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sequel, The Lord of the Rings, then in progress. Tolkien made some further revisions to the American edition published by Ballantine. Books in February The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by J. R. R. Tolkien, which was later fitted as a trilogy. The story began as a sequel to Tolkien's earlier . The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by English author and scholar "The Lord of the Rings: The Tale of a Text" (PDF). The Tolkien Society . Retrieved 24 October ^ Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (), The Letters of J. R. R.
Tolkien's influences The influence of the Welsh language , which Tolkien had learned, is summarized in his essay English and Welsh : "If I may once more refer to my work. The Lord of the Rings, in evidence: the names of persons and places in this story were mainly composed on patterns deliberately modelled on those of Welsh closely similar but not identical.
This element in the tale has given perhaps more pleasure to more readers than anything else in it. Tolkien included neither any explicit religion nor cult in his work. Rather the themes, moral philosophy, and cosmology of The Lord of the Rings reflect his Catholic worldview.
In one of his letters Tolkien states, "The Lord of the Rings is of course a fundamentally religious and Catholic work; unconsciously so at first, but consciously in the revision.
That is why I have not put in, or have cut out, practically all references to anything like 'religion', to cults or practices, in the imaginary world.
For the religious element is absorbed into the story and the symbolism. This shows in such names as "Underhill", and the description of Saruman's industrialization of Isengard and The Shire. It has also been suggested that The Shire and its surroundings were based on the countryside around Stonyhurst College in Lancashire where Tolkien frequently stayed during the s.
After Milton Waldman, his contact at Collins, expressed the belief that The Lord of the Rings itself "urgently wanted cutting", Tolkien eventually demanded that they publish the book in Tolkien did not like the title The Return of the King, believing it gave away too much of the storyline, but deferred to his publisher's preference. Tolkien was initially opposed to titles being given to each two-book volume, preferring instead the use of book titles: e. The Lord of the Rings: Vol.
However these individual book titles were later scrapped, and after pressure from his publishers, Tolkien initially suggested the titles: Vol. Wollheim , science fiction editor of the paperback publisher Ace Books , claimed that The Lord of the Rings was not protected in the United States under American copyright law because Houghton Mifflin, the US hardcover publisher, had neglected to copyright the work in the United States. Tolkien took issue with this and quickly notified his fans of this objection.
Tolkien undertook various textual revisions to produce a version of the book that would be published with his consent and establish an unquestioned US copyright. On September 4, , the novel debuted on New York Times' Paperback Bestsellers list as number three, and was number one by December 4, a position it held for eight weeks.
Hammond and Christina Scull, under supervision from Christopher Tolkien, studied and revised the text to eliminate as many errors and inconsistencies as possible, some of which had been introduced by well-meaning compositors of the first printing in , and never been corrected.
Further corrections were added to the 60th Anniversary Edition in Posthumous publication of drafts[ edit ] From to Christopher Tolkien published the surviving drafts of The Lord of The Rings, chronicling and illuminating with commentary the stages of the text's development, in volumes 6—9 of his History of Middle-earth series.
Main article: Translations of The Lord of the Rings The novel has been translated, with various degrees of success, into at least 56 languages. The — release of the Lord of the Rings film trilogy saw a surge of interest in The Lord of the Rings and Tolkien's other works.
The Lord of the Rings
The back story begins thousands of years before the action in the book, with the rise of the eponymous Lord of the Rings, the Dark Lord Sauron , a malevolent reincarnated deity who possessed great supernatural powers and who later became the ruler of the dreaded realm of Mordor. At the end of the First Age of Middle-earth, Sauron survived the catastrophic defeat and chaining of his lord, the ultimate Dark Lord , Morgoth Bauglir who was formerly counted as one of the Vala , the angelic Powers of the world.
During the Second Age , Sauron schemed to gain dominion over Middle-earth. In the disguise as "Annatar" or Lord of Gifts , he aided Celebrimbor and other Elven-smiths of Eregion in the forging of magical rings which confer various powers and effects on their wearers.
