ONE. INDIAN. GIRL. Chetan Bhagat is the author of six bestselling TIME magazine named him as one of the most influ. Full text of "Metaphysical Bible Dictionary Charles Fillmore" .. The meaning of Abishag, with the history of her as given in the Bible, reveals her as being. This one-of-a-kind volume presents the esoteric meanings of names and people, places, key words, and phrases found in the Bible. The ideas.
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Free PDF | Metaphysical Bible Dictionary By Charles Fillmore. Overview. This one-of-a-kind volume presents the esoteric meanings of names and people. This Metaphysical Bible Dictionary is offered by the Unity School of Christianity to meet a very definite demand, on the part of Bible students and of. 3 The Metaphysical Stephen. 5. 4 Acts of the Apostles – Chapters 1 to 7. 5 Exercise #1: Using The Metaphysical Bible Dictionary. 6 The Metaphysical.
We fall asleep, curled about ourselves.
To put it succinctly, consciousness, with its moods and activity, begins and ends with itself. It awakens, acts, and falls asleep. The question of transcendence continues in these middle-period essays. The partial transcendences of pleasure and voluptuosity, sketched in , receive a fuller development and variations.
The Philosophical Works of David Humes as an audiobook, listen here:
As to the son, he is myself and not-myself, Levinas will say. The open future of the family responds to two significant limits imposed on human knowledge and representation: death and the other person. Hence he will qualify it as a radical alterity; the same sort of alterity as that which the other human being presents me.
Against these enigmas, every mode of comprehension runs aground. For this reason, Levinas insists that death is really the impossibility of all our possibilities.
The other person is an event I can neither predict nor control. Two reversals should be noted relative to First, against Hegel's conception of work as the dialectic of spirit transforming nature and nature naturalizing labor , Levinas describes labor phenomenologically as effort and fatigue,[ 19 ] highlighting the divergence between embodied self and the intending ego.
The second reversal concerns moods themselves. All of these open Dasein to being and the world. In his middle period, Levinas also addresses our openness to the world, privileging it over questions of Being. However, instead of adumbrating revelatory moods, Levinas has recourse to bodily states like fatigue, indolence, and insomnia, in which the gap between self and I is clearest. Themes of joy and love of life appear in regard to the world, because the world is now understood as light.
But this, too, is part of Levinas's counter-project to Heidegger, for whom our concern for the world coexists with instrumentalist relationships with it: entities in the world are as if on display, at the reach of the hand; tools are used like material.
It is worth recalling that light figured as the very heart of Husserl's phenomenological intuition. In Existence and Existents, the emotions characteristic of being in a world of light are desire and sincerity, not Heidegger's care and circumspection.
We see at work, here, a significant rethinking of the transcendental-anthropological distinction expressed as a priori and a posteriori. Being, as we noted, also is dark indeterminacy. Having suspended the binaries of de facto inside and outside as part of his own phenomenological bracketing,[ 21 ] Levinas will approach this indeterminacy not as objectivity, but as something revealed through mood.
Whether it is the dark indeterminacy that besets the insomniac self, or whether it is the rustling of nocturnal space, Being's dark aspect horrifies us. And it is not revealed through mere anxiety. Nevertheless, it is a beginning. Insomniac and in the throes of horror, the hypostasis falls asleep. Or again, it lights a light and reassembles its consciousness. But the il y a gives the lie to the question: Why is there Being instead of simply nothing?
Nothing, as pure absence, may be thinkable, but it is unimaginable. Indeterminate Being fills in all the gaps, all the temporal intervals, while consciousness arises from it in an act of self-originating concentration. This is the first sketch of Being as totality. It hearkens to a call that comes not from neutral Being but from the Other. The stage is thus set for Totality and Infinity's elaborate analyses of world, facticity, time as now-moment, transcendence in immanence, and transcendence toward future fecundity.
