26 GraphicDesign:TheNewBasics Alterego: Literary Stylist This .. The 3 Secrets To Your Bulimia Recovery ◇◇◇ Graphic design: the new basics / Ellen Lupton and Jennifer Cole Phillips. Graphic Design: The New Basics.: Princeton Architectural Press,. p 8 http://site. Copyright © Princeton Architectural Press. Graphic design: the new basics / Ellen Lupton and Jennifer Cole Phillips. — Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. pages cm Includes.

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Graphic design: the new basics. [Ellen Lupton; Jennifer C Phillips] -- This guide aims to move students away from a cut-and-paste mentality and refocus design. Graphic Design the New Basics - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File . txt) or read book online. Graphic Design the New Basics. Graphic Design- The New Basics - Free download as PDF File .pdf) or read online for free. Due 9/

Physical and Digital In the lettering experiments shown here, each word is written with lines, points, or both, produced with physical elements, digital illustrations, or code-generated vectors. Marian Bantjes, visiting faculty. Yeohyun Ahn Jason Okutake TheNewBasics Three Objects, Thirty-Three Ways This comprehensive design project encourages designers to observe, represent, and abstract visible objects using a variety of materials and techniques.

Designers begin by visiting an unusual place with surprising things to see and observe, such as a local museum, aquarium, or botanical garden. They produce a substantial number of observational drawings of three objects, paying special attention to the appearance of form, color, texture, and materials. Careful observation is followed by exercises in creating word lists and drawing from memory to create a total of ninety-nine studies.

The project exposes designers to the iterative design process, building individual capacity for patience, endurance, and an open mind.

Graphic Design I. Brockett Horne, faculty. Trevor Carr TheNewBasics Spatial Translation In this project, designers explore point, line, and plane as tools for expression.

They immerse themselves in a space and observe it from multiple points of view, including different vantage points above, below and different psychological orientations as a male, a female, a giraffe, a shrimp, etc. Participants generate images of their chosen spaces in diverse media, including photography, drawing, painting, printing, collage, or video. Representations can be literal, abstract, iconic, indexical, or symbolic. After gathering their initial observations, designers create a series of representations using dot stickers, tape, and cut paper.

The final application is a sequence of ten images suitable for an accordion fold book. Jen Evans The last number in the code indicates the number of iterations. The designs are built from a binary tree, a basic data structure in which each node spawns at most two offspring. Binary trees are used to organize information hierarchies, and they often take a graphical form. The larger design is created by repeating, rotating, inverting, connecting, and overlapping the tree forms.

In code-based drawing, the designer varies the results by changing the inputs to the algorithm. BinaryTree ,,,,30,9 ; Designers are accustomed to drawing curves using vector-based software and then modifying the curve by adding, subtracting, and repositioning the anchor and control points. The curves were drawn directly in code: The middle parameters locate the control points that define the curve.

The designer varies the results by changing the inputs to the algorithm. The same basic code was used to generate all the drawings shown above, with varied inputs for the anchor and control points.

A variable i defines the curve. TheNewBasics48 Rhythm and Balance Balance is a fundamental human condition: Indeed, balance is a prized commodity in our culture, and it is no surprise that our implicit, intuitive relationship with it has equipped us to sense balance—or imbalance— in the things we see, hear, smell, taste, and touch.

In design, balance acts as a catalyst for form—it anchors and activates elements in space. Do you ever notice your eye getting stuck in a particular place when looking at an unresolved design? Relationships among elements on the page remind us of physical relationships.

Visual balance occurs when the weight of one or more things is distributed evenly or proportionately in space. Like arranging furniture in a room, we move components around until the balance of form and space feels just right. Large objects are a counterpoint to smaller ones; dark objects to lighter ones. Sergei Forostovskii A symmetrical design, which has the same elements on at least two sides along a common axis, is inherently stable.

Yet balance need not be static. A tightrope walker achieves balance while traversing a precarious line in space, continually shifting her weight while staying in constant motion. Rhythm is a strong, regular, repeated pattern: Speech, music, and dance all employ rhythm to express form over time. Graphic designers use rhythm in the construction of static images as well as in books, magazines, and motion graphics that have duration and sequence.

Although pattern design usually employs unbroken repetition, most forms of graphic design seek rhythms that are punctuated with change and variation. Book design, for example, seeks out a variety of scales and tonal values across its pages, while also preserving an underlying structural unity.

Balance and rhythm work together to create works of design that pulse with life, achieving both stability and surprise. Rhythm and Repetition This code-driven photogram employs a simple stencil plus sign through which light is projected as the photo paper shifts minutely and mechanically across the span of hours.

The visual result has the densely layered richness of a charcoal drawing.

