broadcom-based controllers, but you may check the hardware compatibility list for other options.
The installer has the same graphical and text install modes as 3. Install ESX in graphical mode The recommended method for installation.
This is the method we will be using for our installation as we continue this section. This option is normally used when you have mouse or video problems in the graphical installer. The default password for the installation is mypassword.
This option will delete any VMFS storage you may have, removing any 1. ESX4 installation menu Here are the installation steps: We are going to install using the graphical mode, since this will be the most widely used option. When you begin the installation, you will notice that the look and feel of the installer is a little more polished than in previous releases.
To continue the installation, click the Next button and accept the license agreement by checking the box. Then click Next again. You will now be presented with the option to select which keyboard layout you want to use during the installation and afterward. Typically, you will select your language here Figure ESX4 keyboard layout selection 4.
The next screen is new in ESX 4. You will not be able to install them later. If you have no drivers to install, click the Next button to continue the installation. To add a custom driver, click Yes and then the Add button and select the driver from your media. When you are finished, click Next to continue the installation. The installer will give you a warning stating that the installer is going to load the drivers.
Once this step is completed, you cannot add any custom drivers. If you are ready to continue, press the Yes button and the drivers will begin to load. Click the Next button to continue the installation. ESX4 custom driver options 5. Next, you have the option to enter a license serial number either now or later Figure This is a new screen within the ESX 4.
If you choose to enter the serial number later, the installer will give you a default day trial license. If you do not have a license, you can use this option to get ESX installed and add your serial number at a later time.
Click Next to continue the installation once you have selected an option. Entering the serial number 6.
Next, select the network adapter that will be used for system tasks; this is generally called the service console Figure Once you have selected the network adapter, click the Next button to continue the installation. Selecting the network adapter 1. Now you will be presented with options to configure networking Figure The network configuration screen in ESX 4.
Once you have entered your network configuration, click the Next button to con- tinue the installation. Configuring the network settings 8. Next, you will be presented with the option to install with the Standard or Ad- vanced storage configuration options Figure In this recipe we are going to use the Standard installation option and let the installer configure the default par- titions for us. However, your configuration might be different and require the use of the advanced options, where you can manually configure different aspects of the storage parti- tions.
The suggested partition sizes for an advanced disk partitioning installation are listed in Table Select the method you wish to use to configure your storage and click the Next button. ESX4 disk partition method Table The installer will now present you with the disks available for the ESX installation Figure Select the disk on which you want to install ESX and click the Next button.
Selecting the installation disk Once the disks are partitioned, you will need to select the time zone in which your servers are located Figure Selecting the time zone 50 Chapter 1: In this step, you have the option to configure an NTP server or set the time manually.
You also have the option to add other user accounts on this screen if you wish. Finally, you will be shown a summary of the installation, which you should review Figure If any changes need to be made, you can use the Back button to make them. Once you are satisfied, click the Next button and the installation will begin. This process can take between 15 and 20 minutes, depending on the speed of your server. When the installation has completed, press the Finish button. Your new ESX4 server will be rebooted, and a screen similar to Figure will be shown.
At this point, you can now add and configure this server from the vCenter client. Configuring the NTP server and date and time 1. Setting the root user password Figure ESX4 installation summary 52 Chapter 1: In this chapter we will look at the different types of storage and ways to successfully configure and use them within the ESX environment.
Solution Review the comparison tables in this recipe. Discussion Table lays out the types of storage ESX supports. Table lists the features different storage types can utilize in ESX. Solution This recipe breaks down the naming scheme so you can understand how it works. Discussion The format of a storage device name in ESX consists of three or four numbers separated by colons.
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The numbers have the following meanings: The second number, 0, marks it as the first target on the HBA, and the third number indicates that the LUN is number 0. Finally, it is the first partition, as indicated by the 1 in the fourth field. The first and second numbers may change for the following reasons if they are changed, they will still reference the same physical device to which they were originally connected: In this case, ESX will assign a different number to access the storage device.
The first number can also change if the card is moved to another PCI slot in the server. Storage Download at WoweBook. Datastore device names 2.
