PDF | Smart materials are common name for a wide group of different substances . The general feature of all of them is the fact that one or more properties might. PDF | On Mar 30, , Matthew N. O. Sadiku and others published Smart Materials: A Primer. Smart structures or smart materials systems are those which incorporate actuators and sensors that highly integrate into the structures and have.
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Bookreviews Smart materials and structures page M.V. Gandhi In particular, there is no mention of the use of optical fibres in combination with. ABSTRACT. Smart materials are common name for a wide group of different substances. The general feature of all of them is the fact that one or more properties. SPIE—The International Society for Optical Engineering. Smart Structures and Materials Smart Materials Technologies. Wilbur C. Simmons. Ilhan A. Aksay.
The goals of this research are to focus on materials that combine questions of sustainability with the performance of building materials and to suggest a methodology that shall help architects and designers in choosing a suitable smart material for building design.
Smart materials and structures
Further on smart materials are able to adapt their physical or chemical properties, in order to optimize the mechanical or thermal response of a structure or building. This in combination with innovative manufacturing processes will lead to new concepts in architectural engineering.
Schodek , 2 5. Surface materials: Metal surface materials, Non-metallic mineral surface materials Roofing, Sheets for cladding, Plaster, Flooring , Stone surface materials, Fired clay, Surfaces of earth. Bitumen-based materials ,Plastic surface materials ,Living plant surfaces Planted roofs, Wall cladding with plants, Indoor plants ,Timber sheet materials Roof covering, Timber cladding, Wooden floors, Natural rubber latex ,Wood-based boards ,Grass materials Roofing and wall cladding with grasses, Grass boarding, Soft floor covering of, and linoleum ,Boarding from ,domestic waste ,Carpets and textiles.
Services: using different materials for Lighting, Air conditioning, electrical services, gases supply, water supply and distribution, draining supply, trash compactor. Innovative materials classifications: Recyclable Materials: These materials are manufactured mainly from crushed and cleaned waste.
Biodegradable materials: That are decomposed and completely broken down by microorganisms living in the soil.
Functional and Smart Materials
Biomaterials: Plastics and other materials made from renewable sources. Nonvariable materials: These materials are largely unaffected by physical and chemical influences. Functional Substances: A general term for monofunctional and multifunctional substances.
Smart Materials: These materials have change properties and are to reversibly change their shape or color in response to physical and —or chemical influences. Functionally Gradient Materials: Composite materials with gradually merging layers.
This results in a continuous change in material properties. Nanomaterials: Materials made from nanometer scale substances, Axel Ritter, 2 7. Traditional materials, High performance materials: Fixed responses to external stimuli material properties remain constant under normal conditions Smart Materials: Type1- Property-changing Intrinsic response variation of material to specific internal or external stimuli Thermochromic, Magnetorheological, Thermotropic, Shape memory , Type 2— Energy exchanging Responses can be computationally controlled or enhanced Photovoltaic, Thermoelectric, Piezoelectric, Photoluminescent, and Electrostrictive.
Smart devices and systems: Embedded smart materials in devices or systems, with intrinsic response variations and related computational enhancements to multiple internal or external stimuli or controls. Intelligent environments: combined intrinsic and cognitively guided response variations of whole environment comprised of smart devices and systems to use conditions and internal or external stimuli, D.
Schodek, 2 5. These influences may lead to changes directly without conversion on the energy environments luminous, thermal, and acoustic , or indirectly with conversion on systems energy generation, mechanical equipment , Axel Ritter, 2 7. For example: electrochromic glass is simultaneously a glazing material, a window, a curtain wall system, a lighting control system or an automated shading system. It has a lot to do with new technologies D.
Schodek, 2 5 , recent developments in material research now allow coming to real-world practical, commercial applications.
Nowadays materials such as phase-change-materials, electro- chromic glasses and coatings, based on nano-technology, are available and the task is to span the gap between this material level to large scale architecture and building engineering applications.