For Levinas, to escape deontology and utility, ethics must find its ground in an experience that cannot be integrated into logics of control, prediction, or manipulation. That is, it cannot step outside the totalizing logics of metaphysical systems, without supposing them or restoring them.
There is no formal bridge, for Levinas, between practical and pure reason. Philosophy in the twentieth century Heidegger, the Frankfurt School, deconstruction has shown, at least, that the universality of concepts and the necessity carried by transcendental arguments are simply not sufficient to prevent the triumph of ends-rationality and instrumentalization.
Ethics is therefore either an affair of inserting particulars into abstract scenarios, or ethics itself speaks out of particularity about the first human particularity: the face-to-face relationship. For much Jewish thought after Kant, the ethical message of the biblical prophets held a dignity equal to the justice aimed at in Jewish law.
Levinas carries this insight into phenomenology, starting with a relationship that is secular, yet non-finite not conceptually limitable , because it continuously opens past the immediacy of its occurring, toward a responsibility that repeats and increases as it repeats.
The new framework of transcendence as human responsibility involves an extensive exploration of the face-to-face relationship, and it opens onto questions of social existence and justice. Finally, Levinas approaches to Being more polemically as exteriority. We will examine these themes in what follows. Levinas again reframes labor, less as mastery and humanization of nature, and more as the creation of a store of goods with which an other can be welcomed.
Thanks to his joy in living and his creation of a home, the human being is able to give and to receive the other into his space. On the basis of these descriptions, transcendence comes to pass in several stages. Second, in accounting for itself, the subject approached by the other engages the first act of dialogue. Out of this, discourse eventually arises. The unfolding of discourse carries a trace of ethical investiture and self-accounting, and may become conversation and teaching.
As the breadth of dialogical engagement expands, the trace of the encounter with the other becomes attenuated; and this, to the point where the meaning of justice poses a question.
Is the essence of justice the reparation of wrongs; is it disinterested equity, or is it the interest of the stronger? Because justice is clearly all these things, it constitutes a kind of pivot between the mechanism evident in Being and the supererogatory gesture of responsibility.
Levinas's logic unfolds up to the question of justice and then takes an unanticipated tack. In the family, election by the father and service to the brothers, set forth a justice more decisively conditioned by face-to-face responsibility than the justice of the State could ever be.
Because Being is accepted in its Hobbesian character as mechanistic causality and competition, human time will not be situated firstly in social time with the invention of clocks and calendars.
History, too, seems to be a history of metaphysicians: Levinas describes history as violence, punctuated by extremes of war and annihilation. However, an alternative history, in which the wrongs done to particulars can be attested, is envisionable. It will not be recorded in a history of the State. It was like the time of ritual participation in dream worlds, as observed by French ethnographers.
For Levinas, time will consist in two axes: 1 the flowing synthesis of now moments, Husserl's structure of transcendental consciousness; 2 and a peculiar kind of interruption that Levinas will call the event of transcendence.
Transcendence is, above all, relational: it is a human affair. An event should be characterized as a force that introduces a decisive break into the historical status quo and redirects it in function of its own magnitude. The encounter with the other person, so far as it is an event, merely inflects history or leaves a trace in it. But this is not the history found in the textbooks.
It is more like a history of isolated acts or human ideals justice, equity, critique, self-sacrifice. Transcendence in Levinas is lived and factical. How could transcendence be factical? That is, transcendence, understood as the face-to-face relation, lives from our everyday enjoyment and desire even as it precedes these. Human existence, as sensibility, is full and creative, before it is instrumentalist or utilitarian.
From enjoying the elements to constructing a home, human existence is never solipsistic. Our life with others is never a flight from a more resolute stance toward our reason for being our mortality.
We are always already in social relations; more importantly, we have always already been impacted by the expression of a living other. Because this impact is affective, because transcendence is not conceptualizable, we forget the force the other's expression has on us. We therefore carry on, in our respective worlds, motivated by our desire for mastery and control. Nevertheless, desire in Totality and Infinity always proves to be double.
