IMPROVE MEMORY PDF

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There are three stages of memory: Short-Term/Sensory Memory – brief storage until working memory decides what to do with the information. Working Memory. IMPROVING YOUR. MEMORY. Learning Strategies, Student Academic Success Services. Stauffer What role does a good memory have in your academic life?. any "magic" memory pill, it is possible to improve your memory using the Your brain holds an average of seven items in short term memory.


Improve Memory Pdf

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Memory Championships and has a number of entries in the. Guinness Book of Records including when you are improving your memory. If it helps, there is a . Using a technique to help us learn some- thing we want to remember is another way we can make the most of our memory. You can improve your memory by. 1 | Page. Quick Tips: How to Improve Your Memory. Combine these techniques to make a customized memory system that fits your style of learning! Organize It.

The Method of Loci helps you easily remember the order of your stories, and the stories likewise help you remember the order of the numbers. In other words, retention and acquisition go hand-in-hand. The process of forgetting is best understood through the Forgetting Curve, which illustrates the relationship between time and how well our brains store information. As you can see, the information you learn disappears exponentially after initial input.

Hermann Ebbinghaus, a pioneer in the field of memory science, discovered that our rate of memory decline falls each time we reinforce information that we previously learned.

11 Methods for Improving Your Memory

He called this the spacing effect. You can use the spacing effect to your advantage by using spaced repetition to memorize information. Instead of absorbing a large amount of information at once and trying to hang onto it, spaced repetition entails breaking that information into small chunks and reinforcing it consistently over an extended period of time.

Not only has the spaced repetition method been proven to combat the forgetting curve, but it makes the task of memorization less intimidating by breaking down the seemingly impossible task of memorization into manageable chunks.

But when you sit down at your desk in the classroom, you blank out. However, you can reduce the effect of context-dependent forgetting with the context recall technique. You might even wear the same outfit or drink from the same water bottle. The context recall technique leverages state-dependent learning: the idea that we remember information more easily when our physiological states during encoding and recall are the same.

According to a study by psychologists Pam Mueller of Princeton and Daniel Oppenheimer of UCLA, writing notes by hand instead of typing them on a computer yields better memory retention and a deeper understanding of the subject matter.

The researchers asked a group of college students to listen to a lecture — some transcribed it on their laptops while others took a longhand approach. After the students had a week to review the material, those who took notes by hand performed significantly better than the typists in both factual recall and higher-order conceptual learning.

And there is something about ink and paper that prompts students to go beyond merely hearing and recording new information. Nerding Out Over Nutrition If you thought binging on french fries and ice cream only had physical consequences, think again. When it comes to boosting your memory, the food and drinks you put into your body crucial. Here are a couple of science-backed tips for fueling your memory literally. However, when subjects took a milligram caffeine pill roughly two cups of coffee after being asked to memorize a series of pictures, their memory recall improved over a hour period.

This might seem confusing: how could drinking a coffee after studying be more beneficial than keeping you awake beforehand? Think of memorization like physical exercise. You break down muscle tissue for an hour or so, then spend the next day or two recovering to come back stronger. Thus, from the studies mentioned above, the level of arousal evoked by environmental stimuli can have a significant effect on memory performance in whether the short-term or long-term memory storage.

Arousal, memory and colour Arousal, especially emotional arousal, can play an essential role in keeping the information in the memory system. Colours can enhance the relationship between arousal and memory. Kaya and Epps 22 , asked their 98 college student volunteers in public institutions to associate colours with emotion.

It was found that the majority of participants associated green colour with the feeling of calmness, happiness, comfort, peace, hope, and excitement. Black colour was associated with the feeling of sadness, depression, fear, and anger. This means that colours have an emotional arousing effect. However, the degree of arousal level may differ depending on the type of emotion or feeling being attached to it According to Jackson, Wu, Linden, and Raymond 29 , some types of emotion may have a greater effect on arousal than the others.

For instance, anger was found to have a greater arousal effect than happy or neutral type of emotion. Red colour is being attached with stronger emotion or feeling compared to the other type of colours.

Based on the studies mentioned, it shows that colour can produce an emotional arousing effect but the degree or range of arousal varies depending on the emotional element that is attached with specific type of colour. Colour and Memory Performance Colour has been found to influence memory performance by increasing our attentional level and arousal. There exist robust evidences from several studies that have been conducted to explore the relationship between colour and memory performance.

How to Develop A Super Power Memory

Those studies are reviewed in detail below. Spence, Wong, Rusan, and Rastegar 16 examined the ability to recognise coloured and gray-scale images of neutral scenes with participants.

The same comparison was significant at the 0. A similar finding was reached in a recall test conducted by Smilek and colleagues Smilek, Dixon, and Merikle 15 , carried out a study to investigate the influence of colour on memory performance. They used digit numbers with four different conditions; black, white, congruent, and incongruent colour conditions. They utilized the undergraduate students as their participants in the study.