The most important of these were The Nine, the seven an the three which he did not touch or know of the three. However, he then secretly forged a Great Ring of his own, the One Ring , by which he planned to enslave the wearers of the other Rings of Power. This plan failed when the Elves became aware of him and took off their Rings. Sauron then launched a war during which he captured sixteen and distributed them to lords and kings of Dwarves and Men; these Rings were known as the Seven and the Nine respectively.
The Dwarf-lords proved too tough to enslave although their natural desire for wealth, especially gold, increased; this brought more conflict between them and other races.
The Three Sauron failed to capture, and remained in the possession of the Elves who forged these independently. He arrived in Middle-earth with such overwhelming force that Sauron's armies flee at the sight of them. He did this by corrupting the King's mind, telling him that the immortality of the Elves was his to take if he set foot upon the lands of Aman , the Blessed Realm , where Valinor , the realm of the Valar, was located.
However, upon reaching Aman, he and his army were buried by a landslide, and there they would remain until the Final Battle in Tolkien's eschatology.
After seven years of siege, Sauron himself was ultimately forced to engage in single combat with the leaders. Gil-galad and Elendil perished as they combat Sauron, and Elendil's sword, Narsil , broke beneath him. However, Sauron's body was also overcome and slain,  and Isildur cut the One Ring from Sauron's hand with the hilt-shard of Narsil, and at this Sauron's spirit flees and does not reappear in his terrible form for many centuries.
Isildur was advised to destroy the One Ring by the only way it could be — by casting it into the volcanic Mount Doom where it was forged — but he refused, attracted to its beauty and kept it as compensation for the deaths of his father and brother weregild. So began the Third Age of Middle-earth.
Two years later, while journeying to Rivendell , Isildur and his soldiers were ambushed by a band of Orcs at what was eventually called the Disaster of the Gladden Fields. While the latter were almost all killed, Isildur escaped by putting on the Ring — which made mortal wearers invisible.
However, the Ring slipped from his finger while he was swimming in the great River Anduin ; he was killed by Orc-arrows and the Ring was lost for two millennia.
He fled to the Misty Mountains where he slowly withered and became a disgusting, slimy creature called Gollum. In The Hobbit , set 60 years before the events in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien relates the story of the seemingly accidental finding of the Ring by another hobbit, Bilbo Baggins , who takes it to his home, Bag End. Story-externally, the tale related in The Hobbit was written before The Lord of the Rings , and it was only later that the author developed Bilbo's magic ring into the "One Ring.
Middle-earth during the Third Age. The Lord of the Rings takes up the story about 60 years after the end of The Hobbit. The story begins in the first volume, The Fellowship of the Ring , when Frodo Baggins , Bilbo's adoptive heir, came into possession of Bilbo's magic ring.
Bilbo's old friend, Gandalf the Grey , who got Bilbo involved in the adventures in The Hobbit that led to the discovery of the Ring, discovered that it was in fact the One Ring , the instrument of Sauron's power and the object for which the Dark Lord has been searching for most of the Third Age, and which corrupted others with desire for it and the power it held. Sauron sent the sinister Ringwraiths, in the guise of riders in black, to the Shire , Frodo's native land, in search of the Ring.
While Fatty acted as decoy for the Ringwraiths, Frodo and the others set off to take the Ring to the Elven haven of Rivendell. They were aided by the enigmatic Tom Bombadil , who saved them from Old Man Willow and took them in for a few days of feasting, rest, and counsel. Aragorn led the hobbits to Rivendell on Gandalf's request.
However, Frodo was gravely wounded by the leader of the Ringwraiths, though he managed to recover under the care of the Half-elven lord Elrond. A high council , attended by representatives of the major races of Middle-earth; Elves, Dwarves, and Men, and presided over by Elrond, decide that the only course of action that can save Middle-earth is to destroy the Ring by taking it to Mordor and casting it into Mount Doom , where it was forged.
Their journey took them through the Mines of Moria , where they were being followed by the wretched creature Gollum , whom Bilbo had met in the Goblin-caves of the Misty Mountains years before. The full tale of their meeting is told in The Hobbit. Gollum long possessed the Ring before it passed to Bilbo. Gandalf explained that Gollum belonged to a people "of hobbit-kind" before he came upon the Ring, which corrupted him.
