This renowned classic provides unparalleled coverage of manual muscle testing, plus evaluation and treatment of faulty and painful postural conditions. Download Read Muscles: Testing and Function, with Posture and Pain (Kendall, Muscles) | Ebook PDF Free Download Here. Book Details Author: Florence Peterson Kendall,Elizabeth Kendall McCreary,Patricia Geise Provance,Mary McIntyre Rodgers,William Anthony Romani Pages: Publisher: LWW Brand: English ISBN: Publication Date: Release Date: This renowned classic provides.

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Your buttocks and shoulder blades should touch the wall. There should be less than 2 inches between your neck or small of the back and the wall.

A larger gap indicates bad posture and a curving spine. When sitting, keep your head straight and not tilted up or down. Keep your shoulders back and try to relax. Sit with your knees slightly lower than your hips. Keep your feet flat on the floor. When standing, keep your shoulders back and aligned. Use your stomach muscles to keep your body straight. Slightly bend your knees to ease pressure on the hips, and use quality shoes that offer good support.

Instead, try to keep your chest perpendicular to the ground. When walking, keep your chin parallel to the ground and hit the ground with your heel first, then roll onto the toe. These unfortunate circumstances, coupled with the enthusiasm generated when a method is discovered that can potentially justify otherwise empirical procedures, enhance the chance for intrusion into clinical investigations of "expectancy" and "operator prejudice. The ideomotor effect the unconscious and inadvertent cueing of desired responses will also be prevented if examiners follow standardized protocols that specify patient and examiner position, the precise alignment of the muscle being tested, proper timing of the MMT, the direction of the resisting force applied to the patient, and the verbal instruction or demonstration to the patient [ 29 ].

The use of the MMT demands rigorous attention to every detail that might affect the accuracy of the test. The examiner must develop the ability to apply pressure or resistance in a manner that permits the subject to exert the optimal response — these factors are part of the science and the art of MMT.

In an effort to heighten the awareness of accuracy in muscle testing and increase the amount of reproducible new clinical material, this paper deals with some of the most common mistakes that have been adopted in the use of the MMT and how they are improperly performed and misinterpreted.

Future clinical and research activity using the MMT should adhere to the principles described in this paper.

Rationale — why MMT? The technique of MMT began with Lovett in [ 2 , 13 ]. A system for grading the strength of postural muscles using the MMT for disability evaluation in polio and other neuromuscular diseases was presented by the Kendalls in , with the first text based on this work published in [ 13 ]. Kendall and Kendall's second book was called Posture and Pain , and it was already realized that the theoretical construct of the MMT should be expanded far beyond the "polio syndromes" that the MMT was originally designed to evaluate [ 12 ].

Using the detailed records from 12, cases they state, "The importance of muscle testing in cases of postural disorders cannot be over-emphasized. These researchers have also demonstrated that functional pathology of the muscle system is the most common clinical finding in pain patients presenting to chiropractors, osteopaths, neurologists, rheumatologists, orthopedists, and physical therapists.

Yet this disorder of the muscle system is routinely ignored in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. The diagnosis of muscular imbalance with the MMT may offer clinicians a method for discovering where functional pathologies of the locomotor system exist and which ones are the most clinically significant.

Methods for the objective evaluation of the effects of neuromuscular impairment and the measurement of changes in neuromuscular functioning must be developed in parallel with advances in therapy, and the MMT may be a tool for measuring this.

There is now evidence that impaired strength of specific muscles occurs in close relationship with the development of specific joint dysfunction, inflammation, or injury. The evidence shows that inflammation or injury specifically in the ankle [ 37 ], knee [ 38 , 39 , 40 ], lumbar spine [ 41 , 42 , 43 ], temporomandibular joint [ 44 ], and cervical spine [ 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 ] will produce inhibited muscles.

These studies highlight the fact that the measurement of neuromuscular performance could be recognized as a fundamental contribution to restorative and rehabilitative treatment programs.

