raudone.infope: application/pdf raudone.info: raudone.infods: Letters From A Father To His Daughter raudone.infods. Nehru wrote some 30 letters to his ten year daughter, Indira who was studying in a Mussoorie school in in which he taught her the natural history and the story of civilization. The principal aim of writing these letters was to teach Indira a wide range of issues. Time for reading Letters From A Father To His Daughter By Jawaharlal Nehru, as best seller book in this wolrd site, ppt, and pdf. capital letters and full stops.
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Letters from a father to his daughter by Jawaharlal Nehru; 14 editions; First published in ; Subjects: History, Ancient, Juvenile literature. Letters From a Father to His Daughter - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File . txt) or read online. misc. Name: Letters From A Father To His Daughter By Jawaharlal Nehru Rating: Likes: Types: ebook | djvu | pdf | mp3. Score: /10 - ( votes).
Readers waiting for this title: Letters from a father to his daughter. Letters from a father to his daughter , Children's Book Trust. Indu ne patro: Letters from a father to his daughter: History Created October 26, 8 revisions Download catalog record: Libraries near you: WorldCat Library. Letters from a father to his daughter , Children's Book Trust in English.
Letters from a father to his daughter , Children's Book Trust in English - 1st ed. February 7, Edited by Clean Up Bot. July 21, Edited by ImportBot. The glaciers had gone far back to the Arctic Ocean, and in Central Asia and Europe great forests arose.
Among these forests we find a new race of men living.
Letters from a Father to his Daughter
These people were cleverer in many ways than the Palaeolithic men whom we have just described. But they still made their tools out of stone. These men also belonged to the Stone Age but it was the later Stone Age. They are called Neolithic men or men of the new Stone Age. We find when examining these Neolithic men that great progress has been made. The intelligence of man is making him go ahead fast compared to the other animals.
These Neolithic men made the very great discovery of cultivation. They started tilling fields and growing their food there. This was a great thing for them. They could now get their food more easily instead of having to hunt animals all the time. They got more leisure, more time to rest and think. And the more leisure they had, the more progress they made in discovering new things and methods.
They started making earthen pots, and with the help of these they began to cook their food. The stone tools were much better and were beautifully polished. They also knew how to tame animals like the cow, the dog, the sheep and the goat. They also knew how to weave.
They used to live in houses or huts. You will wonder how we know so much about these people. They wrote no books of course. But I have already told you that the book where we read the story of these men is the great book of nature. It is not easy to read it. It requires great patience. Many people have spent their lives in trying to read this book and they have collected large numbers of fossils and other remains of old times. These fossils are collected together in the great museums, and we can see there the fine polished axes and the pots and stone arrows and needles and many other things which were made by the Neolithic man.
You have seen many of these things yourself but perhaps you have forgotten them. If you see them again you will be able to understand them better. How then can we find out what happened then? We cannot merely sit down and imagine everything.
I am therefore going to write to you from time to time short accounts of the story of our earth and the many countries. But this need not be true as it would 7. But scientists and those who have studied and thought a great deal about these matters tell us that there was a time when the earth was too hot for any living being to live on it.
But in old times when men did not exist surely no books could have been written. Before the men came there were only animals. You have read a little about English history and Indian history.
Now that you are at Mussoorie and I am in Allahabad we cannot have these talks. You know of course that our earth is very. But that little. And for a long long time there were no men or women living in it.
This would be very interesting for we could imagine anything we wanted to and would thus make up the most beautiful fairy tales. If we want to know something about the story of this world of ours we must think of all the countries and all the peoples that have inhabited it.
It is difficult to imagine this world of ours. And the little river took it to the big river. You will I hope soon begin to learn how to read this story from the rocks and mountains. It is not at all like a round smooth pebble. If you see a little round shiny pebble. Somehow the river left it behind and you found it. How then did the pebble become so round and smooth and shiny?
It will tell you its story if you have good eyes to see and ears to hear it. These and other like things are our books for the earth's early story. Probably it rested on some mountain side. Even now perhaps you know a little how to read this. And the real way to understand this story is not merely to read about it in other people's books but to go to the great Book of Nature itself. But although we have no books written in those far-off days.