Three minutes were given to the participants to study the stimuli and another three minutes for them to recall the stimuli. The stimuli were exposed to the participants through a computer screen. Significant differences were found between recall conditions. The memory performance of the participants was found to be better in the congruent colour condition compared to the other conditions Wichmann, Sharpe, and Gegenfurtner 3 , found a clear advantage of colour on visual memory.

In their first experiment, they tested the colour recognition of the participants on the 50 milisecond to one second duration. These contrasts were applied in colour and black-and-white images. Colour images were reported to have better memory recognition over black-and-white, but the differences were small. According to the authors, the images in the low contrast level were hardly visible and seen.

In their third experiment, the same procedure was used, but participants were tested in different conditions. Those images that were presented in colour were tested in black-and-white and vice versa.

However, the performance of the images that were presented in colour and tested in black-andwhite was deteriorated. The same goes for the images that were presented in black-and-white and tested in colour. A similar finding was reported in the fifth experiment, where the images with the coloured frame show significant improvement Vernon and Lloyd-Jones 30 conducted a study to further explore the effect of colour in implicit and explicit memory performance.

In the study phase, the participants were involved in the naming task of those 60 experimental objects. While in the test phase, the participants were asked to recognize the objects which have been categorized in three different conditions; same colour, change colour and non-colour. Response time, percentage of the score, hit, and correct rejection rate were observed.

This means participants took faster time to recognise objects in the coloured than non-coloured condition. The above studies indicated that colour can have a positive influence on memory performance. A few studies have however found contradictory findings. Lloyd-Jones and Nakabayashi 31 , carried out a study on the effects of colour on object identification and memorization, and found out that there were differences in memory performance in object-colour spatial integration and object spatial separation.

Two hundred and thirteen undergraduate students from the University of Kent were involved in the study. All participants were non colour-blind.

There were three conditions; correctly coloured the object and its original colour , incorrectly coloured the object not with its original colour and greyscale condition. There were two experimental conditions; object-colour spatial integration and object-colour spatial separation. In the objectcolour spatial integration, the colour object was placed on the grey background while in the object-colour spatial separation, the grey object was placed on the colour background.

In the study phase, participants rated object-colour typicality on 7-point scale. In the test phase, participants were required to press certain buttons to indicate whether the object was correctly coloured or not. The speed of the response was measured. Therefore, coloured object with non-coloured background have better memory retention and yielded faster respond time compared to coloured object with coloured background.

Another study by McConnohie 32 used alphanumeric characters and showed them to the participants through slideshow with three background colour conditions; white, blue and green. All the figure characters were in black.

If the colours have positive effect on memory, performance was expected to be equal in these conditions. The result however showed that the slides with the white background resulted in higher retention rates both in immediate and delayed recall tasks than those with blue and green background.

This result contradicts the previous studies in that only certain colours lead to better memory. Nevertheless, in this study, the colours chosen and the manipulation in the figure and background colours may explain the result obtained.

Hall and Hanna 33 , conducted a study on webpage text and background colour combination to memory retention. One hundred and thirty six university students participated in their study. They used two different types of websites; an educational website which contained information regarding a neuroscience subject and a website which was more commercial that had an advertisement of products.

Two hundred and thirteen undergraduate students from the University of Kent were involved in the study. All participants were non colour-blind. There were three conditions; correctly coloured the object and its original colour , incorrectly coloured the object not with its original colour and greyscale condition.

There were two experimental conditions; object-colour spatial integration and object-colour spatial separation.

In the objectcolour spatial integration, the colour object was placed on the grey background while in the object-colour spatial separation, the grey object was placed on the colour background. In the study phase, participants rated object-colour typicality on 7-point scale. In the test phase, participants were required to press certain buttons to indicate whether the object was correctly coloured or not.

The speed of the response was measured. Therefore, coloured object with non-coloured background have better memory retention and yielded faster respond time compared to coloured object with coloured background. Another study by McConnohie 32 used alphanumeric characters and showed them to the participants through slideshow with three background colour conditions; white, blue and green. All the figure characters were in black.

If the colours have positive effect on memory, performance was expected to be equal in these conditions. The result however showed that the slides with the white background resulted in higher retention rates both in immediate and delayed recall tasks than those with blue and green background. This result contradicts the previous studies in that only certain colours lead to better memory.

Nevertheless, in this study, the colours chosen and the manipulation in the figure and background colours may explain the result obtained. Hall and Hanna 33 , conducted a study on webpage text and background colour combination to memory retention. One hundred and thirty six university students participated in their study. They used two different types of websites; an educational website which contained information regarding a neuroscience subject and a website which was more commercial that had an advertisement of products.

Hall and Hanna used four different types of ground and figure colour combinations for each of the websites; black on white background, white on black background, light blue on dark blue background and teal on black background. Each participant was randomly assigned to each of the four conditions and they were given 10 minutes to view the websites. After that, they were required to answer 10 multiplechoice questions used to measure the readability, retention, aesthetics, and behavioural intention level.