The basic material of nanoparticles can be organic or inorganic, for example silver or ceramic. In the building sector, nanotechnology is an "enabling technology", a fundamental technology that helps to make other technological developments possible, Sylvia Bedecked, 2 8 , The challenges for nanomaterials synthesis lie in the design and tailoring of complex hybrid nanoparticles and 'intelligent' or 'smart' nanomaterials nanotubes, functionalized surfaces, multi-layers, novel thin films and interfaces with multiple functions for urgent applications, Michael Berger, 2 1 , this innovative technology include layers of nanoparticals which can make glazing especially water-repllent or spectrum-selective, or paints and plastics extremely scrach- resistant.
Glazing can incorporate suitably thin dichotic filter layers Nanoparticles can also be used in gypsum wallboard to improve room air quality. Examples of nanoparticles used are titanium dioxide Tio2 and zeolite Type1-property-changing, photoadhestive smart materials.
In a similar context, membranes with nanometer-scale pores are currently being developed to be used as part of facades with the ability to clean polluted city air. Indoor and out door, Axel Ritter, , Sylvia Bedecked, Actually the idea of multiple states of a system is not new, Dr. Teuffel, 2 9. Adaptive system definition: The three main components of smart or adaptive systems are defined as the sensors, the actuators and a control unit.
Sensors are one key component of any adaptive system. They must be able to measure different parameters at various points at various times. However extruded thermoplastics are not suitable for large-scale applications due to the challenges of extrusion. The brush-on polymer is weak, brittle and requires long cure times.
The polymers have fast gel and cure times, making application to vertical and overhead surfaces feasible. The polyurea are typically stiffer than polyurethanes but have less elongation capacity. As a result, urethanes are often combined with ureas to increase elongation capacity.
The masonry wall tests conducted by Air Force Research Laboratory at Tyndall AFRL indicate that a paint-on polymeric reinforcement approach can be effective in reducing the vulnerability of un-reinforcement non-load bearing CMU walls subjected to blast loading.
Kuzik et al. A full-scale test programme consisting of eight wall specimens was conducted. The authors have observed that the overall flexural performance of the masonry walls reinforced externally with GFRP sheets was excellent. Except for visible cracks, the walls maintained their structural integrity throughout the out-of-plane cyclic loading.
Besides, all of the unloading paths part near the origin result in a pinching effect.
Thus, the general behaviour of the walls was very predictable. The behaviour of seven half scale masonry specimens before and after retrofitting using FRP was investigated by El Gawady et al. Four walls were built using half scale hollow clay masonry units and weak mortar to simulate walls built in central Europe in the middle of the 20th century. There walls were first tested as URM walls, then the seismically damaged specimens were retrofitted.
The fourth wall was directly upgraded after construction.
The retrofitting and upgrading was carried out using FRPs with different axial rigidity. The FRP was applied on the entire surface of a single-side of each test specimen. All the specimens were tested under constant gravity load and incrementally increasing in-planeloading cycles.
Thandavamoorthy It has been observed by the authors that FRPs improved the lateral resistance of specimens by a factor of 1. Further the increase in the lateral strength was approximately increased proportional to the amount of the axial rigidity of FRP.
By using FRP retrofitting, the cracking load and pattern are effectively controlled. The mode of failure was found to be strongly dependent on the axial rigidity of FRP. Higher axial rigidity of FRP led to very ductile failure, Moreover the energy dissipation of the retrofitting and upgraded specimens was higher than the control specimens.
However, most of this energy dissipated due to friction in the masonry rather than due to deformations in the FRP. The role of the FRP was to keep the masonry together even at high drifts.
Strengthening of Masonry Vaults Among the structural components in masonry buildings such as arches and vaults deserve particular attention. They are very widespread in European historical centers, and their preservation as part of the cultural heritage is a topical subject. Because of their ages or for accidental causes such as earthquakes, these structures can suffer several type of damage, so the contribution of strengthening materials and repair techniques may be required to reestablish their performances and to prevent the brittle collapse of the masonry in possible future hazardous conditions.