There is a naturalistic desire, subject to imperatives of consumption and enjoyment. This desire is coextensive with the exercise of our concrete freedom. And there is a desire that comes to light in the failure of our will to mastery. This failure of the will is experienced in the face-to-face encounter. The other's face is not an object, Levinas argues.
It is pure expression; expression affects me before I can begin to reflect on it. And the expression of the face is dual: it is command and summons. Each one lacks something essential to its existence: spouse, parents, home. It is as summons that we see expression precipitating transcendence.
In other words, if I am self-sufficient in my everyday cognition and my instrumental activities, then that is because I am a being that inhabits overlapping worlds in which my sway is decisive for me. The approach of the other person halts the dynamism of my cognitive and practical sway.
Passive resistance inflects my freedom toward an affective mood already explored in shame. Of course, Levinas's descriptions are presented under phenomenological bracketing, so this is not a philosophy of moral feeling or a psychology of empathy. It is impossible to set up a linear logic of priority between Being and the Good beyond Being. For humans, the Good comes to pass, as if trivially, in that responsibility and generosity are perceivable in human affairs.
Cruelty and competition are also readily discerned. The two moments in the philosophical tradition in which the irreducible value of the Good has been pinpointed are, for Levinas, Plato's Idea of the Good, and Descartes's Idea of Infinity, which points beyond itself to an unknowable cause. It may be that insisting that the Good is prior to, rather than just beyond, Being, is necessary to deconstructing Hegel's phenomenology of consciousnesses in struggle for recognition, that there are moments of inexplicable generosity, even occasional sacrifices for another person or group , is otherwise inexplicable within a logic of competing freedoms and reductive desires.
In that respect, the trace of the Good is always present within Being, as a possibility that something other than consumption or instrumentalization may take place. So far as Infinity has a positive sense, then it has the affective qualities of desire for sociality, and of joy. And sensibility consists of an indeterminate number of affectations, of which we become conscious only by turning our attention to them.
Like the embodied self, who suffocated within itself in in nausea , the self of sensibility is the locus of relationality and transcendence in The implication of this is radical. Whereas light and consciousness afforded Levinas the means by which to sublate the a priori-a posteriori distinction in , and therewith Heidegger's ontological difference between Being and beings, here, the everyday facticity of the face-to-face encounter destabilizes transcendental versus pragmatic distinctions.
Any philosophical translation of embodied concrete life must consider the human subject as it is constituted through relations with others in a simultaneous occurrence of particularization and loss of self. As we have seen, it is possible to envisage Being as existence by way of the concepts of willing and strife in Levinas. Certainly, the experience of the Shoah is reflected in this work, notably in the very anti-Heideggerian characterization of Being as constant presence. For Levinas, this Being has two modes of carrying on.
In nature, it is mechanism, drives, and linear causality. In , the State, no matter what period of its history we examine, decides questions of security and property, life and death.
This leaves the question of justice suspended between the moral responsiveness coming out of the face-to-face encounter, and the conflict of ontological forces.
Thus, Being is not an event per se. Levinas never addressed the question of whether an ethics could be derived from Heidegger's ontology. But it is clear that no thinking whose primary focus was on an openness toward the world, and a confrontation with one's mortality, afforded the means necessary for grasping the hidden meaning of consciousness, which begins in the double constitution of the subject by life and by the encounter with the Other.
For Levinas, Heidegger's philosophy was a thinking of the neuter, a recrudescent paganism that sacralized natural events and anonymous forces. Worse, it was a thinking that drew its inspiration from an ancient structure of temporality, Paul's kairos, which was the time of awaiting the messiah's return for the early Christian community.
If the evacuation of lived, religious content gave Heidegger access to a temporality more substantial than what was available to the neo-Kantian, formalist tradition, one question remained: How can one preserve the living source of human facticity while removing all connection to its contents?
