The Vietnam War: a Handbook of the Literature and Research. Westport, PEAKE, Louis A. The United States in the Vietnam War, New York;. This teaching unit, The Vietnam War: A National Dilemma, is one of several such To download and download a complete ebook (pdf) version of this unit. was no fixed beginning for the U.S. war in Vietnam. The United Vietnam. When the Vietnamese Nationalist (and Communist-led) Vietminh army defeated.
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and the process of healing; (11) Boat people and Vietnamese refugees in the United States; and (12) The Vietnam War: lessons from yesterday for today. Leader of South Vietnam. ▫ Used terror tactics to keep power. ▫ Backed out of elections meant to unite the 2 countries of Vietnam. ▫ Causes civil war to break. Despite the existence of extensive historical scholarship on the misunderstood origins, frustrating course, and failed outcomes of the U.S. war in Vietnam.
Nixon, Kissinger, and Betrayal in Vietnam. The Free Press, The Trial of the Catonsville Nine. Fordham University Press, Beacon Press, Four Hours in My Lai. Viking Penguin, The Quicksand War: Prelude to Vietnam. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company, Mountain River: Vietnamese Poetry from the Wars, Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, Flower of the Dragon: The Breakdown of the U.
Army in Vietnam.
San Francisco, CA: Ramparts Press, The Soundtrack of the Vietnam War. Imagining Vietnam and America: The Making of Postcolonial Vietnam, Life under an Air War. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 2nd ed. Guerilla Diplomacy: Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, The Wasted Nations: Harper Colophon, Following Ho Chi Minh: The Memoirs of a North Vietnamese Colonel. Honolulu, HI: Inside Story of the Guerrilla War. International Publishers, Grasshoppers and Elephants: Why Vietnam Fell.
Urizen Books, The Wars in Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos, A Bibliographic Guide. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, Masters of War: Military Dissent and Politics in the Vietnam Era.
Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, Vietnam and the Transformation of American Life. Boston, Blackwell, The Unfinished War: Vietnam and the American Conscience. Beacon Press, 2nd ed.
A Rumor of War. Henry Holt and Co. The United States and State Building, At War in the Shadow of Vietnam: Turn the Guns Around: Mutinies, Soldier Revolts, and Revolutions.
World View Forum, The Peasants of North Vietnam. Penguin, Brother Enemy: The War after the War. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, A Portrait of Its People at War.
Tauris, The Wrong Man in Uniform: Trident Press, American Power and the New Mandarins. Pantheon, At War with Asia: Essays on Indochina. Rethinking Camelot: Political Culture. South End Press, Samuel French, The Limits of Air Power: The American Bombing of North Vietnam.
The Legacy of American Bombs in Laos. ThingsAsianPress, Paladin Press, Soldiers in Revolt: The American Military Today. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 2nd ed. The Vietnam Songbook. Guardian, An American Ideal: The Antiwar Movement of the Vietnam Era. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, A Noble Cause? America and the Vietnam War. Essex, England: Longman, Heroes and Revolution in Vietnam.
NUS Press, North to Canada: Men and Women against the Vietnam War. Westport, CT: Praeger, No Other Road to Take: Memoir of Mrs. Nguyen Thi Dinh. Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, From Hanoi to Hollywood: The Vietnam War in American Film. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, The Vietnamese Revolution: Fundamental Problems, Essential Tasks. Against The Crime of Silence: Ho Chi Minh: A Life. Hyperion, Our Great Spring Victory: An Account of the Liberation of South Vietnam.
About this Book
Monthly Review Press, Healing from the War: Trauma and Transformation after Vietnam. Shambhala Publications, Carrying the Darkness: The Poetry of the Vietnam War.
Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University Press, In the Shadow of Vietnam: Essays, Jefferson, NC: The Third Indochina Conflict. Papers on the War.
Simon and Schuster, A Memoir of Vietnam and the Pentagon Papers. Red Brotherhood at War: Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos since Verso, revised ed. Princeton, NJ: Crimes of War. Random House, Street Without Joy: Harrison, PA: Stackpole Books, Hell in a Very Small Place: The Siege of Dien Bien Phu.