It tells you that once upon a time. So it became the pebble that you see. Then came the rain and washed it down to the little valley where it found a mountain stream which pushed it on and on till it reached a little river. Imagine how fascinating it is! Every little stone that you see lying in the road or on the mountain side may be a little page in nature's book and may be able to tell you something if you only knew how to read it. Hindi or Urdu or English. How did it get round and smooth and shiny without any corners or rough edges?
If you break a big rock into small bits. If a little pebble can tell you so much. If the river had carried it on. So also you must learn the alphabet of nature before you can read her story in her books of stone and rock.
We have rocks and mountains and seas and stars and rivers and deserts and fossils of old animals. And all the while it rolled at the bottom of the river and its edges were worn away and its rough surface made smooth and shiny. To be able to read any language. This book is always open before us but how few of us pay any attention to it or try to read it! If we learnt how to read it and understand it.
There were no vegetables and most of the things you eat today were not known then. As cities grew people learnt many beautiful arts.
And then will come man and woman. But the mahaut can think. Many men and women used to live together and so we had the first cities.
The power of thought will make them really different from the animals. Perhaps there were some wild nuts and fruits which men ate but mostly they must have lived on animals which they killed. The elephant is big and strong. It will be a real power which will make them stronger than the biggest and fiercest animal.
And so from this book of nature we would learn something of those far-off days when no man or animal lived on this earth of ours. They had no rice therefore. Before the cities were made men used to wander about from place to place. They will be savages not very different from animals. You see today a little man sit on top of a great big elephant and make him do what he wills. He found out many things — how to make a fire. As we read on we shall see the first animals appear and later more and more animals.
Gradually they will gather experience and begin to think. They also learnt how to 9. They did not know then how to grow their food from the land. I pointed out that we have to study the early story of the earth from the book of nature. The stories we would read about in its pages of stone would be more interesting than a fairy tale. This book consists of everything that you see around you—the rocks and mountains and valleys and rivers and seas and volcanoes. But there are not many of these.
It does good to nobody. A book could only be written once and then copied out by hand laboriously. In India we have specially books in Sanskrit and Persian and Urdu. But there were no printing presses and books could not be printed off in their thousands as is done today.
To learn the story of these early days of cities and countries we sometimes get old books. Other things help us. You could not just go to a bookseller or a bookstall to download a book.
Often the man who copied the book made flowers and drawings on the sides of the page. Books cannot last long. They thought they were better than others who lived in other countries and. But people in those days wrote beautifully and we have today many books in our libraries which were beautifully written by hand.
Of course there could not be many books. With the growth of cities. The kings and emperors of old times used to have accounts of their reigns written on stone tablets and pillars. They did not realize. You had to get someone to copy it and this took a long time. Even now you will find in some libraries whole books written in those far-off days on the leaves of the palm tree. Then came paper and it was easier to write. But for a long time there was no paper to write on and people used to write on the bark of the Bhojpatra tree— I think this is called the birch in English — or they wrote on palm leaves.
People who lived near each other in one country naturally got to know each other better. Can you distinguish between a planet and a star? The planets are really quite tiny. Today our country is very poor and a foreign people govern us.
The sun and the planets with their satellites form a happy family. But stones last much longer. We are not free even in our own country and cannot do what we want. This is called the solar system. In studying the old history of various countries we shall learn of the great things that were done in China and Egypt long ago when the countries of Europe were full of savage tribes. The other planets have also got their satellites. Solar means belonging to the sun. Only a few of these are the planets and these are really not called stars at all.
We shall learn also of the great days of India when the Ramayana and Mahabharata were written and India was a rich and powerful country. In my next letter I shall begin this fascinating story of the earth from the very beginning. The moon is called a satellite of the earth because it hangs on to it. All these. Perhaps you remember seeing the great stone pillar of Ashoka in the Allahabad Fort. At night you see thousands of stars in the sky.