There is also evidence that there is an immediate effect upon the motor system both locally and globally after chiropractic manipulative therapy CMT [ 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55 ]. Dishman et al has shown this year that spinal manipulative procedures lead to an increase in central motor excitability rather than overall inhibition.

The use of CMT for the correction of motor deficits found in symptomatic patients is the rationale for most of the systems of manual therapy that employ the MMT [ 1 , 5 ]. These studies support the concept that a close relationship and mutual influence exist between joints, soft tissue, muscles and the nervous system.

Neglect of any one of these areas may lessen our diagnostic as well as therapeutic possibilities. For this reason the addition of the MMT into standard chiropractic diagnostic methods for the diagnosis of muscle inhibitions may be useful. According to Janda [ 33 ], the four most typical types of functional muscle weakness that may be detected with the MMT are as follows: 1. Tightness weakness develops when a muscle is chronically shortened and eventually loses strength.

Janda has reported that even when a muscle appears to be tight or stiff, some decrease in muscle strength occurs. Brooks confirms that chronically contracted muscles are weaker than muscles with a normal length [ 57 ]. Leahy says it simply: "When a muscle is tight it tends to weaken and when a muscle is weak it tends to be tight" [ 58 ].

Stretch weakness occurs if a muscle is perpetually placed in a lengthened position so that the muscle spindles become desensitized to stretch [ 59 ]. Arthrogenic weakness occurs when nociceptive afferent barrage from a joint or ligament causes reflex inhibition.

Examples include the vastus medialis after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament or meniscus, or gluteus maximus weakness when a sacroiliac dysfunction is present [ 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 59 , 60 ].

Finally, trigger point weakness occurs when a muscle cannot fully activate all its contractile fibers because of the presence of a trigger point. Headley and Simons both report muscle inhibition during movement when trigger points are present [ 61 , 62 ]. These data indicate that the body's reaction to injury and pain is not primarily increased muscular tension and stiffness; rather muscle inhibition is often more significant [ 31 , 32 , 63 ].

Because of Sherrington's Law of Reciprocal Inhibition, these two functional states in muscles are related [ 64 ]. Sherrington's law states that decreased activity of certain muscles leads to facilitation — and thus increased activity and tension — of their antagonist muscles. Lund suggests that the pain-spasm-pain model should be overturned and replaced with the pain-adaptation model to explain these muscle weaknesses [ 65 ].

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He reviewed articles describing motor function in five chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions temporomandibular disorders, muscle tension headache, fibromyalgia, chronic lower back pain, and post-exercise muscle soreness. Students can rotate the model and add or subtract layers of anatomy to strengthen their knowledge.

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Muscles Testing and Function

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Jun 28, Tameca rated it it was amazing Shelves: I just perused this book at my Massage Therapy Internship. The information contained here is the link I have been looking for to bridge my knowledge between massage therapy and yoga teacher training.

The language of this book is clear even when very detailed information is relayed. The illustrations and photographs are placed side by I just perused this book at my Massage Therapy Internship. The illustrations and photographs are placed side by side.

I look forward to finding this book again and studying it as it will help me make sense of certain issues for clients, such as how to stretch the iliopsoas without compounding any lower back issues, or how to stretch the IT band, despite the hamstrings or other leg muscles getting in the way.

The information contained in this text book is more than practical and easily applied. It surpasses in my book Stretching Anatomy and Yoga Anatomy for the needs that I am beginning to have fulfilled in order to help my clients, even when they are not having a massage session with me.

View 1 comment.Exercise can also strengthen muscles, which help hold your body in the correct position. Format Paperback. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Goodheart's and the I.

This can cause vertebrae to deteriorate over time. The information contained here is the link I have been looking for to bridge my knowledge between massage therapy and yoga teacher training. These studies support the concept that a close relationship and mutual influence exist between joints, soft tissue, muscles and the nervous system.

A new assessment protocol that may help diagnose neuromusculoskeletal dysfunction before it becomes chronic could significantly aid health care practitioners.

Shelves: partially-read , wishlist I just perused this book at my Massage Therapy Internship. The lens of the camera was set at the height of the participant's shoulder.

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