The VMkernel port can be configured on an existing network, but we strongly advise you to put your iSCSI traffic on its own network and port group, isolated from all other traffic. This ensures maximum performance for your virtual machines. Follow these steps: Log into vCenter Server and select the server from the inventory list. Select the Configuration tab from the right window pane, navigate to Networking on the lefthand side, and click the Add Networking link in the upper- right corner.
Your options will be displayed in the lower portion of the screen, in the Preview section Figure Click Next. You will be required to enter some information about the VMkernel port on the Connection Types screen Figure First, configure the port group properties: Network Label This is the label by which the port group will be recognized within the virtual environment.
This should be specified only if you are using VLANs in your network infrastructure. Then configure the IP settings: This is a required field. Subnet Mask The subnet mask of the network. This is also required. To configure additional options, such as DNS and advanced routing, click the Edit button. Click Next to view the summary, and then Finish to create the port group. It is strongly recommended that you create a dedicated network for this traffic, as described in Recipe 2.
Each uses a different kind of software translation, called an initiator, to send traffic from the ESX Server to the network. This section explains basic configuration for software iSCSI. Log into vCenter Server and select the server you are configuring from the inventory list.
Select the Configuration tab from the right window pane and click the Storage Adapters link on the lefthand side. Adding software iSCSI support 3.
Enabling software iSCSI 4. Click the Dynamic Discovery tab, and then the Add button. Adding an iSCSI target 2. After clicking the Close button, you will be asked if you wish to rescan for new disks. Accept this, and ESX will rescan. It requires a hardware iSCSI initiator, which you can set up using the instructions in this section: Select the Configuration tab from the right window pane and navigate to the Stor- age Adapters link on the lefthand side. A new window will appear. Click the Dynamic Discovery tab, then the Add button.
Click OK, then click Close. The ESX Server will begin to scan for new devices. In our example, the server has four targets, as identified in the Details window under vmhba4. This is because we are looking at the vmhba4 path view on the second port of the HBA, and the canonical path is set to route all traffic through the first port of the HBA, which is vmhba3. See Also Recipe 2. This section explains how to download and install the initiator.
Microsoft provides both bit and bit versions of the application to ensure both platforms are covered. Users who are required to download the application can install it by double-clicking the executable and following the on-screen instructions. You will be presented with a new window giving you a set of options that include the following: Virtual Port Driver This is required and cannot be changed after installation.
Initiator Service This service handles the work being done. This option is not avail- able on Windows XP. Continue the installation of the initiator by accepting the license agreement.
When you launch the application, you will be presented with a screen of options to configure the iSCSI connections. Adding a new target 2. After creating the initial connection to the iSCSI array, you need to specify which volume you will connect to and mount on the Windows machine. Click the Targets tab to see the list of targets that are available for you to use Figure Select the volume to which you will be connecting and click the Log On button. A new window will pop up with the target name and two options Figure The options are: Unless you have a very good reason not to, you should always check this box.
If this option is not selected, the volume will need to be manually reconnected each time the system boots. It can be valuable if you have the necessary hardware, need high availability, and previously configured multipathing when installing the initiator.
Once you are satisfied, click the OK button. The status for the target under the Targets tab will switch to Connected, showing that the volume is connected. Now that the Windows machine can see the volume, you need to make, configure, and format the volume in Windows. Right-click on My Computer and select Manage.
Choose the Disk Management option. Since the volume is presumably a new volume with no data, Windows will pop up a new window with the Disk Initialization wizard. Follow the steps presented by this wizard and select from either a basic recom- mended or dynamic disk this is not recommended for Windows iSCSI. Once the disk has been initialized, you will need to create a partition and format the new volume by right-clicking on the new disk in the Disk Management window. Solution Use vCenter to open the necessary firewall port.
Using vCenter, this task is easy. Select the Configuration tab from the right window pane, navigate to the Security Profile link on the lefthand side, and click the Properties link in the upper-right corner to display the Firewall Properties window.
Solution Use vCenter to view and change multipath settings. Discussion One of the nice things about iSCSI is that it is IP-based, so it already has built-in support for multipathing using IP routing if you are using dynamic routing protocols on your network. The steps for configuring multipathing are as follows: Select the Configuration tab from the right window pane and navigate to Storage.
Then select the datastore you wish to modify and click Properties. Please refer to the hardware compatibility list found at http: At the time of writing, it is recommended that you use one of the more common multipath policies outlined here.