You know also perhaps that there are several other bodies which like the earth go round the sun. On this is cut out in stone a proclamation of Ashoka who was a great king of India many hundreds of years ago. If you go to the museum in Lucknow you will find many stone tablets with words engraved on them. But this was not so always and perhaps if we try hard we may make our country free again. But the real way to distinguish the stars from the planets is to see if they twinkle or not. The real stars are like our sun.
That is because the planets only shine because they get the light of our sun. It is only the sunshine on the planets or the moon that we see. They shine of themselves because they are very hot and burning.
In reality our sun itself is a star. Stars twinkle. Just as the moon. This strange force. Somehow little bits of the sun got loose and they shot out into the air.
The sun was then as it is now a mass of flaming matter. The sun is millions of miles away and the other stars are even further away. We shall discuss the early beginnings of life in the next letter.
So the earth started to cool. Just as a bit of the sun shot out and became the earth. Everything would have been burnt up then. All this water filled the great hollows in the earth and so the great oceans and seas were formed. It took a long time over it. When the earth cooled. In this way our earth also shot out from the sun.
The sun also is getting less hot but it will take millions of years to cool down. But although it seems so big to us it is just like a speck of dust hanging in the air. It looks delightfully cool. So then our earth belongs to the family of the sun—the solar system. Gradually the surface of the earth became cooler although the interior remained very hot.
It is called the 'cold moon. It must have rained a tremendous lot then. The moon also started to cool and because it was much smaller than even the earth it cooled more quickly than the earth. The earth took much less time to cool. Even now if you go down a coal mine it becomes hotter and hotter as you go down. When it was hot of course.
The earth being the biggest thing near us attracts everything we have. Many people think that the moon came out of the great hollow which is now the Pacific Ocean. It was as if a rope was tied to them and they kept whirling round the sun. It takes weeks and months to go from one part of it to another even in a fast train or steamer. We think the earth is very big.
It must have been very hot. As the earth became cooler and the oceans also became cooler it became possible for living things to exist on the earth's surface or in the sea. It is the force which makes things fall by their weight. But they could not wholly get rid of their father. Probably if you could go down deep enough inside the earth you would find it red hot. He has shown by experiments that plants have a great deal of life and he thinks that even stones have some life.
If you remember I showed you some plants in Kew Gardens in London. When you study botany. You will probably say that men are living beings and so are all animals. But can our book of nature help us? It does help. But it is difficult to see this. Then there are some animals. These plants—orchids and pitcher plants—actually eat flies.
They grow and drink up the water and breathe the air and die. Some people tell us that even stones and rocks have some kind of life and that they feel a kind of pain. His name is Sir Jagadish Bose. When did life begin on the earth and what were the first living things?
That is a very interesting question but it is also a very difficult question to answer. What about trees and shrubs and flowers and vegetables? Surely they are living also. Let us first consider what life is. So you see it is not easy to say what thing is living and what is not. Perhaps you remember a gentleman who came to see us in Geneva. We have to try to find if all these different kinds of animals suddenly came into existence at one and the same time or gradually one by one.
The chief difference between a tree and an animal is that the tree does not move about. How are we to find this? We have no regular books of those ancient times. There are men and women and some of them are very clever and some are fools. We find in the old rocks bones of Fishes and many other things in the sea are lower down still in the order of life.
Sometimes it is very difficult to say whether a thing is an animal or a plant. Then there are animals and among them too you find clever animals like the elephant or monkey or ant. They are of all kinds.
We have today a vast number of living things. And right at the bottom of this order you find sponges and jelly-like fishes and those things which are half animal and half plants. They did not all come together from nowhere. You saw many fossils of this kind. These are called fossils. The beautiful shells you pick up at the seaside are all the bony coverings of animals who have died.
So it appears as if there was a certain order in the appearance of animals—at first the simplest animals. Later we find more complicated animals. It will leave nothing behind when it dies.
When an animal dies his soft and fleshy parts go bad very quickly but his bones remain for a very long time and it is these bones that we find and which tell us something of those animals of far-off days. But suppose an animal has no bones like the jelly-fish.
