# LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS NOTES PDF

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[PDF] EC Linear Integrated Circuits (LIC) Books, Lecture Notes, 2marks with answers, Important Part B 16marks Questions, Question Bank & Syllabus. By. ARUNKUMAR.G raudone.info, Lecturer in E&CE Dept.S.T.J.I.T,Ranebennur. LINEAR IC's and APPLICATION'S. 4th Sem EC/TC/IT/BME/ML. ARUNKUMAR G raudone.info Download link for ECE 4th SEM EC LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Lecture Notes are listed down for students to make perfect. Author: FATIMA ANCHONDO Language: English, Dutch, Hindi Country: Cyprus Genre: Politics & Laws Pages: 285 Published (Last): 22.04.2016 ISBN: 525-1-78273-741-5 ePub File Size: 17.49 MB PDF File Size: 10.87 MB Distribution: Free* [*Registration needed] Downloads: 40254 Uploaded by: MARIANA This Operational Amplifiers & Linear Integrated Circuits: Theory and Application, by James M. Fiore is copyrighted under the terms of a Creative. Home / Material / Linear Integrated circuits (LICA/LDIC) notes Topics: Click on the below links to download written Notes raudone.info 1. Differential. EE Notes Linear Integrated Circuits and Applications LIC Regulation Anna University free download. LIC Notes EE pdf free.

Draw the circuit diagram of an op-amp integrator. Mention its application. Draw the circuit diagram of differentiator using Op-amp. What are the non linear applications of op-amp? Part — B 16 marks questions 1.

Explain the functions of all the basic building blocks of an Op-Amp. Find V0 of the following circuit. Explain in detail about the frequency compensation applied to operational amplifiers. Determine the output voltage V0 and the current I0 in the circuit as shown below.

Draw and explain the working of operational amplifier as i. Integrator 8 ii. Differentiator 8 7. List the six characteristics of an ideal op-amp and explain in detail. Give the practical op-amp equivalent circuit.

Explain in detail about DC characteristics of op-amp. With neat circuit diagram explain the operation of a OP-AMP differentiator and derive and expression for the output of a practical differentiator. Draw the circuit of a symmetrical emitter coupled differential amplifier and derive for CMRR.

Draw the circuit of first order active filter. Draw the circuit diagram of sample and hold circuit. What are the applications of peak detectors? Why active filters are preferred? Active filters offers the following advantages over a passive filters: 1. Cost: Active filters are more economical than passive filter. This is because of the variety of cheaper op-amps and the absence of inductors. Draw the circuits of I to V converter using op-amp. Define monotonicity with respect to Data converters. A monotonic DAC is the one whose analog output increases for an increase in digital output. A monotonic characteristic is essential in control applications, otherwise oscillations can result.

In successive approximation ADCs, a non- monotonic characteristic may lead to missing codes. Settling time: The most important dynamic parameter is the settling time.

It depends upon the switching time of the logic circuitry due to internal parasitic capacitances and inductances. Conversion time: Conversion time is defined as the total time required to convert an analog signal into digital output. It depends on the conversion technique used and the propagation delay of circuit components. How many resistors are required in a bit weighted resistor DAC? For a bit DAC, the largest resistance required is 5. The fabrication of such a large resistance in IC is not practical.

Also the voltage drop across such a large resistor due to the bias current would also affect the accuracy. The choice of smallest resistor value as 2. How many comparators are required to design a 10 bit flash ADC? The number of comparators almost doubles for an increase of 1-bit at input. How active filters are superior than passive filter? What is meant by resolution of an ADC? The resolution of a converter is the smallest change in voltage which may be produced at the output or input of the converter.

In short, the resolution is the value of the LSB. Give any 4 applications of a comparator. What is a zero crossing detector? The basic comparator can be used as a zero crossing detector by setting Vref is set to zero. Mention the types of DACs Techniques? Where do we use successive approximating type ADC? The successive approximation technique uses a very efficient code search strategy to complete n-bit conversion in just n-clock pulse or periods.

The circuit uses a successive approximation register SAR to find the required value of each bit by trial and error method. Mention the applications of an instrumentation amplifier. Instrumentation amplifier is used in data acquisition unit, sensing, measurement and control of physical parameters such as temperature, used as signal conditioning circuit, Light-intensity meter, measurement of flow and thermal conductivity, analog-weight scale, active guard drive, digitally programmable gain and output offsetting.