Da Capo Press, 2nd ed. Anatomy of a Crisis: The Laotian Crisis of Doubleday, The Agrarian Question in North Vietnam, Armonk, NY: Sharpe, Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam. The Draft, Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, Confronting the War Machine: Draft Resistance during the Vietnam War. Labor and the Vietnam War.
Vietnam and Other American Fantasies. Bruce, ed. Bedford Books, Nurses in Vietnam: The Forgotten Veterans. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press, Troubled Water: Palgrave Macmillan, Telltale Hearts: In the Service of Their Country: War Resisters in Prison.
Vietnam and America: A Documented History. Grove Press, The Perfect War: Technowar in Vietnam. Atlantic Monthly Press, Lessons in Disaster: Historical Dictionary of the Indochina War An International and Interdisciplinary Approach.
Radical Visions: Poetry by Vietnam Veterans. Resisting the Draft during the Vietnam War. Black Power, Manhood, and the Military Experience.
Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, The Quiet American. Penguin Books, William Heinemann Ltd.
Teaching the Vietnam War. Montclair, NJ: Northern Passage: American Vietnam War Resisters in Canada.
On strategy: the Vietnam War in context.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, Vietnam Draft Resisters in Canada. Raincoast Books, The Making of a Quagmire. The Best and the Brightest. Ballantine Books, Because of Their Faith: Vietnam War Era: People and Perspectives. The Media and Vietnam. Oxford University Press, Out Now! Pathfinder, 2nd ed. The Struggle for Indochina, Viet Nam and the French Experience. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, revised ed. Dreams Die Hard: The Endless War: The Suicide of an Elite: American Internationalists and Vietnam.
Stanford University Press, Louis, ed. Mutiny Does Not Happen Lightly: Metuchen, NJ: Regarding religion, most Vietnamese practice Buddhism or Taoism. However, Vietnam and its homefront contexts put new emphasis on cultural and social differences among troops. Factors in acknowledging diversity included civil rights struggles, ethnic and racial pride, and global resistance to white western domination. African American service drew great attention during the war and remains a key topic.
The peak years of the African American freedom struggle coincided with the early years of US combat in Vietnam, compelling many to analyze relationships between these transformative events.
The lack of positive results in Vietnam and at home became increasingly frustrating. Although many African Americans benefited from civil rights legislation and government efforts at fighting poverty, the persistence of structural racism and the elusiveness of equal opportunity generated impatience.
A younger, more assertive generation of black leaders was sometimes more willing than their predecessors to consider Vietnamese people allies in struggle. Although there was no universal African American perspective on or experience in Vietnam, some general facts are notable. African Americans often saw military service as key to respect and economic empowerment. Regard for President Lyndon Johnson and his pro-civil rights, anti-poverty agenda was high among many African Americans. These supporters hesitated to dispute Johnson on Vietnam.
As to feelings toward Vietnamese people, surveys showed that black soldiers were more likely than white soldiers to be positive toward that group. Anti-Vietnam War sentiment in African American communities and among black leaders intensified as the war unfolded. Many activists who challenged southern segregation adapted their ideas and tactics to Vietnam dissent. The most prominent African Americans to reject the war were boxer Muhammad Ali, who suffered professional retribution for refusing the draft, and Martin Luther King, Jr.
Black Panther Party for Self-Defense members took a bold stand by expressing solidarity with North Vietnam and visiting that country. Historical, community, and social movement influences were powerful. Throughout US history, Native Americans surpass all ethnic groups in per capita military service rates. Their numbers remained high in Vietnam and their generational traditions of honoring warriors stayed strong, but aspects of that war were especially troubling for Native Americans.
These included raids on Vietnamese villages and relocation of their residents, who were poor but fiercely proud of ties to ancestors and land. For many Asian American Vietnam veterans, the empathy that soldiers of color often felt for Vietnamese people took disturbing forms.