MRU most recently used Uses the last access path for your storage traffic. For example, if you were using path 1 and it failed over to path 2, the device will continue to use path 2 even after path 1 comes back online. Fixed Tries to use a specific path. For example, if you set your path policy to Fixed on path 1 and it has a failure, the device switches to path 2 until path 1 is restored, then switches all traffic back to path 1.
Showing hardware iSCSI paths 4. Click the Manage Paths button to configure the path settings as shown in Fig- ure Click the path you wish to modify and then click the Change button, and you will be able to select the Preference and the State of the path, as shown in Fig- ure In this figure, we have selected the preferred path grayed out and we can enable or disable this path for traffic.
Then click the Close button to save the configuration. Managing paths Figure Enabling or disabling a path 2. Nor- mally, this is done in a utility provided by the SAN manufacturer. Log into vCenter Server and select a server from the inventory list. Click the Add Storage link. If the disk you are formatting is blank, the entire disk space is presented for configuration. If the disk is not blank, review the current disk layout in the top panel and select the appropriate configuration method from the bottom panel this will erase and remove all data from the disk: Use the entire device Selecting this option will dedicate all the available space to the VMFS data- store.
This is the suggested option for VMware access, and selecting this option will remove all data currently on the LUN. When you are satisfied with your decision, click Next to continue. If you need to adjust the block sizes, do so and click Next to continue. Review the summary and click Finish to add the new datastore. After it has been added to one, the others will see it if the correct zoning has been configured or if no zoning is present on your fibre switch.
If multiple ESX Servers connect to the same datastore, you will need to refresh the storage on each one to see the new datastore. Discussion Raw device mapping allows virtual machines to have direct access to a LUN on a phys- ical storage system without the use of a VMFS datastore. RDM has two different modes: Physical compatibility mode This mode allows direct access to the device, but gives you less control within ESX.
For example, you will not be able to snapshot the data using ESX. However, if your SAN supports snapshot technology you will be able to use it on this volume. To add an RDM disk to a virtual machine that has already been created: From the Summary tab on the virtual machine, click Edit Settings. When the new window appears, click the Add button. The Add Hardware wizard will open.
Select Hard Disk, then click Next. You will be presented with a list of options. Select Raw Device Mapping and click Next. From the available list of disks, select the LUN you wish to use for your virtual machine.
Select the datastore for your RDM mapping file. You can store the mapping file on the same datastore where the virtual machine files are stored, or on another data- store. Once selected, click Next to continue. You will be presented with a choice of two compatibility modes, detailed earlier in this recipe.
Make your selection and click Next to continue. Select the virtual device node and click Next to continue. If you selected virtual compatibility mode, you will need to choose between the two following modes: Very detailed and technical paper which gathers all the technical specifications of vCenter server platform, its deployment or upgrade and also system requirements and sizing.
In this case a replication to another PSC is not necessary. Linux and Windows. Check the bellow concerning the conversion of SQL express into vPostgress! Supported databases for the windows installation are SQL R2, and , Oracle 11g and 12c as well as the option to use an embedded vPostgres database.
Upgrades where SQL express was installed will be converted to vPostgres. The vCenter Server Appliance supports embedded vPostgres at full scale, host and 10, virtual machines and is the recommended database for the vCenter Server appliance.
External Oracle 11g and 12c databases are supported as well for this release, look for these to be phased out in future releases. Get the VMware vCenter Server 6. Check it out! AloeveraBeach - Rent a Flat m from the beach. Capacity 4 pers. Connect on: Feel free to network via Twitter vladan. Your email address will not be published.
Leave this field empty. VMware Workstation and other IT tutorials.When this is disabled, you will not be able to make any changes to the various settings. Run the esxcfg-nics command on each desired adapter to change the speed. VMkernel ports can be configured in vCenter or via the command line. If you use a shared storage device, each ESX Server must have its own separate diagnostic partition.
To further configure the ESXi server, you can use the vCenter client.
Now you will be presented with options to configure networking Figure Included VMware vSphere 6. You will also learn the practices and procedures involved in configuring and managing virtual machines in a vSphere infrastructure. If you are ready to continue, press the Yes button and the drivers will begin to load.