A slave to the Ring's evil power, Gollum desperately sought to regain his "Precious. Gandalf battled a giant subterranean demon, the Balrog , and fell into a deep chasm, apparently to his death. Here, the Lady Galadriel showed Frodo and Sam visions of the past, present, and future. Frodo also saw the Eye of Sauron , a metaphysical expression of Sauron himself, and Galadriel was tempted by the Ring.
By the end of the first volume, after the Fellowship has travelled along the great River Anduin , Frodo decided to continue the trek to Mordor on his own, largely due to the Ring's growing influence on Boromir; however, the faithful Sam insisted on going with him.
In the second volume, The Two Towers , a parallel story, told in the first book of the volume, details the exploits of the remaining members of the Fellowship who aided the country of Rohan in its war against the emerging evil of Saruman , leader of the Order of Wizards, who wanted the Ring for himself. At the start of the first book, the Fellowship was further scattered; Merry and Pippin were captured by Sauron and Saruman's orcs, Boromir was mortally wounded defending them, and Aragorn and the others went off in pursuit of their captors.
The three met Gandalf, who has returned to Middle-earth as "Gandalf the White": At the end of the first book, Gandalf, Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli helped defeat Saruman's armies at the Battle of the Hornburg while Saruman himself was cornered by the tree-like Ents and Huorns , accompanied by Merry and Pippin, who escaped from captivity, and the two groups' paths crossed.
The second book of the volume tells of Frodo and Sam's exploits on the way to Mount Doom. They managed to capture and "tame" Gollum, who then showed them a way to enter Mordor secretly as opposed to the Black Gate , albeit through the dreaded realm of Minas Morgul. At the end of the volume, Gollum betrayed Frodo to the great spider, Shelob , and though he survived, he was captured by Orcs.
Meanwhile, Sauron launched an all-out military assault upon Middle-earth, with the Witch-king leader of the Ringwraiths leading a fell host from Minas Morgul into battle against Gondor , in the War of the Ring. In the third volume, The Return of the King , the further adventures of Gandalf, Aragorn and company are related in the first book of the volume, while Frodo and Sam's are related in the second, as with The Two Towers.
As told in the first book, the Fellowship assisted in the final battles against the armies of Sauron, including the siege of the tower-city of Minas Tirith in Gondor and the climactic life-or-death battle before the Black Gate of Mordor, where the alliance of Gondor and Rohan fought desperately against Sauron's armies in order to distract him from the Ring, hoping to gain time for Frodo to destroy it.
In the second book, Sam rescued Frodo from captivity. After much struggle, they finally reached Mount Doom itself, tailed by Gollum.
Novel The Lord Of The Rings Full Trilogi
However, the temptation of the Ring proved too great for Frodo and he claimed it for himself. However, Gollum struggled with him and managed to bite the Ring off. Crazed with triumph, Gollum slipped into the fires of the mountain, and the Ring was destroyed. Finally, Sauron was defeated, and Aragorn was crowned king.
However, all was not over, for Saruman managed to escape and scour the Shire before being overthrown. At the end, Frodo remained wounded in body and spirit and went west accompanied by Bilbo over the Sea to Valinor, where he could find peace. According to Tolkien's timeline , the events depicted in the story occurred between Bilbo's announcement of his September 22, birthday party , and Sam's re-arrival to Bag End on October 6, Most of the events portrayed in the story occur in and , with Frodo heading out from Bag End on September 23 , and the destruction of the Ring six months later on March 25 , The Lord of the Rings was started as a sequel to The Hobbit , a fantasy story that Tolkien had written for, and read to, his children, which was published in The story would not be finished until 12 years later, in , and it would not be fully published until , by which time Tolkien was 63 years old.
Tolkien did not originally intend to write a sequel to The Hobbit, and instead wrote several other children's tales, including Roverandom. As his main work, Tolkien began to outline the history of Arda , telling tales of the Silmarils , and many other stories of how the races and situations that we read about in the Lord of the Rings came to be.
Tolkien died before he could complete and put together this work, today known as The Silmarillion , but his son Christopher Tolkien edited his father's work, filled in gaps, and published it in As a result The Lord of the Rings ended up as the last movement of Tolkien's legendarium and in his own as a "much larger, and I hope also in proportion the best, of the entire cycle".
