According to Wikipedia, The Outsiders is a coming-of-age novel by S. E. Hinton, first The book follows two rival groups, the Greasers and the Socs who are. File: The-Outsiders-Full-Text Marissa Siefkes AF Network Support New Haven, CT. Views. Downloads. 15 Favorites. the outsiders by se the outsiders by se, KB; (Last Modified on November 6, ). Address. 70 Leland Lane, Southampton, NY.

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Unit Title: The Outsiders: Identity, the Individual, & the Group. Duration: Twelve 82 minute lessons. Global Rationale: S.E. Hinton has written a novel that deals. Lesson 1: Introducing the novel. Resource The Outsiders Anticipation Guide. Resource a Stereotype Gallery Walk Photos. Children's Literature in Education () – DOI /s ORIGINAL PAPER Institutionalizing The Outsiders: YA Literature, Social.

He also learns that Dally will recover, but Johnny's condition is extremely serious. The next night is set for a rumble between the greasers and the Socs. Ponyboy talks with Randy, Bob's best friend, who says that he has decided not to fight because after Bob's death he has realized it won't accomplish anything. Ponyboy is not feeling well, and he, too, is skeptical about the purpose of fighting, but he does participate in the rumble, which the greasers win.

Afterwards, Dally and Ponyboy go to visit Johnny in the hospital, where they hear his last words: "Stay gold, Ponyboy. Stay gold. Ponyboy, in worse health after the rumble, is unconscious and delirious for several days. When Ponyboy recovers, the Socs and greasers attend a court hearing.

Johnny is vindicated by all witnesses as having acted in self-defense. However, Ponyboy is depressed, his grades begin to suffer, and he almost turns to violence. His English teacher offers him a chance to pass by writing a final essay on the topic of his choice.

Ponyboy can't think of a topic, though, and he and Darry fight about his lack of motivation. Sodapop becomes upset, and pleads with the brothers to stop fighting because it is tearing him apart.

Ponyboy and Darry agree not to fight anymore. Back at home that night, Ponyboy examines a copy of Gone with the Wind that Johnny left him.

Things almost come to blows, but Cherry puts a stop to the confrontation by leaving with Bob. Before going home, Ponyboy talks with Johnny in the vacant lot and falls asleep. He returns home late, and Darry gets so angry that he hits Ponyboy, who runs from the house and goes with Johnny to the park. There, they run into Bob and his Soc friends. The Socs attack, dunking Ponyboy's head into the fountain.

Johnny stabs and kills Bob.

Dally helps them escape town. The boys take refuge in an abandoned church in the countryside. There, they cut their hair to disguise themselves and then spend five days talking, smoking cigarettes, and reading from Gone with the Wind. Dally comes to visit them and, on the way back from a restaurant, they find the church in flames. Johnny and Ponyboy run inside to save a group of schoolchildren who have come to the site for a picnic. They save the children but are all injured, including Dally, and are rushed to the hospital.

At the hospital, Ponyboy recognizes for the first time how much Darry really cares for him. He also learns that Dally will recover, but Johnny's condition is extremely serious. The next night is set for a rumble between the greasers and the Socs. In order for human beings to coexist and collaborate, these instinctual desires must be controlled through renunciation and repression.

These are the tasks of the ego, guided by the reality principle and the reasoned pursuit of long-term goals, and of the super-ego, a critical faculty established within the psyche to judge the ego and punish it with guilt. Civilization thus requires and makes use of guilt to constrain the selfish desires of the id, and Freud argues that it is this necessary renunciation and repression of desires and the feeling of guilt that are experienced as a general discontentment or malaise.

If modernity involves the elaboration of government, bureaucracy, and the law as expressions of the constraining operations of civilization, then this would also result in an intensification of malaise as an effect, for this elaboration would entail a concomitantly greater occasion for repression and guilt.

Other aspects of the modern age work to exacerbate this problem. In other words, science is useful for understanding the operation of nature, but this has as an effect the subversion of reli- gious faith as a source of solutions to fundamental questions of being and purpose. Science, or rationalization and intellectualization, might have replaced religion and superstition as the dominant framework for interpreting the world, but it fails to replace faith as a satisfying source of solutions to those existential problems.