Which is the fastest ADC? Conversion time is ns or less. What are the basic requirements of a good instrumentation amplifier? The requirements of an instrumentation amplifier are low noise, low thermal and time drifts, high input impedance, accurate closed loop gain, high CMRR and high slew rate.

Design and Explain triangular wave generator using Schmitt trigger and integrator circuit. Explain the following applications of operational amplifiers. Explain with neat circuit diagram any one sine wave oscillator using Op-amp and derive expression for frequency of oscillation and gain of Op-amp. Explain the principle of Instrumentation amplifier and derive the gain for that circuit. Draw the circuit of a second order Butterworth low pass filter and derive its transfer function.

Draw the pin diagram of IC timer 2. Mention any two applications of multiplier IC. The multiplier ICs are used for the following purposes: 1.

Voltage Squarer 2. Frequency doubler 3. Voltage divider 4. Square rooter 5. Phase angle detector 6. Rectifier 3. Define capture range of PLL. The range of frequencies over which the PLL can acquire lock with an input signal is called the capture range.

This parameter is also expressed as percentage of f0. What are one, two and four quadrant multipliers? The quadrant defines the applicability of the circuit for bipolar signals at its inputs. First — quadrant device accepts only positive input signals, the two quadrant device accepts one bipolar signal and one unipolar signal and the four quadrant device accepts two bipolar signals. Calculate the free running frequency. Why VCO is called voltage to frequency converter?

VCO is also called as voltage to frequency converter because the frequency of oscillations can be controlled by an externally applied dc voltage. In what way VCO is different from other oscillators. Mention any two application of Timer in Monostable mode. What are the operating modes of PLL? What will be the frequency of the PLL output? What are the different stages of operation in a PLL? Find resolution.

Define: lock range When PLL is in lock, it can trap freq changes in the incoming signal. The range of frequencies over which the PLL can maintain lock with the incoming signal is called as lock range. State why the phase detector output in a PLL should be followed by a low pass filter. The high frequency component is removed by LPF and the difference frequency only produced at the output.

The LPF not only removes the high frequency components and noise but also controls the dynamic characteristics of PLL. These characteristics includes capture and lock range, bandwidth and transient response. List the applications of NE Draw the relation between the capture range and lock range relationship in a PLL. Mention the application of Analog multiplier. Draw the block diagram of PLL as frequency multiplier.

Enlist the important features of timer circuit. It can be used to produce time delay ranging from few microseconds to several hours. Explain the astable and bistable operation of IC with necessary waveforms. Draw the functional diagram of IC Timer in astable mode and explain its operation and derive expression for frequency.

Describe the application of PLL for frequency multiplication and amplitude modulation detector with neat diagrams. Explain schematic how PLL can be used as i. Frequency multiplier 8 ii. Explain the Astable operation a Timer IC with application. With block diagram explain the principle of operation of NE Phase Locked loop. List the important parts of regulated power supply. What are the advantages of switched mode power supplies? What are the disadvantages of linear voltage regulators?

What is an isolation amplifier? An isolation amplifier is an amplifier that offers an ohmic or electrical isolation between its input and output terminals. Isolation amplifiers are often used when there is a very large common mode voltage difference between input and output.

Name the various protection circuits used for series voltage regulators. Why do switching regulators have better efficiency then the series regulator? In series regulator the pass transistor is operated in its linear region to provide a controlled voltage drop across it with a steady DC current flow. Hence the power transmitted across the pass device is in discrete pulse rather than as a steady current flow.

The pass device is operated as a low impedance switch. When the pass devices is at cut-off, there is no current and dissipates no power. When the device is in saturation, negligible voltage drop appears across it.

What is an optocoupler? In electronics, an opto-isolator, also called an optocoupler, photocoupler, or optical isolator, is "an electronic device designed to transfer electrical signals by utilizing light waves to provide coupling with electrical isolation between its input and output". What is the function of a voltage regulator? A voltage regulator is an electronic circuit that provides a stable dc voltage independent of the load current, temperature and ac line voltage variations.

What is the principle of switch mode power supplies? This give improved efficiency over series regulators. State the need for protection diodes in voltage regulators based on LM regulator?