Asian Americans recall being singled out for abuse during training, subjected to various restrictions, and being perceived as identical to the enemy. Change came in with the arrival of South Vietnamese refugees who had relatively privileged backgrounds.
Many of these immigrants hailed from cities, had professional skills, and supported American intervention in Vietnam. Their profiles often helped this first Vietnamese immigrant wave find sponsorship from US citizens. Online by the U. State Department, Office of the Historian. No matter where Johnson looked he found himself looking down the path of war.
For example, the basic of the military preparation had already been carried out by the Taylor-Rostow plan thereby influencing Johnson for deepening involvement.
Additionally, General Westmoreland was the first to specifically ask for a significant increase in ground troops after Johnson had authorized the operation Rolling Thunder and after the NSAM had already granted an increase in over 18, troops. Similarly, McNamara had always thought the fighting could be calculated and rarely expressed reserves when promoting his military schemes.
On the other hand, there were a few occasional dissenters, such as Senator Mike Mansfield who spoke against a retaliatory strike on North Vietnam after bombings in Pleiku on February 7th He suggested that the U.
The Johnson administration was under the illusion that Ho Chi Minh was a communist and led a communist — anti-American — revolution. Soon he will try to chase me out of my house. Not to say that he was not fully aware that it would be a costly political move, but it can be argued, in light of that quote, that he may have had hope for more tolerance from both the international and domestic public. However, these ideological premises misjudged the reality of events. For example, the justification given for increasing the amount of troops ever since was that it would foster a quick resolution of the conflict.
Johnson confessed in his July 31 Robert S. In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam. Times, , p. Ball points this out in his June 18th memo, but it seems to have very little impact on the decision making process; probably due of the single-mindedness of the administration.
Thus, because Johnson knew little about the Vietnam context, a lot of his miscalculations were based on his predecessors. Furthermore, Hunt adds another influence: By the time the Johnson administration were looking to escalate the Vietnam conflict, there was clear knowledge of the Sino-Soviet split.
Even in his public utterances, Johnson speaks only of the threat of China and not Communism in general or bundled with Moscow. One can wonder why they supposed that the North Vietnamese forces and Ho were attached to China.
Or, it can be argued that the wheels of war had already been put in motion and even if they knew that Mao and Ho were two very different figures, there was little reason to affront the grander scheme of the war rationale which, after all, was preconditioned on the last 15 years of American Foreign Policy.
If I left the woman I really loved — the Great Society — in order to get involved in that bitch of a war on the other side of the world, then I would lose everything at home. But I left that war and let the communists take over South Vietnam, then I would be seen as a coward and my nation would be seen as an appeaser and we would both find it impossible to accomplish anything for anybody anywhere on the entire globe. Strategies of Containment, p. In conclusion, this paper did not seek to provide excuses for what is one of the bloodiest conflicts in American history.
Rather it sought to demonstrate how the rationale for war was constructed through both strategic and structural reasons, which were independent of the administration, and through particular perspective of the issue itself, which were specific to Johnson.
He was genuinely convinced, because of his administration, his friends, and his own personal experience, as most of the United States at the time, that this was the best course to take.
He knew from the very beginning that it would end him, and he knew the cost from the outset. His reluctance to actively seek alternatives laid in the fact that he inherited the ill-fated structures of the Cold War and the ideology of a monolithic communist entity that must be contained at all costs.
Works Cited Ball, George W. Oxford UP, Halberstam, David. The Best and the Brightest.
The Enduring Literary Legacy of the Vietnam War
Herring, George C. The Pentagon Papers. McGraw-Hill, Hess, Gary R. Presidential Decisions for War: Johns Hopkins UP, Hunt, Michael H. Lyndon Johnson's War:Goodwin Press, How South Vietnam Was Liberated: He also found that the regular polls, based on samplings, underestimated the opposition to the war among lower-class people.
East Lansing, MI: Vietnam, Chicago, IL: Johnson and American Liberalism: Trauma, Memory, and the Vietnam War. Vietnam Documents: