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Modern Indian History In Marathi Pdf

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Gaikwad, and some others in , stated that Maratha associations have submitted proofs and petitions to be included in the Other Backward Class.

Today several small but significant communities descended from these emigrants live in the north, south and west of India. These descendant communities tend often to speak the local languages, although many also speak Marathi in addition. You can help by adding to it.

Education of all other castes and communities was very limited and consisted of listening to stories from religious texts like the Puranas or to Kirtans. The artisan castes were intermediate in terms of literacy.

Modern India

For all castes, men were more literate than the women from that caste respectively. Female literacy as well as English literacy showed the same pattern among castes. Data compiled by the Maratha Kranti Morcha members showed that the expenditure incurred by an average low income and poor Maratha family has doubled in the last 10 years when it comes to dowry.

A member said in , "The dowry amount ranges from Rs 7 lakh to Rs 50 lakh, depending on the profession of the groom. Even in the remote villages, a small and marginal farmer spends Rs 2 lakh to Rs 3.

Dowry has now attained a status symbol in the community and that is part of the issue. Neela Dabir conducted her research on widows in Maharashtra by dividing them into three groups. The second group consisted of women from the Maratha caste and the third group was all others.

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She concluded that the Brahmins, CKPs and Saraswats who had similar "family norms" of following the higher caste Hindu rituals and traditions, discouraged widow remarriage.

Although the marathas were politically dominant in the 20th century, they did not prohibit widow remarriage due to their ritualistic norms. The widows from the three castes Saraswat,CKP, Brahmin had to join Ashrams in large proportions whereas the widows from Maratha and other Hindu castes did not generally face such distress in their life in the 20th century.

She quotes about the devotion of the Marathas in the 19th century to Mhasoba as follows: You will not find a single family among the Marathas who do not set up in the grounds around their village some stone or other in the name of Mhasoba, smear it with red lead , and offer incense to it; who without taking Mhasoba's name will not put his hand to the seed-box of the plough, will not put the harrow to the field, and will not put the measure to the heap of threshed corn on the threshing floor.

Tukaram wrote over abhangs or devotional songs. Although the rulers were Muslims, the local feudal landlords and the revenue collectors were Hindus and so was the majority of the population. Political expediency made it important for the sultans to make use of Marathi. Nevertheless, Marathi in official documents from the era is totally persianised in its vocabulary.

Under Shivaji, the language used in administrative documents became less persianised.

He advocated the unity of Marathas to propagate Maharashtra dharma. Subsequent Maratha rulers extended the empire northwards to Attock , eastwards to Odisha , and southwards to Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu.

These excursions by the Marathas helped to spread Marathi over broader geographical regions.

Ancient Indian History Objective Questions and Answers for Competitive Exams

This period also saw the use of Marathi in transactions involving land and other business. Documents from this period, therefore, give a better picture of the life of common people.

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There are a lot of Bakharis written in Marathi and Modi script from this period. But by the late 18th century, the Maratha Empire's influence over a large part of the country was on the decline. Krishnadayarnava and Sridhar were poets during the Peshwa period.

New literary forms were successfully experimented with during the period and classical styles were revived, especially the Mahakavya and Prabandha forms. The most important hagiographies of Varkari Bhakti saints was written by Mahipati in the 18th Century. He is most known for translating the Mahabharata and the Ramayana in Marathi but only a part of the Mahabharata translation is available and the entire Ramayana translation is lost.

Shridhar Kulkarni came from the Pandharpur area and his works are said to have superseded the Sanskrit epics to a certain extent. This period also saw the development of Powada ballads sung in honor of warriors , and Lavani romantic songs presented with dance and instruments like tabla. Carey's dictionary had fewer entries and Marathi words were in Devanagari. Translations of the Bible were first books to be printed in Marathi. These translations by William Carey, the American Marathi mission and the Scottish missionaries led to the development of a peculiar pidginized Marathi called the "Missionary Marathi in early s [42] The most comprehensive Marathi-English dictionary was compiled by Captain James Thomas Molesworth and Major Thomas Candy in The book is still in print nearly two centuries after its publication.

They used Brahmins of Pune for this task and adopted the Sanskrit dominated dialect spoken by the elite in the city as the standard dialect for Marathi. First Marathi periodical Dirghadarshan was started in The Marathi language flourished, as Marathi drama gained popularity.

Musicals known as Sangeet Natak also evolved[ citation needed ]. Keshavasut , the father of modern Marathi poetry published his first poem in The lateth century in Maharashtra saw the rise of essayist Vishnushastri Chiplunkar with his periodical, Nibandhmala that had essays that criticized social reformers like Phule and Gopal Hari Deshmukh.

Phule and Deshmukh also started their own periodicals, Deenbandhu and Prabhakar, that criticised the prevailing Hindu culture of the day.

Notable grammarians of this period were Tarkhadkar , A. Kher, Moro Keshav Damle, and R.

Joshi [51] The first half of the 20th century was marked by new enthusiasm in literary pursuits, and socio-political activism helped achieve major milestones in Marathi literature , drama, music and film[ citation needed ].

Modern Marathi prose flourished through various new literary forms like the essay, biographies, novels, prose, drama, etc.

Khandekar , Vinayak Damodar Savarkar 's nationalist literature and plays of Mama Varerkar and Kirloskar are particularly worth noting. Marathi since Indian independence[ edit ] The popular Marathi language newspapers at a newsstand in Mumbai, After Indian independence , Marathi was accorded the status of a scheduled language on the national level.

In , the then Bombay state was reorganized which brought most Marathi and Gujarati speaking areas under one state.

Further re-organization of the Bombay state on May 1, , created the Marathi speaking Maharashtra and Gujarati speaking Gujarat state respectively. With state and cultural protection, Marathi made great strides by the s. Both events are very popular among Marathi speakers. Notable works in Marathi in the latter half of 20th century include Khandekar's Yayati , which won him the Jnanpith Award.Dowry has now attained a status symbol in the community and that is part of the issue.

Although the number of dialects is considerable, the degree of intelligibility within these dialects is relatively high. She states that Maratha, Kunbi and Mali are the three main farming communities of Maharashtra - the difference being that the marathas and Kunbis were "dry farmers" whereas the Mali farmed throughout the year.

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Notable grammarians of this period were Tarkhadkar , A. Marathi, the language spoken. India s Struggle for Independence By Bipin. Forensic medicine— Essentials of Forensic medicine and Toxicology by Dr. This section does not cite any sources.

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