A multilayer system of adhesion based on epoxy adhesives and designed to provide a support as homogeneous as possible for the failure has been adopted. The results of experimental research on brick, masonry vaults strengthened at their extrados or at their intrados by FRP strips are presented by Valluzzi et al. Different kinds of failure mechanisms have been observed. The width and the stiffness of the strips seem to have a strong influence on the behaviour in proximity to the failure.
Regardless of the type of strengthened material, vaults strengthened at the extrados revealed a possible brittle mechanism of failure due to the sliding between mortar and bricks.
Such a mechanism can be prevented by placing a proper amount of fiber distributed in the springer zones. Because of the larger surfaces available for the adhesion, higher value of ultimate strength of the vaults has been detected for the fibres with lower mechanical characteristics. Vaults strengthened at their intrados revealed a more ductile mechanism of failure because of the attachment of the fibers perpendicularly to the masonry interface. The failure is located in a limited zone, so the binding action of the strips can still avoid the collapse of the structures.
The fortification techniques have been initiated in the wake of the city being upgraded to seismic zone III a few years ago. Work on Kodambakkam Bridge and Ripon Buildings of more than years old has already been started. According to Lopez over m2 of fibre wrap was being used for strengthening columns of the ground floor of Ripon Buildings.
This would strengthen the columns that are likely to be damaged during seismic events. The fibre wrap being used now was capable of withstanding extremes of temperature. It was also cheaper than other available technologies. The fibre wrap was wound around the columns and the original material lime mortar or cement will then be packed on top of it Figure 5.
Application of FRP for Strengthening and Retrofitting of Civil Engineering Structures 55 The civic body had also done fibre wrapping on the columns of Kodambakkam bridge as part of restoration of the year-old structure. The restoration would include spraying of anti-corrosion material and grouting. A few years ago, an expert study conducted on the metre-long and The authorities of the Corporation were of the opinion that use of fibre wrap would strengthen such structures and prevent them from collapsing during, or after a seismic event.
Figure 5: Fibre Wrapping of Chennai Corporation Building Retrofitting of a Medieval Bell Tower with FRP It is a common practice in structural engineering to retrofit existing structures to resist seismic actions that they were not originally designed for. Seismic retrofitting of monument structures requires compliance with restrictive constraints related to the preservation of original artistic and structural features.
Any intervention that is conceived must achieve structural performance and at the same time comply with the appearance and structural mechanism of the original and be as minimally invasive as possible. The intervention on the bell tower of Santa Lucias Church in Serra San Quirico, Ancona, Italy is an application of composite materials for the seismic retrofit of historic monuments where traditional retrofit strategies are not suitable.
Affected by the Umbria-Marche earthquake in , the bell tower of Santa Lucias Church is a multilayered masonry structure built in the 15th century. It is located at the centre of the little town of Serra San Quirico, a medieval suburb near Ancona, and is surrounded by many residential constructions of the same age. It is a calcareous masonry building about 30 m in height and 1, m in width with a rectangular plan view Figure 6. Because of damage and failure of similar structures in the same area, a desire to improve the seismic capacity of the tower was expressed by the local Architectural Heritage Supervision Office.
Initially, to fulfill the scope of retrofitting an intervention based on steel reticular system anchored to the inner side of the tower was proposed. The Architectural Heritage Authority recognized that this intervention violates the above described principles and, therefore, rejected it.
Moreover, considering the steps and projections in the masonry walls and their lengths, a solution based on jacketing repair or steel plate repair also cannot be successful and may defeat the very purpose of the monumental structure.
Thandavamoorthy Figure 6: The design also included finite element simulation and a site structural assessment. Effectiveness of the intervention was evaluated by performing a nonlinear static analysis, i. Pushover curves for the retrofitted and un-retrofitted structures are shown in Figure 7. The FRP intervention enhances the seismic capacity of the structure and is fully provisional as it may be removed by heating the FRP with a hot air jet.
Figure 7: A total of four full sized mm x mm square pre-stressed piles were wrapped, two with carbon and two with glass. Two of these wrapped piles, i. Two other unwrapped piles serve as controls.