Being carries on as continuous presence for Levinas. The face-to-face encounter inflects it toward the possibility of responsibility and hospitality. But an inflection does not mean a transformation. This inflection of Being also opens a course toward universality as ethical humanity rather than universality as politics. An inflection toward humanity is fragile, because it is continually absorbed by the rhetoric of political institutions. However, in , Levinas's inflection is best seen in the family.
How the responsibility and election experienced by fathers, sons, and brothers, passes into a larger history and public space remained a difficult question—probably best addressed through critique, witnessing, perhaps even limited demands for justice. Beginning with fecundity, in which the time of an individual life span is opened beyond its limits by one the son who is both the image of the father and other than he, the life of the family continues through election and responsibility enacted between parents and offspring—and between brothers.
This is illustrated by the fact that there are events and crimes that the son or grandson may pardon, whereas the father could not. However, the logic of fecundity-election-responsibility leaves the State and the family as two distinct human collectivities with nothing to mediate between their ontological and moral characteristics.
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Being, understood as existence in all its dimensions, may be modified, but not durably. Thus Being could be called absolute, were it not for the fragile interruption of transcendence and the persistence of its trace.
If family and State represent two irreconcilable instances in Levinas's thought, willing and ethical responsibility prove likewise irreconcilable. It must never be a matter of nature, even human nature. That excludes from transcendence not only an intentional component already bracketed by Levinas's phenomenology , but also anything like moral sentiments or innate capacities to be affected by the other. The non-violent force of the face as expression can be reduced neither to physical force nor to inertia.
In such a case, there would be no question of escaping the mechanistic order of Being. Thus the moment of address in the second person comes after the impact of the face as widow and as He. Moral height is thus not expressed in thou-saying; it is a third person relationship.
Here lies the point at which a reading begins that bridges the philosophical and the religious, particularly the Jewish dimension of Levinas's thought. It is and must remain a question too large for philosophy to know what explains the force of the other's expression.
Nothing explains it. There are, Levinas insists, objects behind their objects only in ages of penury. To say more than this is to return to the confidence that representation and conceptuality capture every aspect of meaning lived out in a human life. We will have more to say on this when we discuss time and transcendence in Otherwise than Being 5.
The central wager of Otherwise than Being is to express affectivity in its immediacy, with minimal conceptualization. Consequently, transcendence becomes transcendence-in-immanence before it is transcendence toward the other as untotalizable exteriority. Emphasizing the processual quality of Being, Levinas will now refer to it equivalently as Being or essence.
Responsibility will be focused more sharply as the condition of possibility of all signification. The themes of conversation and teaching recede into the background. A more strategic use of the body as flesh, that is, simultaneously an inside and outside locus, is evident. Subjectivity is now the coming to pass of responsibility itself.
That means that subjectivity is properly itself because it is regularly dispossessed of itself from within. The other has become other-in-the-same.
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But the other-in-the-same is not different from the factical other. It is that Levinas has returned to Husserl's investigation of transcendence-in-immanence and his phenomenology of the living present. The second chapter approaches Heidegger's theme of language as the way in which Being becomes, the way it temporalizes. Levinas adopts Heidegger's argument that the logos gathers up Being and makes it accessible to us.
But Levinas will argue that the lapse of time between lived immediacy and its representation cannot really be gathered by a logos. Therefore, the lapse poses a challenge to language itself and falls, much the way that transcendence did, outside the realm of Being as process. This is Levinas's ultimate critique of Heidegger, which passes through language rather than through Being itself.
The three most remarkable innovations of Otherwise than Being include: 1 The proposed phenomenological reduction to the birth of meaning in a self, carrying what is not itself the other, affectively.
This is a radicalization of Husserl's idealism, in which meaning arises thanks to the inner dialogue whose language is more rarefied than that composed of everyday signs.
