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pdf Understanding Weather and Climate (6th Edition) Rising interest in climate change and severe weather phenomena are making. Full file at raudone.info Edition-Aguado-Solutions-Manual Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and the Seasons. Format, Paper. ISBN Availability. This item is out of print and has been replaced with Understanding Weather and Climate, 7th Edition.
Energy is transferred by conduction when there is molecule-to-molecule contact without appreciable movement.
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When a gas or liquid is heated or cooled and mixed, energy is transferred by convection remember that the atmosphere is a gas, and acts like a very thin liquid. Transfer of energy by radiation requires no medium in between. Neither liquid nor solid is required. As the fire burns, the potential energy stored in the wood is changed into heat energy that radiates upward to the cooking pot radiation.
The soup is then mixed by the heat from the bottom of the iron pot, and rises to the top. The cooler soup from the top then circulates downward convection and becomes warmed.
Electromagnetic radiation is a type of energy which contains both electric and magnetic fields, oscillating in waves. Depending on the frequency the distance between waves , electromagnetic radiation will appear and behave differently. An increase in temperature will bring a much larger increase in radiation. The Stefan-Boltzmann Law indicates that radiation will increase to a factor of four times more than the temperature increase. An increase in temperature would result in four times more radiation from the Earth.
In the infrared, cooler clouds will radiate at longer wavelengths than warmer clouds.
By imaging these differences by assigning different wavelengths to different shades of white and gray , we can tell where the clouds are both day and night. The cooler the cloud, the brighter it is in the image, and the higher it is in the atmosphere. Thicker, lower clouds will radiate at longer wavelengths, and appear as a darker grey.
Colors can be applied to the image for more precise analysis. Beam spreading occurs when the angle of the sun is lower in the sky.
The same amount of solar radiation will cover a larger area, so the net radiation at any point under the beam will be less than when the beam is directly overhead. As the sun appears to be higher or lower in the sky during the year, the point with the most intense midday heating will move as well.
Chapter 2 Review Question Answers 1. Potential Energy stored for use Water behind a dam, energy in a battery, pressure in a can or bottle or fire extinguisher, energy stored in firewood, food energy, fuels, and a can on a high shelf potential energy from gravity , a race car or locomotive at rest, leaves on a tree, a raindrop or snowflake in a cloud Kinetic Energy in use Visible light, heat radiation energy , a race car or locomotive in motion, electricity, falling leaves, falling rain or snow 2.
Conduction is transfer of energy from molecule to molecule by touching. Convection is transfer of energy through the mixing of a liquid or gas. One part is an electrical field, one part is a magnetic field. Differing lengths of waves wavelengths result in different characteristics of their radiation. Most notably, atmospheric gases respond differently to short-wave solar and long-wave Earth radiation. Fahrenheit and Celsius scales deal with the freezing and boiling points of water.
The Kelvin scale allows us to compare temperatures from absolute zero to the surface of a star and everything in between. The angle of the sun. The Arctic and Antarctic Circles denote the lines poleward of which there is either no light or 24 hours of light at the solstices. For example, the area north of the Arctic Circle receives 24 hours of sun on the June solstice, when the area south of the Antarctic Circle is in complete darkness. The dates of solstices, equinoxes, perihelion, and aphelion would not change.
December solstice beginning of northern hemisphere winter North Pole: Sun is below the horizon, darkness is 24 hours Tropic of Cancer: Longest daylight of the year South Pole: Sun is above horizon for 24 hours Example: June solstice beginning of northern hemisphere summer North Pole: Sun is above horizon for 24 hours Tropic of Cancer: Longest daylight of the year Equator: Shortest daylight of the year South Pole: Sun is below horizon for 24 hours Although the sun appears to travel north and south of the Equator during the year, it is always visible above the Equator.
This is the point on the curved surface of the Earth that receives 12 hours of light every day. Daylight increases and decreases north and south of the Equator depending on the season, except on the equinoxes, when the entire Earth receives 12 hours of light and dark.
As the angle of the sun decreases the sun appears lower in the sky the same amount of solar radiation becomes spread over a larger area beam spreading. This results in a reduction of total incoming solar radiation. In the northern hemisphere, the day with the least variation in solar radiation would be the June solstice. Because beam spreading would be at a minimum compared to the southern hemisphere , the radiation received would vary the least.
The length of day would vary from 12 hours at the Equator to 24 hours at the pole Related Papers. D the ability to do work. Answer: B Section: 2. B convection. C radiation. D All three of the above involve the movement of particles.
Understanding Weather and Climate (6th Edition)
Answer: A Section: 2. B involves potential energy only.
C involves mixing in a fluid. D is another term for conduction. Answer: C Section: 2. B supplies only a minute portion of the earth's energy. C cannot be thought of as consisting of particles. D can be transferred through a vacuum. Answer: D Section: 2. B occurs at more than one scale. C occurs only at scales that are very small.
D occurs only at scales that are very large. B energy that is transferred at the molecular level only. C conduction, convection, and radiation. D only the energy interactions between the earth and the atmosphere. B create movement.
C cause acceleration. D none of the above Answer: A Section: 2. B Ampere. C Joule. D Ohm.
B cannot be removed from that atom unless that atom combines with another hydrogen atom to form a hydrogen molecule. C has greater energy when it is further away from the nucleus. D can absorb and emit photons of nearly any wavelength. B kinetic energy is proportional to the potential energy.
C potential energy is the storage state of kinetic energy. D in practice, all of a potential energy source is never fully transformed to usable kinetic energy.
E All of the above are true. Answer: E Section: 2. B everything radiates. C radiation provides us with visible light. D all of the above Answer: D Section: 2.
B firewood. C water behind a dam.
D electrical power. B boiling water. C food. D a water wheel in motion.
B macrometer. C nanometer. D decameter. B are hypothetical; they don't actually exist.
[Aguado E., Burt J.E.] Understanding Weather and Climate 6th edition
C emit the same amount of energy regardless of their temperatures. D do not emit radiation as well as gray bodies do. B demonstrates that a cooler body will radiate with greater intensity than will a hotter body. C does not apply to black bodies. D is derived from Wien's law. B will always be less than one for any object that is not a black body. C is typically. D is constant for the atmosphere. B ultraviolet part of the spectrum.
C visible part of the spectrum. D infrared part of the spectrum.
E radio wave part of the spectrum. B black holes. C graybodies. D partials. B mass. C volume. D density. B distance. C diameter. D temperature. B is relatively rare in the universe. C consists of two waves that are 90 degrees out of phase with each other.
D does not create an electric field. B it is often measured in micrometers. C its energy is inversely proportional to its amplitude.
D its energy does not decrease with distance. B x-ray and radio wave. C microwave and gamma ray. D ultraviolet and near infrared. B the Sun's energy intensity peaks in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. C the radiation emitted from Earth must be 4 micrometers or longer. D wavelength is proportional to the fourth power of the intensity of radiation. B temperature and long-wave radiation. C the intensity of radiation and the temperature of an object.
D emissivity and wavelength. B the growth of plants. C the evaporation of water. B pressure. C temperature. D wind speed. B one-fourth.
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C one-eighth. D one-sixteenth.D twentieth century. C water behind a dam. With that background of the apparent movement of the sun now introduced, it is time for Energy. D is derived from Wien's law.
D is independent of the solar declination. It's easier to figure out tough problems faster using Chegg Study.
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