It was expected that the condition with a higher contrast level of colour will result in a higher level of readability and also retention rate. The result obtained show significant differences in the four conditions and the post-hoc tests showed that the readability performance was highest on the black on white background condition.

This condition was interpreted to have the highest contrast level compared to the others and this contributes to a better readability level. The significant result found for readability was however not found on retention rate. This means that the different contrast of colour combination used only effects readability level but not memory or retention rate The studies reviewed above showed that colours can lead to better memory performance. There are however studies that indicate an opposing effect of colour on memory.

On the basis of the studies reviewed previously, it can be summarized that the effectiveness of colour on memory performance is based on a few factors. First is the consistency of the colours used during encoding and retrieval phases. This means the colour used or presented during the time when participants are asked to memorize should be the same with the colour shown to them at the time of retrieval.

This rule is in line with the encoding specificity principle that highlights the close connection between these two memory processes, encoding, and retrieval in determining the memory performance. The greater match of conditions in these two processes, the better is the retrieval outcome. Another factor that needs to be taken into account is when few colours or combination of colours are involved as in background and foreground conditions.

The right combination of colours is important because it can produce higher level of contrast, and this can influence memory retention. Higher level of contrast may refer to the colour hue the wavelength and the luminance brightness of the colour of the colour It was predicted that higher level of contrast will attract more attention and better visibility of an object or information.

Stimuli with white foreground on red background can have a higher level of contrast compared to the other colour combination. Similarly, the use of a white colour background with black colour foreground has a better contrast level for memory retention for both short-term and long-term This may be the reason for the top fast-food restaurants in the world to be associated and branded with vivid colour.

For example, McDonalds used yellow and red colour in the logo, while Kentucky Fried Chicken is remembered with red and white colour combinations. Colour therefore played a very important role in influencing consumers psychologically, which is characterized by emotional attachment, attention, memory, and attitude that later increase the likelihood of downloading behaviour.

An important aspect in successful and efficient cognitive functioning is the abilities to utilize the system to the fullest. Research on memory has provided a vast strategy that can be used to ensure successful retrieval. There appears to be a basis for associating colour and its significant effect on memory abilities.

In other words, colour has the potential to increase chances of environmental stimuli to be encoded, stored, and retrieved successfully.

The choice of colours and the manipulative aspects can, however, influence the extent to which colours can influence human memory performance. The authors also thanked the reviewers of this article for their valuable comments and suggestions.

Conflict of interest. Critical revision of the article for the important intellectual content: National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Malays J Med Sci.

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Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Jan 7; Accepted Feb For permission, please email: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Human cognition involves many mental processes that are highly interrelated, such as perception, attention, memory, and thinking.

Introduction Memory refers to the mental process of encoding, retaining, and retrieving environmental information 1. Models of Human Memory Human memory is commonly dichotomised to involve a short-term and longer-term memory storage. Attention and memory Attention refers to the cognitive process of selecting information that is available in the environment. Attention, memory, and colour Colour helps us in memorizing certain information by increasing our attentional level.

Arousal and memory Arousal refers to the state of being alert physically and internally. Arousal, memory and colour Arousal, especially emotional arousal, can play an essential role in keeping the information in the memory system.

Colour and Memory Performance Colour has been found to influence memory performance by increasing our attentional level and arousal.

Factors That Influence the Effectiveness of Colour on Memory Performance The studies reviewed above showed that colours can lead to better memory performance. Conclusion An important aspect in successful and efficient cognitive functioning is the abilities to utilize the system to the fullest. The results of this study have not been presented in any symposium. Footnotes Conflict of interest Nil.

MFMM Critical revision of the article for the important intellectual content: References 1. Radvansky G. Boston MA: Pearson Education Group; A cross-cultural study of the affective meaning of color.

J Cross Cult Psychol. The contributions of color to recognition memory for natural scenes. J Exp Psychol Learn. Morton J. Banner advertiser-web site context congruity and color effects on attention and attitude. J Advertising. White JV.

Ohio US: Strathmoor Press; Students of low academic achievement — their personality, mental abilities and academic performance: How counsellor can help? Int J Hum Soc Scie. Wilkins AJ. Chichester EG: Wiley; Colour as a therapeutic intervention: The case of J. J Autism Dev Disord.

Belmont BE: Thomson Higher Ed; Mariam Adawiah D.This result complements the study of Heuer and Reisberg 27 , that found better retention in long-term recall with a high level of emotional arousal. The significance of colour in different settings is presented first, followed by a description on the nature of human memory.

Can you trust your own eyes? What is loneliness and why do we feel it? Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; Int J Hum Soc Scie.

Neil We are and I think you might find it quite useful! In other words, colour has the potential to increase chances of environmental stimuli to be encoded, stored, and retrieved successfully.

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