Fossil When we examine the rocks carefully and collect all the old fossil bones that we find we can see that different kinds of animals lived at different periods. Last of all we find remains of man.
Rajiv Gandhi, 1981
At first there are very simple animals with shells—shell-fish for instance. They start getting thinner at one place and go on Probably the first living things when the earth cooled down were soft jellylike substances without any shell or bones and living in the sea. It is called the nucleus and it is a kind of heart. They are something like this: You will notice the spot in the centre.
They are round but their shape is continually changing as there is no bone or shell. We have no fossil remains of these because they had no bones and so we have to guess more or less. How the simple sponge and shell-fish developed and changed and improved themselves so much is a most interesting study and perhaps some day I shall tell you about it.
But at present we are concerned with the first living things.
These animals. There are many jelly-like things like these in the sea even today. This division takes place after this fashion: You will see that the nucleus or heart also divides and each part gets a bit of it. Something of this kind must have been the first living thing on this earth of ours.
The real animals had not come and man was not to come for millions of years. The mud became hard because of the weight and pressure of the sand and mud on top of it. They were covered up by fresh mud and sand and were so preserved carefully. The shells were left in the mud on the sea-floor. These jelly-like things were followed by sea weeds and shell-fish and crabs and worms. In this way rocks were formed at the bottom of the sea. Now those jelly-fishes and other sea animals which had slightly tougher skins could stay a little longer on dry land than the others as they did not But in those days there must have been plenty of water and marshy land.
We know a lot about these as they had hard bony parts or shells and they left these for us to find. This is how we come across these shells or fossils and after studying them find out what our earth was like in the old days before man came.
Then the dry rock was washed away by the rivers and by rain. We shall consider in the next letter how these simple animals developed and became what they are today. In this way these animals go on dividing and increasing.
It became so hard that it became a rock. Then came fishes. An earthquake or something else brought out the rock from under the sea and it became dry land. What a simple and humble representative of life it was!
Letters from a Father to his Daughter – An Excerpt
There was nothing better or higher in the whole earth then. They could only live in the water and if they came out and dried up they must have died as the jelly-fish dies today if it gets stranded on the beach and dries up. At first we have only simple sea animals. The land must have been all swampy with thick jungles on it. This is an interesting study as in its own life in a way it shows us how animals gradually changed from water animals to land animals.
These were followed by animals which lived entirely on land. A frog at first is a fish but later it becomes like a land animal and breathes with its lungs as all land animals do.
You have seen in the South Kensington Museum in London how birds and animals in winter and in cold countries where there is a lot of ice become white like snow. Later as dry land increased there came animals which lived both in water and on land. Now you remember that the world was getting cooler and was slowly drying up. They grow fur in cold countries to keep warm in the cold.
So they increase in numbers and the others do not. So also the tiger is yellow and striped. But nature goes on working and changing and making more perfect. The coal mines are really old forests of those far-off days.
We cannot see the changes going on around us as they are slow and our lives are short. As it became cooler the climate changed and many other things changed. That is. This explains so many things. I have mentioned the frog. As the earth changed so also slowly the animals changed and newer types of animals appeared.
It is difficult to see the tiger in the thick jungle. Of course animals do not themselves try to change. This is a very interesting thing to notice. It explains the simple animals slowly developing into higher kinds of animals and maybe in millions of years developing into man.
You know that we get our coal from mines deep down in the earth. It never stops or takes rest. It is like sunlight coming through the trees in the jungle.
But those which change and therefore fit in with their surroundings have a better chance of living. There were great forests in those early days when life started on land. They change their colour to protect themselves from their enemies as they cannot easily be seen if they are the same colour as their surroundings.
These forests later on got covered up and with the pressure of a great deal of rock and earth they slowly changed to coal. This very interesting fact that animals try to fit in with their surroundings is a very important thing. It means that animals slowly fit themselves or adapt themselves to their surroundings.
