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Thus, linguistic friction tends to become racial and political friction, yet another curse that a icts us. To put it in another way: The multiplication of languages is also an antidote against the language of the One, the language of idolatry and hubris, origin of any totalitarianism.

Insana, Arduo Tasks: See also Robert S. Levi, To Translate and Be Translated, cit.

Understood in these terms, translation is both an attempt to interpret and mediate the text of Auschwitz, and a form of resistance, an e fort to simultaneously confront the centrifugal impulse of language and its reductio ad unum. Such an understanding of translation found however an obstacle in Ka a.

Whereas in Levi language is an arrow that always hits its target, in Ka a it is a message that can never reach its destination.

The Huntsman Gracchus cannot reach death, Josef K. Wandering in this atmosphere of uncertainty, illogical events, and disorienting perspectives, the reader is invited to actively make sense of such an enigmatic world. Levi felt ill at ease among them. Af er his translation of The Trial, he wrote: I love and admire Ka a because he writes in a way that is totally closed o f to me.

In my writing, for better or for worse, knowingly or not, I have always tended toward a transition from obscurity to clarity, rather like a lter pump, sucking in turbid water and turning it out puri ed, even sterile I think Pirandello said Feltrinelli, , pp. See also Giuliano Baioni, Kafka: Letteratura ed ebraismo, Torino, Einaudi, , pp.

As Steiner argues in Steiner, After Babel, cit.

A Very Short Introduction, cit. Essays , London, Faber and Faber, , pp.

The Trial by Franz Kafka

Ka a takes the opposite approach: The reader feels them teeming with germs and spores; they are full of burning signi cance, but he is never helped to tear the curtain or to go around it to see what it conceals. Every interpretation thus produces a new metaphor, and hence a new interpre- tation, in a circular movement that reproduces the structure of Talmudic exegesis.

The Praguese writer laid bare the inescapable duplicity of his identity, the complexio oppositorum that animated his inner world.

Letteratura ed ebraismo, cit. See Citati, Kafka, cit.

He obviously did not believe that Ka a actually foresaw the Final Solution and the gas chambers. He certainly had an almost animalesque sensitivity, like snakes that know when earthquakes are coming. The Trial tells the story of Josef K. Since K. Initially, when summoned before the examining magistrate, K.

Af er the rst hearing, the court, which appears as a great organisation veiled in secrecy, leaves K. Feldman, New York, Schocken Books, , pp. A Revaluation, in Essays in Understanding , ed. A Dissenting View, in Admitting the Holocaust: See Levi, A Mysterio Sensibility, cit. Interviews , ed. Gordon, trans. Incontri, interviste e conversazioni con Primo Levi, ed.

The Letters to Felice, trans. Little by little, the trial takes hold of K. He therefore decides to dismiss his lawyer and take things into his own hands.

But af er long and confusing dis- cussions with Titorelli, the court painter, and with a prison chaplain in the cathedral, he gradually understands that he has no escape.

Ka a seals the book with Josef K. Figures like the thrasher evoked the mass of petty functionaries and piti- less authorities he had met in the camp. Above all, Josef K. Faced with Ka a, my unconscious defences were set o f: These defences collapsed as I translated him, and I have found myself lowered into the character of Josef K.

Robertson, Kafka: As Robertson notes, the word Schuld in The Trial encompasses several meanings: See L.

So what kind of impact did the story of Josef K. Second, the re exive nature of the judging process. Third, the way in which the process of self-examination elicits a feeling of shame. Testimonianze , ed.

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Of en we are tempted to Ticontre. The language used to evaluate the di ferent inmate-functionaries illustrates the di cult and yet necessary relationship between Holocaust testimony and jurisprudence: This category is a grey zone, with unde ned contours, which both separates and connects the two opposing camps of masters and servants. It has an incredibly complicated internal structure, and harbours just enough to confound our need to judge.

The criminal complicity of individual collaborators, great and small never friendly, never transparent!

We would prefer to entrust that judgment only to people who have been in similar circumstances and experienced for themselves what it means to act under coercion. The condition of victimhood does not exclude guilt, which is of en objec- tively serious, but I do not know a human court that could be delegated to take its measure. A more subtle and varied judgment is required for those who held senior po- sitions […].

The same impotentia judicandi leaves us paralysed before the case of Chaim Rumkowski. The micro- physics of evil that enabled the Final Solution demands to be judged, and yet there is a residue that exceeds and escapes comprehension. Levi, The Drowned and the Saved, cit.

The Witness and the Archive, trans. Thus, in both situations the trial becomes a self-referential process, a punish- ment in actu which calls into question the law. Perhaps noth- ing reveals more about the nature of this trial-punishment than the dialogue between K.