State the need and advantages of Isolation Amplifiers? Needs: Isolation amplifier is used when amplifiers of very high common mode voltage capabilities, high isolation resistances and high common mode rejection are required. Advantages: An isolation amplifier is an amplifier that offers an ohmic or electrical isolation between its input and output terminals.

Differentiate between linear and switching regulator. Write the expression for output voltage in LM Name two application of isolation amplifier.

The depth of diffusion depend upon the time of diffusion which normally extends to 2 hours. What is the need for buried layer in fabrication of monolithic integrated transistor? Differentiate between thin film and thick film technology in IC fabrication. No Thin film Thick film 1 Thin film is made by depositing Thick film is also made by depositing film capacitors and resistors on a film capacitors and resistors on a passive substrate glass or passive substrate ceramic 2 Here thin film is formed in a It is formed by screen printing vacuum chamber 3 It includes vacuum evaporation, It includes screen printing and ceramic Sputtering, gas plating, firing electroplating, electro less plating, silk screening.

Define the term epitaxial growth. Epitaxy is an arrangement of silicon atoms upon the silicon crystal substrate. Polycrystalline silicon when doped with phosphorus is conductive and is used as the gate electrode instead of aluminium, because this reduces VT to about 1 to 2V. Such devices are called silicon gate MOS-transistors. Prepared by : Dr. Compare the performance of n-p-n and p-n-p transistors with respect to IC fabrication.

No n-p-n Transistor p-n-p Transistor 1 n-p-n transistor gives current gain p-n-p transistor gives current gain as 1. In when compared to p-type collector vertical pnp transistor collector has to as in p-n-p transistor be held at fixed negative voltage Part — B 16 marks questions 1.

Explain the basic Process used in silicon planar technology with neat diagram. With respect to BJT based circuit given below, explain the various steps to implement the circuit into a monolithic IC. Briefly explain the various types of IC packages. Mention the criteria for selecting an IC package. Give the various ways for making integrated resistor 16 5. Explain the various methods used for fabricating IC resistors and compare their performance. Write a note on CMOS technology. Explain the fabrication of n-channel JFET with necessary diagrams. Explain the basic processes used in the fabrication of monolithics IC. List any four characteristics of ideal OP-Amp? What is meant by thermal drift? Bias current, offset current and offset voltage change with temperature.

This is called drift. These indicate the change in offset for each degree Celsius in temperature. Define input offset voltage. A small voltage applied to the input terminals to make the output voltage as zero when the two input terminals are grounded is called input offset voltage. Define CMRR. The relative sensitivity of an op-amp to a difference signal as compared to a common — mode signal is called the common — mode rejection ratio. It is expressed in decibels. Design a subtractor using op-amp.

List any four non ideal dc characteristics of op-amp. What is the input impedance of a non-inverting amplifier? Define slew rate. What causes it? The slew rate is defined as the maximum rate of change of output voltage caused by a step input voltage.

Causes: There is a capacitor with-in or outside of an op-amp to prevent oscillation. It is this capacitor which prevents the output voltage from responding immediately to a fast changing input.

List the methods used to provide the external frequency compensation.

## MICROPROCESSOR

Adder, subtractor, voltage —to- current converter, current —to- voltage converters, instrumentation amplifier, analog computation, power amplifier, etc are some of the linear op-amp circuits. Input bias-current is the dc current necessary to flow into the inputs of op-amp to turn it on. The effect of input bias currents can be reduced by using compensating resistor Rcomp.

What are the merits and demerits of Dominant pole compensation method?

Merits: The noise immunity of the system is improved since the noise frequency components outside the Bandwidth are eliminated. Demerits: It reduces the open loop band width drastically. What is meant by differential amplifier? A circuit that amplifies the difference between two signals is called a difference or differential amplifier. What is frequency compensation. The essential idea of frequency compensation applied to op-amp is to reshape the magnitude and plot.

What is voltage follower? A circuit in which the output voltage follows the input voltage is called voltage follower circuit. What is a precision diode? The major limitation of ordinary diode is that it cannot rectify voltages below the cut — in voltage of the diode.

A circuit designed by placing a diode in the feedback loop of an op — amp is called the precision diode and it is capable of rectifying input signals of the order of millivolt. Draw the circuit diagram of an op-amp integrator. Mention its application. Draw the circuit diagram of differentiator using Op-amp. What are the non linear applications of op-amp? Part — B 16 marks questions 1. Explain the functions of all the basic building blocks of an Op-Amp.

Find V0 of the following circuit. Explain in detail about the frequency compensation applied to operational amplifiers. Determine the output voltage V0 and the current I0 in the circuit as shown below. Draw and explain the working of operational amplifier as i. Integrator 8 ii. Differentiator 8 7. List the six characteristics of an ideal op-amp and explain in detail. Give the practical op-amp equivalent circuit. Explain in detail about DC characteristics of op-amp. With neat circuit diagram explain the operation of a OP-AMP differentiator and derive and expression for the output of a practical differentiator.

Draw the circuit of a symmetrical emitter coupled differential amplifier and derive for CMRR. Draw the circuit of first order active filter. Draw the circuit diagram of sample and hold circuit. What are the applications of peak detectors?

Why active filters are preferred? Active filters offers the following advantages over a passive filters: 1. Cost: Active filters are more economical than passive filter. This is because of the variety of cheaper op-amps and the absence of inductors.

Draw the circuits of I to V converter using op-amp. Define monotonicity with respect to Data converters. A monotonic DAC is the one whose analog output increases for an increase in digital output. A monotonic characteristic is essential in control applications, otherwise oscillations can result.

In successive approximation ADCs, a non- monotonic characteristic may lead to missing codes. Settling time: The most important dynamic parameter is the settling time. It depends upon the switching time of the logic circuitry due to internal parasitic capacitances and inductances. Conversion time: Conversion time is defined as the total time required to convert an analog signal into digital output.

It depends on the conversion technique used and the propagation delay of circuit components. How many resistors are required in a bit weighted resistor DAC? For a bit DAC, the largest resistance required is 5. The fabrication of such a large resistance in IC is not practical. Also the voltage drop across such a large resistor due to the bias current would also affect the accuracy. The choice of smallest resistor value as 2. How many comparators are required to design a 10 bit flash ADC?

The number of comparators almost doubles for an increase of 1-bit at input. How active filters are superior than passive filter? What is meant by resolution of an ADC? The resolution of a converter is the smallest change in voltage which may be produced at the output or input of the converter. In short, the resolution is the value of the LSB. Give any 4 applications of a comparator. What is a zero crossing detector?

The basic comparator can be used as a zero crossing detector by setting Vref is set to zero. Mention the types of DACs Techniques?

Where do we use successive approximating type ADC? The successive approximation technique uses a very efficient code search strategy to complete n-bit conversion in just n-clock pulse or periods. The circuit uses a successive approximation register SAR to find the required value of each bit by trial and error method. Mention the applications of an instrumentation amplifier.

Instrumentation amplifier is used in data acquisition unit, sensing, measurement and control of physical parameters such as temperature, used as signal conditioning circuit, Light-intensity meter, measurement of flow and thermal conductivity, analog-weight scale, active guard drive, digitally programmable gain and output offsetting. Which is the fastest ADC? Conversion time is ns or less.

What are the basic requirements of a good instrumentation amplifier? The requirements of an instrumentation amplifier are low noise, low thermal and time drifts, high input impedance, accurate closed loop gain, high CMRR and high slew rate. Design and Explain triangular wave generator using Schmitt trigger and integrator circuit.

Explain the following applications of operational amplifiers. Explain with neat circuit diagram any one sine wave oscillator using Op-amp and derive expression for frequency of oscillation and gain of Op-amp. Explain the principle of Instrumentation amplifier and derive the gain for that circuit. Draw the circuit of a second order Butterworth low pass filter and derive its transfer function.

Draw the pin diagram of IC timer 2. Mention any two applications of multiplier IC. The multiplier ICs are used for the following purposes: 1.

Voltage Squarer 2. Frequency doubler 3. Voltage divider 4. Square rooter 5. Phase angle detector 6. Rectifier 3. Define capture range of PLL. The range of frequencies over which the PLL can acquire lock with an input signal is called the capture range.

This parameter is also expressed as percentage of f0. What are one, two and four quadrant multipliers? The quadrant defines the applicability of the circuit for bipolar signals at its inputs.Check your Email after Joining and Confirm your mail id to get updates alerts.

Operational Amplifier: Draw and explain the functional block diagram of a voltage regulator and how this IC can be used as High voltage regulator. How many comparators are required to design a 10 bit flash ADC? The pass device is operated as a low impedance switch.

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