Instrumentation allowed determination of the corrosion potential over the unwrapped surface and the corrosion rate for the wrapped piles. The study showed that underwater wrapping is a visible system. As with most FRP retrofits, surface preparation is of paramount importance. In this case, surface preparation required equipment capable of operation underwater to grind sharp corners.
Although initial field tests on the wrapped piles indicated that the bond between the wet concrete and the FRP was relatively poor, laboratory tests showed the bond was adequate to restore the full undamaged capacity.
Corrosion rate measurements indicate that the performance of the wrapped piles is consistently better than the unwrapped controls. The preliminary findings are quite encouraging and suggest that underwater wrapping without cofferdam construction may provide a cost-effective solution for pile repair.
In this case, description about the treatment of corrosion is hardly presented. Of course, there is no doubt wrapping may prevent ingress of marine products. But the existing corrosion products still remain inside and proliferated with the passage time. Retrofitting of Hollow Bridge Piers In order to maximize efficiency in terms of the strength-to-mass and stiffness-to-mass ratios and to reduce the mass contribution of the pier-to-seismic response, it has been a common engineering practice to use hollow sections for bridge piers particularly for tall piers.
Hollow bridge piers are currently being used in high speed rail and highway projects in Taiwan. Recent earthquakes such as the Northridge earthquakes of , the Kobe earthquake of , and the Taiwan earthquakes of , have respectively demonstrated the vulnerabilities of older reinforced concrete piers to seismic deformation demands and shear strength.
Yeh and Mo have presented the results of an investigation on hollow piers retrofitted with carbon fiber reinforced polymer CFRP sheets. A classification system based on renewable energy supply option. National sustainable development of smart cities. Here it is the necessity to Renewable Energy Laboratory; Jun. Smart meter adoption and deployment An attempt has been made to enlist the application of smart strategy for residential buildings in Indonesia.
Applied Energy. SMAs have smart characteristics as they Sep; The ability to change magnetic energy into kinetic energy and vice versa makes more special to magnetostrictive materials in the application of actuators and sensors for buildings.
The piezoelectricity is a state of smart materials which becomes electrically charged when directed to mechanical stresses and vice versa. Now these days TiO2 also considered as a smart material as it has low toxicity, high chemical firmness. The use of zero energy building ZEB provides a solution as less consumption of electricity with zero carbon emission which directly means environment friendly. References 1. Ahmad, I. Inc, , pp. Rogers, C. Ahmad, A. Crowson, C.
Rogers and M. Mohamed S, Elattar S. Smart structures and material technologies in architecture applications.
Scientific Research and Essay. Smart structures in engineering education. Otsuka K, Ren X. Recent developments in the research of shape memory alloys. An experimental assessment towards energy efficient buildings.
Energy and Buildings. Gandhi, M. V and Thompson, B. Fairweather, J. Role of nano oxides for improving cementitious building materials. Journal of Civil Engineering and Science. Curie, Jacques; Curie, Pierre. Zhang Y, Lu LW. Introducing smart structures technology into civil engineering curriculum: Instant electrode fabrication on carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic structures using metal nano-ink via flash light sintering for smart sensing. Composites Part B. Kamila, S. Related Papers. Smart Material -Shape Memory Alloy.
By Karthi Keyan. Magnetostrictive actuators compared to piezoelectric actuators. By Frank Claeyssen. Recent Advancement in Shape Memory Alloy.
The application of smart materials in building facades. By Hazreena Hussein.
Intelligent Materials and Structures
On Magnetostrictive Transducer Applications. By Alison Flatau.Palm-sized micro aerial vehicle. At the same time, it is hoped that our materials will be well accepted and will cause neither harm nor injury.
The key factors to building a smart city are a spatial for long term problems of smart cities and sustainable raction, data and information intelligence based on real-time interaction, information- environment. Albert, M. These situations warrant strengthening or up-gradation of the structure to carry the enhanced loading. The significance of active sound control in the work place is of utmost importance as because hearing loss can occur from long term exposure to workplace sound.
The sensors serve as a data col- Research Center, are looking into smart paints which lector as well as a wireless transmitter. Schematic illustrating formation of magnetostrictive composites upper.