Interrogated about K. Genuine acquittals occur only in legends. As Titorelli tells K. Yet both leave the accused totally compromised, in wait of the nal blow.

The law of necessity is unappealable, it strikes with the inexorability of Tyche. Cacciari, Icone della Le e, cit. Tyche Roman equivalent: Fortuna was the daugh- ter of Ocean and Tethys, and thus a goddess of the sea and a sister of Metis. She represented luck, the event, the element of human existence that humans do not control. Who belongs to the court? Should I also give an account of myself? Levi knew well that only people of esh and blood can give an account of themselves, for both morality and justice concern the individual in his or her singularity.

Kafka, The Trial, cit.

Kafka. Per una letteratura minore

On this issue, see also Hannah Arendt, Responsibility and Judgment, ed. Josef K. Indeed, from the moment in which he decides to undertake this impossible task, the court and the trial redouble and become realities at once internal and external to his life. See ibid, p. The violence of the tattoo was gratuitous, an end in itself, a pure insult: No, something more was needed, a nonverbal message, so the innocent would feel their sentence inscribed in their esh.

The harshness of prison was perceived as punishment, and the sense of guilt if there punishment, there must have been guilt was relegated to the background, only to re-emerge af er liberation. In other words, there was no need to punish oneself with suicide for a real or presumed guilt that was already being expiated through the su ferings of every day.

What guilt? In the Penal Colony is chronologically and thematically interconnected to The Trial, for it was written in October , when Ka a paused from working on his novel, and deals with the themes of guilt, punishment, and justice.

Levi recalls this last meaning at the beginning of his chapter on the grey zone p. At a certain point, like when K. Do you feel shame because you are alive in the place of someone else? A per- son more generous, sensitive, wise, useful, and worthy of living than you?

You cannot exclude the possibility: You nd no obvious transgressions. You cannot rule out the possibility. Like Josef K. By putting himself on trial, he discovers a feeling that will survive both him and the court that hunted him down. What should Josef K. He is ashamed of many contradictory things, because he is not consistent, and his na- ture like that of most of us consists in being inconsistent, not the same over the course of time, unstable, erratic, divided even at the same moment, split into two or more personalities that cannot exist together.

He is ashamed of having quar- relled with the tribunal of the cathedral and, at the same time, of not having stood up to the tribunal of the garrets with su cient force. Of having wasted his life in petty o ce jealousies, in false love a fairs, in morbid timidity, in static and obses- sive accomplishments. Of existing when, by now, he should no longer exist: Kafka intraprese una formazione giuridica e ottenne un lavoro in una compagnia di assicurazioni.

Kafka preferiva comunicare per lettera; scrisse centinaia di lettere ai familiari e alle amiche intime.

La sua appartenenza alla cultura ebraica fu in lui fonte di profondi conflitti interiori, nonostante non sentisse un particolare legame con le sue radici. Tuttavia, i critici sostengono che la sua origine ebraica abbia influenzato le sue opere.

Solo poche opere di Kafka furono pubblicate durante la sua vita: le raccolte di racconti Betrachtung Contemplazione e Ein Landarzt Un medico di campagna e qualche opera singola come La Metamorfosi in riviste letterarie. Praag, 3 juli — Kierling, 3 juni was een Duitstalige schrijver die wordt gezien als een van de belangrijkste auteurs van de twintigste eeuw. Zijn werk kreeg vooral na zijn dood een grote invloed op de westerse literatuur.


Kafka was aanvankelijk een staatsburger van Oostenrijk-Hongarije en na het uiteenvallen van de unie in van de Eerste Tsjecho-Slowaakse Republiek. Hij verbleef ook enige tijd in Berlijn, de hoofdstad van de Weimar-republiek.

Dat maakte hem tot een typische Duitstalige en Midden-Europese auteur die niet gekoppeld kan worden aan een specifiek land. Dat gold bijvoorbeeld ook voor zijn tijdgenoot Hermann Hesse, de in Duitsland geboren auteur die naar Zwitserland verhuisde. Hendrik Marsman omschreef deze sfeer als een 'uiterst geheimzinnige zakelijkheid'. Kafka's oeuvre wordt wel gezien als symbool voor de ontwortelde mens in de moderne tijd.An Unheimlich Encounter, Gordon, trans. No time is set, but the address is given to him.

Frau Grubach — The proprietress of the lodging house in which K. The two closely intertwined projects—fostering national attachment and shoring up patriarchy—acquired central importance after as a result of the experiences of wartime brutality, total defeat, and the reestablishment of an independent Austrian state.

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