Thus, its super- session of god results in the experience of disenchantment. This void has not been replaced adequately by a faith in human progress. The atrocities of the twentieth cen- tury—two world wars, the use of the atomic bomb, genocide in Europe, Cambodia, and Rwanda—have worked to undermine such a faith in a notion of historical progress despite, or because of, developments in science and technology.

Notably, Ponyboy and Johnny temporarily escape the law by hiding in a church, which might indicate to us their interest in religious belief, or at least a sacred space, as a refuge from the problems associated with civilized society. That the church in which they hide is abandoned and later completely destroyed suggests something about the epochal decline of religion as an available and effective source of sanctuary or comfort in the modern age.

The circumstances of the family unit comprised of Darry, Sodapop, and Ponyboy Curtis ensure that these youths experience a sense of the increasingly inescapable force of law. With their parents dead and the law establishing that Sodapop and Ponyboy have not reached the age of majority, the brothers are subject to the intervention and sur- veillance of the state.

This is experienced by all of them as a threat. They desire to remain together, but they are conscious that any kind of social or legal transgression could result in the activation of state authority to remove the two underage boys from the care of Darry, the eldest brother. This possibility looms throughout the novel as a persistent anxiety for the boys, both intensifying the stakes of even minor offenses like coming home late and creating the heightened tension between Darry and Ponyboy.

It is while running away that the two boys are again jumped by a group of Socs, and Johnny is compelled to use deadly force to defend himself.

Once Johnny kills Bob, a leader among the Socs, Johnny and Ponyboy then literally go on the run from the law.

However, no repre- sentative of the law directly appears in the text; rather, the law remains a shadowy force that trails the boys, that pervades the events of the narrative, and that structures the relationships of these young adults. As Foucault suggests, starting in the seventeenth century new strategies were developed for the multiplication of power relations between the state and its citizens.

He calls this a bio-politics of the population, or bio-power, and this developing phenomenon constitutes the elaboration of government, bureaucracy, and the law. That what is considered a foundational text in the history of YA literature would be so saturated by and concerned with the law is perhaps no coincidence.

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If The Outsiders represents the culmination of literary and cultural trends that lead to the YA novel, it also documents the culmination of nearly a century of efforts on the part of the law to penetrate the domestic sphere on behalf of children and adolescents.

The absence of laws specifically aimed at the welfare of children compelled a member of the community who had witnessed the abuse to contact the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals SPCA.

This milestone was coincident with most of the first laws regarding compulsory education for children 8—14 years of age. Massachusetts was the first state to pass such a law in , but most other states did not follow suit until the s. The invention of child welfare in the mid-nineteenth century, the reform of child labor laws during the first three decades of the twentieth, and the massive increase in the percentage of youths who completed or attended high school in the s created new and ever greater opportunities for agents of the state to monitor and intervene in the lives of children and adolescents.

The Outsiders testifies to the increasingly powerful force of law in domestic affairs. It established the work house as a place to incarcerate the idle poor. This means that from its inception, social welfare has targeted the poor and working classes in part as a means of control. Although state intervention can have both benevolent motives and beneficial effects, as in the pro- tection of children from abusive or negligent parents, its increasing reach can also deepen a sense of the law as in inescapable and intrusive force, thereby intensifying the malaise of modernity.

Given the ways that the poor and working classes are often more intensely targeted for such surveillance, we can expect these effects to be experienced disproportionately by these groups. The class status of the Curtis boys makes them particularly vulnerable to the expe- rience of alienation and the intrusiveness of the law. They lack both the funds needed for specialized legal representation and the cultural literacy to navigate the legal and social system that threatens to judge Darry unfit and to separate the boys.

Darry love me?

I thought of those hard, pale, eyes It is clear that the brothers experience estrangement and unease as a result of their circumstances, which have repercussions for their physical and emotional health. Ponyboy repeatedly describes Darry, who works two jobs, as looking older than his years and as having more worries than he should , pp. This condition also afflicts the other youths in the novel, and both Greasers and Socs are left to confront the apparently unbridgeable gulf between the two classes.