So gradually the soft jelly-fishes and everything else like them became fewer and fewer as they could not face dry land easily. Some of these were a hundred feet long. These are called mammals because they suckle their young. But it is good to remember that we are cousins of the ape and the monkey. This means that as each animal gradually adapted himself to his surroundings and became better and better. Of course he went on improving. He imagines himself so utterly different from the animals.
Among the first land animals were enormous snakes and lizards and crocodiles. People think therefore that man is descended from the ape.
Imagine a snake or a lizard one hundred feet long! Do you remember seeing the fossils of these brutes in the museum in London? Skeleton of a Stegosaurus extinct Later came animals which are more like the animals we see today.
These also were at first much bigger than they are today. I am afraid. The mammal which most resembles man is the monkey or rather the ape.
Is this not terrible waste? As we go up and examine the higher animals we find that their eggs or children are fewer but they look after them better. You will also notice that the higher Man and the animals you see about you have of course bones.
There comes a great change in the higher animals—the mammals— about whom I said something in my last letter. Even here. For instance. When they grow up the mother does not care much for them. These animals do not lay eggs but the mother keeps the egg inside her and gives birth to the fully developed baby animal. The mother does not care for her children at all. In trying to do this they have developed many new qualities and have become higher and more complicated animals. But a higher animal like the elephant only gives birth to one baby elephant and looks after the baby well.
So we have a division of animals—the boneless ones and those with bones. The first bone they developed was the backbone.
We can see this change or progress in many ways. The mother thus looks after her babies a great deal. Then again you find the simple animals like fishes laying eggs and leaving them. The mother rabbit gives birth to a large number of baby rabbits every few months and many of these die. The hen also lays eggs but she sits upon them and so hatches them. We also noticed one very interesting and important rule in this evolution of life—animals are always trying to adapt themselves to their surroundings.
They lay thousands of eggs at a time but do not look after them. As there is no one to look after them most of these eggs die and only a few of them develop into fishes. And afterwards the mother suckles. So you will see that as animals develop they do not lay eggs but bear developed young ones like themselves.
She simply leaves the eggs and never comes back to them. Probably the first men were hardly men like we know them today. It is called the Ice Age because there was so much ice. But of course matches are quite recent things. Indeed it is intelligence that separates man from the other animals. Glaciers such as now exist near the North Pole. The skull was supposed to belong to one of these earliest men. We now call him the Heidelberg man.
In those early days when the first men wandered about it used to be very cold. It was all land. In olden times fires were made by rubbing two flints against each other till We can trace this growth of intelligence from the earliest days of man to the present day. Of course there was no Heidelberg or any other city in those days. But in those days he was not the master but a poor hunted creature himself.
The men must have found it very difficult to live and they must have had a hard time. Some he tames like the horse. It was by intelligence and brain power. How did he do this? Not by physical strength for the elephant is much stronger than he is. Man is the highest animal and so you find that the mother and the father love and take care of their children a great deal.
Today man is master of the world and he makes the animals do what he likes. The first great discovery that man probably made was that of fire. There was no Red Sea either. We are told by scientists that at that time the Mediterranean was not a sea at all but one or two lakes. You would then have to go to Mussoorie partly by a steamer! In this way man must have first developed from the lower animals.
There is practically no difference between a man without any intelligence and an animal.
Probably the greater part of India was an island and the sea existed in the Punjab and part of our provinces. Do you remember going with us to see a professor in Heidelberg in Germany? He showed us a little museum full of fossils and especially an old skull which he kept carefully locked up in a safe. They must have been half apes.
We light a fire now by a match. They would only live where there were no glaciers. Some he eats. As man's intelligence grew so also grew his power. In those days there were no houses or other buildings.
As it became warmer men spread out. There was no cultivation.Some he tames like the horse. They started making earthen pots. The earth being the biggest thing near us attracts everything we have. They could hunt wherever they went. They also used gold and were vain enough to make ornaments out of it!
Jan 12, Abinash Misro rated it really liked it. We can see this change or progress in many ways. So they increase in numbers and the others do not. It answers a child's question that where do we come from? He was the leader and father of his tribe or people.