Persuaded by his publishers, he started 'a new Hobbit' in December The idea of the first chapter A Long-Expected Party arrived fully-formed, although the reasons behind Bilbo's disappearance, the significance of the Ring, and the title The Lord of the Rings did not arrive until the spring of Thus he looked for an alternate character to carry the ring. In Greek legend, it was a hero's nephew that gained the item of power, and so the hobbit Frodo came into existence.
Writing was slow due to Tolkien's perfectionism, and was frequently interrupted by his obligations as an examiner, and other academic duties. The first sentence of The Hobbit was in fact written on a blank page which a student had left on an exam paper which Tolkien was marking — "In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit. Lewis — the former would be sent copies of chapters as they were written while he was serving in Africa in the Royal Air Force.
He made another push in , and showed a copy of the manuscript to his publishers in After his contact at Collins, Milton Waldman, expressed the belief that The Lord of the Rings itself "urgently needed cutting", he eventually demanded that they publish the book in They did not do so, and so Tolkien wrote to Allen and Unwin, saying "I would gladly consider the publication of any part of the stuff.
For publication, due largely to post-war paper shortages, but also to keep the price of the first volume down, the book was divided into three volumes: The Fellowship of the Ring: Books V and VI plus 6 appendices. Delays in producing appendices, maps and especially indices led to these being published later than originally hoped — on 21 July , 11 November and 20 October respectively in the United Kingdom, slightly later in the United States.
The Return of the King was especially delayed. Tolkien, moreover, did not especially like the title The Return of the King , believing it gave away too much of the storyline. He had originally suggested War of the Ring , which was dismissed by his publishers. The books were published under a 'profit-sharing' arrangement, whereby Tolkien would not receive an advance or royalties until the books had broken even, after which he would take a large share of the profits. An index to the entire 3-volume set at the end of third volume was promised in the first volume.
However, this proved impractical to compile in a reasonable timescale. Later, in , four indices, not compiled by Tolkien, were added to The Return of the King. Because the three-volume binding was so widely distributed, the work is often referred to as the Lord of the Rings "trilogy. Auden, Tolkien himself made use of the term "trilogy" for the work The Letters of J.
Tolkien , though he did at other times consider this incorrect, as it was written and conceived as a single book Letters, It is also often called a novel ; however, Tolkien also objected to this term as he viewed it as a romance Letters, ; "romance" in this sense refers to a heroic tale.
The letters of Tolkien appeared on the spines of the boxed set which included a CD.
To coincide with the film release, a new version of this popular edition was released featuring images from the films, such as:. The individual names for books in this series were decided posthumously, based on a combination of suggestions Tolkien had made during his lifetime and the titles of the existing volumes — viz:. They have since been reissued many times by multiple publishers, as one, three, six or seven volume sets. In the early s, Donald A. Wollheim, science fiction editor of the paperback publisher Ace Books, realized that The Lord of the Rings was not protected in the United States under American copyright law because the US hardcover edition had been bound from pages printed in the United Kingdom, with the original intention being for them to be printed in the British edition.
Ace Books proceeded to publish an edition, unauthorized by Tolkien and without royalties to him. Tolkien took issue with this and quickly notified his fans of this objection. Grass-roots pressure from these fans became so great that Ace books withdrew their edition and made a nominal payment to Tolkien, well below what he might have been due in an appropriate publication. However, this poor beginning was overshadowed when an authorized edition followed from Ballantine Books to tremendous commercial success.
By the mids the books, due to their wide exposure on the American public stage, had become a true cultural phenomenon. Also at this time Tolkien undertook various textual revisions to produce a version of the book that would have a valid US copyright.
The books have been translated, with various degrees of success, into dozens of other languages.In the evening, Frodo has a dream about Gandalf standing on the pinnacle of a tower and then a vision of a rain curtain in front of a ship on which he is sailing. The current ISBN is Pdf novel-the-hobbit-bahasa-indonesia. From to Christopher Tolkien published the surviving drafts of The Lord of The Rings , chronicling and illuminating with commentary the stages of the text's development, in volumes 6—9 of his History of Middle-earth series.
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