All of the youths experience varying degrees of anger and resentment because of their class status, about which they are keenly aware, and this is true for the Socs as well. Nothing is real with us. The feelings expressed here are too sophisticated, sincere, and complex to be dismissed as the hormone-driven turbulence of adolescence.

The Outsiders

Nor are the feelings of either Greasers or Socs that Hinton manages to articulate even particular to adolescents. Cherry is identifying precisely what social theorists like Charles Taylor have described as the malaise of modernity: a vague discontentment, a sense of unreality, an inability to identify what one wants or needs, a loss of a sense of purpose and significance.

Clearly, both Greasers and Socs suffer under the prevailing conditions of their society. In some ways, the conflicts between the two groups distracts from the ways both are caught up in system that adversely affects both of them.

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These youths also have the sense that their situations are inescapable. During the climactic rumble between the two groups, Darry confronts Paul Holden, a Soc who had been on the high school football team with him and who has had the opportunity to go to college. Darry has had to give up on college in order to support his two younger brothers.

Ponyboy is unable to complete the thought. At the moment he has this thought, the first punch in the rumble is thrown, which attests to the hopelessness of altering this mutual animosity. Randy, a Soc, confronts Ponyboy with the purposelessness of the rumble. Greasers will still be greasers and Socs will still be Socs. He thinks that he would help Randy if he could, but he also recognizes that there is nothing he can do.

The rumble will go on, and little will be settled because the economic conditions that underlie the Soc—Greaser conflict will remain unchanged. These characters also show evidence of a deep sadness about the separation between Greasers and Socs. When Darry faces off against his former football teammate, Pony- boy detects some expression behind both of their eyes that he cannot quite place. This confrontation, which requires them to engage in violence with each other, is a tragic one.

Darry and Paul are compelled to meet this way, but it seems likely that what Ponyboy detects behind their eyes is a desire to be buddying it around instead.

They must also recognize the impossibility of doing just that. The evidence of their alienation and malaise is clear. While these processes have the potential to affect anyone adversely, irrespective of class status—we see this is the case with Cherry and the Socs—,it is the working class, to which the Greasers belong, who are perhaps least equipped to defend against or resist economic exploitation and state intrusion.

What kind of solution does it offer to them? The answers to these questions might point to reasons for why the novel was so readily institutionalized as part of the YA canon in American secondary schools.

I am arguing that part of the reason for this is that it offers a palliative to the problems associated with social class. Rather than radically chal- lenging, calling into question, or disrupting the social systems and processes that pro- duce, contribute to, or sustain those problems, the novel achieves a kind of sleight of hand: in representing those problems it seems to be offering solutions to them, but the solutions it offers—the representation and knowledge of the problem itself—cannot be seen as constituting adequate or successful responses.

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In other words, The Outsiders is not a terribly threatening novel; therefore, it is able to be listed safely on school reading lists without raising any serious flags about radical social reform or revolution.

Of course, a novel is by no means required by whom or how would it be required anyway? Let me be clear. We can, therefore, consider how this intervention works. As the novel concludes, Johnny and Dallas are dead and the rift between Greasers and Socs continues even if there is a temporary cessation of group violence. Ponyboy sits down to complete his late English assignment, and what he composes turns out to be the novel itself.

I could picture hundreds and hundreds of boys living on the wrong side of cities, boys with black eyes who jumped at their own shadows. Hundreds of boys who maybe watched sunsets and looked at stars and ached for something better. It was too vast a problem to be just a personal thing. There should be some help, someone should tell them before it was too late. It was important to me.

This response takes the form of a textual narrative. The way Ponyboy articulates this impulse and its rationale is telling. He begins with the recognition that the problem is not merely a personal one, and hundreds of other boys exist out in the world who share the problems of himself and his friends.I could have waited to go to the movies until Darry or Sodapop got off work.

They looked about sixteen or seventeen. If this is what Johnny means, it is truly radical advice. Cherry started walking down the street. I looked away hurriedly, because, if you want toknow the truth, I was starting to bawl. I could picture hundreds and hundreds of boys living on the wrong side of cities, boys with black eyes who jumped at their own shadows.

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