If sensibility already played an important role in Totality and Infinity, sensibility will now be traced back to the density of the flesh itself.
And the flesh serves Levinas as his pre-consciousness, whose ontological meaning counts above all else. It can be likened to prophetic witness. It is as though Levinas were describing the affective investiture of a subject called to witness.
This is also the sense of the subject carrying more than it can express, and writhing under the constraints of that investiture. Chapters four and five of the work have a tone more somber than that of any work Levinas had written up to that point. If responsibility expresses the intersubjective genealogy of the affective subject—arising between Being and the Good—then this affective constitution will be called traumatic in OBBE, Affectivity is now expressed, above all, in light of suffering.
The lapse of time, irrecuperable to conceptual identification, will be expressed figuratively as the adverbial. The final half of chapter five recurs to the performative register of language to express the tension of consciousness striving to gather itself in the midst of the subject's affective divisions and its investiture by the other.
To be sure, there is an inevitable artificiality to presenting as immediacy what is already past. But this is a wager we also find in religious language's continuous revivification of the present. It is likewise a wager in Levinas's philosophical discourse; one ventured in the hope that hyperbole and strategic negations will convey a meaning that would otherwise disappear in predicative statements.
The final chapter of Otherwise than Being thus makes a transition out of philosophy into a certain lyricism, repetition, and bearing witness. It is Levinas's step toward the affective conditions of possibility of prophetic speech.
List of Christian movements
The ontological language also changes. The ways in which existence echoes in language is taken up resolutely. As in his discussion of need and nausea, the complex of sensibility and affectivity overflows representation, while providing an index to the Being that is our own being. Interwoven layers of affectivity are unfolded in Otherwise than Being. Remorse is the trope of the literal sense of sensibility.
We should recall that the spatial distinction between inside and outside falls as one effect of phenomenological bracketing. Faithful to the spirit of Husserl's phenomenology, Levinas suspends that distinction. Rather, it problematizes that more ontological approach. There is good reason for this. As we know, responsibility is an event that repeats. It even increases as it repeats, according to a logic of expanding significance.
That is why the question of immanence arises in regard to responsibility's enduring, and its rememoration. The status of a memory of sensuous events, which affect us before we can represent them, must frame sensibility as intrinsically meaningful, intrinsically beyond-itself.
But that implies that the sensuous meaning-event is vulnerable to a skeptical challenge. Levinas does not solve the question of memory and repetition in cognitive terms. Mission movement - A movement working on church growth via cross-cultural missions and evangelism Missional Movement : A modern movement of Christianity that seeks to emphasize the call of the church towards a missions type of lifestyle focused on themes like social justice and inculturation.
Neo-orthodoxy : emphasis on the transcendence of God, the reality of sin, and an existentialist encounter with the word of God. New Thought Movement : belief in metaphysical interpretation of the Bible. Phineas Quimby is generally considered the founder of New Thought. Oxford Movement : A nineteenth century movement to more closely align Anglicanism with its Roman Catholic heritage; part of Anglo-Catholicism , a movement that continues into the 21st century.
Paleo-Orthodoxy : evaluating later theology in light of the writings of the early Church. Peace and Truce of God : the first mass peace movement in history, originating in the 10th century as a result of violence against Christian institutions that took place after the fall of the Carolingian dynasty Pentecostalism : the gifts of the Holy Spirit are a normal part of the "Full Gospel".
Prosperity Theology : sometimes referred to as the prosperity gospel, the health and wealth gospel, or the gospel of success is a Christian religious doctrine that financial blessing is the will of God for Christians, and that faith, positive speech, and donations to Christian ministries will always increase one's material wealth. Positive Christianity : a movement within Nazi Germany which blended ideas of racial purity and Nazi ideology with elements of Christianity.
Postmodern Christianity : an understanding of Christianity that has been influenced by continental philosophy. Religious orders - Many religious orders in the Catholic Church began as reform movements. Restoration Movement , also known as the "Stone-Campbell movement": a group of religious reform movements that arose during the Second Great Awakening and sought to renew the whole Christian church "after the New Testament pattern", in contrast to divided Christendom, of Catholicism and Protestantism.
Restorationism Christian primitivism : the belief that a purer form of Christianity should be restored using the early church as a model. Revival movement - A movement aimed at promoting a work of the Holy Spirit in the conversion of large groups to become disciples of Jesus Christ.
See also: Political theology and Christianity and politics Christian anarchism : the rejection of all authority and power other than God, it sometimes even included the rejection of the organized church. Christian anarchists believe that Jesus of Nazareth was an anarchist, and that his movement was reversed by strong Judaist and Roman statist influences.
Christian communism : is a form of religious communism which is based on the teachings of Jesus and the way of life of the Apostles and the first Christians. Christian Democracy : is a political ideology, born at the end of the 19th century, largely as a result of the papal encyclical Rerum Novarum of Pope Leo XIII, in which the Vatican recognizes workers' misery and agrees that something should be done about it, in reaction to the rise of the socialist and trade-union movements.
The Christian Democrats came out of this movement. Christian left : those who hold a strong Christian belief and share left-wing or liberal ideals. Christian libertarianism : those who are committed to non-aggression and property rights , strongly opposed to State coercion and military, social, and economic interventionism as unjustifiable on Christian ethical grounds, advocate the promotion of virtue by persuasion only and either minimal government or no government see Christian anarchism.
Christian right : encompasses a spectrum of conservative Christian political and social movements and organizations characterized by their strong support of social values they deem traditional in the United States and other western countries.
Christian socialism : those on the Christian left whose politics are both Christian and socialist, broadly including Liberation theology and the doctrine of the social gospel. Dominionism : a movement among socially conservative Christians to gain influence or control over secular civil government through political action — seeking either a nation governed by Christians or a nation governed by a Christian understanding of biblical law.
Evangelical left : part of the Christian evangelical movement but who generally function on the left wing of that movement, either politically or theologically, or both. Liberation theology : an important and controversial movement in the theology and praxis of the Roman Catholic Church after the Second Vatican Council. It had broad influence in Latin America and explores the relationship between Christian theology and political activism , particularly in areas of social justice , poverty , and human rights.
It gave priority to the economically poor and oppressed of the human community. Progressive Christianity : focuses on the biblical injunctions that God's people live correctly, that they promote social justice and act to fight poverty, racism, and other forms of injustice.
Rexism A Belgian fascist movement derived from the Roman Catholic social teachings concerning Christus Rex , and it was also the title of a conservative Catholic journal Social Gospel movement: a Protestant Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the late 19th century and early 20th century. The movement applies Christian principles to social problems, especially poverty, liquor, drugs, crime, racial tensions, slums, bad hygiene, poor schools, and the danger of war.
Theologically the Social Gospel leaders were overwhelmingly post- Millenarian. See also: Philosophical theology Christian asceticism : a life which is characterised by refraining from worldly pleasures and luxuries, such as wealth, private possessions, and alcohol. Christian atheism : position in which the belief in the God of Christianity is rejected, but the moral teachings of Jesus are valued.Works by Levinas: Principal Philosophical Works of Levinas: A list of works, translated into English but not appearing in any collections, may be found in Critchley, S.
Within many needs is the anticipation of their fulfillment. Windsor , book similar to , book summary , combines the western and Ethiopian calendars , critic review , download , download book , download ebook From Babylon to Timbuktu: Discovering Existence with Husserl. Christian naturism : A movement which believes that God never intended that people should be ashamed of their bodies.
First published in Ed. The new framework of transcendence as human responsibility involves an extensive exploration of the face-to-face relationship, and it opens onto questions of social existence and justice. Windsor pocket , Selected Quotes From H. Subjectivity is now the coming to pass of responsibility itself.