Tad Takano. Photographed for reproduction by Dan Meyers. TheNewBasics Symmetry The studies above demonstrate basic symmetrical balance. Elements are oriented along a common axis; the image mirrors from side to side along that axis.

Symmetry and Asymmetry Symmetry can be left to right, top to bottom, or both. Many natural organisms have a symmetrical form. Symmetry is not the only way to achieve balance, however.

Asymmetrical designs are generally more active than symmetrical ones, and designers achieve balance by placing contrasting elements in counterpoint to each other, yielding compositions that allow the eye to wander while achieving an overall stability. Asymmetry These studies use asymmetry to achieve compositional balance. Elements are placed organically, relying on the interaction of form and negative space and the proximity of elements to each other and to the edges of the field, yielding both tension and balance.

Narrative text lines alternate between clarity and obfuscation, ultimately erupting in chaos, yielding a dynamic counterpoint balance.

In music, an underlying pattern changes in time. Layers of pattern occur simultaneously in music, supporting each other and providing aural contrast. In audio mixing, sounds are amplified or diminished to create a rhythm that shifts and evolves over the course of a piece. Graphic designers employ similar structures visually. The repetition of elements such as circles, lines, and grids creates rhythm, while varying their size or intensity generates surprise. In animation, designers must orchestrate both audio and visual rhythms simultaneously.

Manic Mandala The smooth, symmetrical shapes layered to build this mandala are interrupted by a discordant frenzy of sharp, irregular lines and masses. Beauty arises from the mix. The many patterns, textures, and colors embedded in both man-made and natural forms—revealed and concealed through light and shadow—yield intriguing rhythms.

Cameron Davidson. As in a single-page composition, 5an overall coherence. An underlying grid helps bring order to a progression of pages. Keeping an element of surprise and variation is key to sustaining interest.

It includes motionless eight-hour shot of the Empire State Building, a short of Lou Reed drinking a Coke, and erotic acts aplenty. In Exposed: Songs for Unseen Warhol Films, curated by The Andy Warhol Museum, 15 never-before-seen, restored selections from the 's are unveiled.

Neda Ulaby, arts, entertainment, and cultural trends. What excites artists about choosing this way to work, and how do we, as audience, watch them differently? How do those taking part feel after a process has ended?

Marine Corps veteran and author of Redeployment—short listed for the National Book Award for fiction—and Nancy Sherman, the philosopher and author of The Untold War, join Simon Critchley to explore the notion of nostos, the Greek word for homecoming, to better understand the psychological truths face by servicemen and women returning from war today in this age. Known for fresh interpretation of old-time, fiddle, and banjo-based music, award Grammy Award-winning string band performs from two Nonesuch releases.

Students and teachers shared roles and work, boundaries between disciplines dissolved, and art bled into life, nurturing an atmosphere of unfettered creative collaboration. Dessner and Richard Reed Parry, that collective thread is renewed. Given the sophisticated, avant-garde nature of the venue, designers are encouraged to reach for fresh solutions that will balance a spirit of invention and expression with navigable order and clearly accessible information.

This solution creates counterpoint contrast between the undulating and smoky wave forms and a rigorous grid system, hierarchy, and dynamic distribution within each spread and across the entire sequence. Nine dancers move nimbly through this pastoral landscape, spinning a tale of jealousy, desire that terminates at the babbling brook.

Pairing simple dance phrases with various texts and excerpts of music, Lazar shows how movement can change depending on a host of environmental variables.

Participants will learn how to manipulate dance sequenc—re-organizing, adding, taking away, and finding different pathways—with the ultimate goal of seeing movement detail with a sharp eye. The prodigiously talented player and MacArthur fellow will come to BAM to perform the program of works representing his auspicious career to date: TheNewBasics Realizedby: Rick Valicenti, Thirst. Designer Paul Sahre responded to this condition by splitting the title and other opening text matter between the front and back of the book, thus creating surprise for and increased interaction with the reader.

Paul Sahre, Office of Paul Sahre. Book photographed by Dan Meyers. Beautiful 1 Ecstasy The pictures were taken fron in eiter Ma Northrup Chicago,1 Charlottesvi Michael in this book m to arietta, Ohio; llinis; or lle, Virginia. Scale A printed piece can be as small as a postage stamp or as large as a billboard. Some projects are designed to be reproduced at multiple scales, while others are conceived for a single site or medium.

No matter what size your work will ultimately be, it must have its own sense of scale. What do designers mean by scale? Scale can be considered both objectively and subjectively. In objective terms, scale refers to the literal dimensions of a physical object or to the literal correlation between a representation and the real thing it depicts. Printed maps have an exact scale: Scale models re-create relationships found in full-scale objects.

The meaning of the image comes directly from the contrast in scale. A design whose elements all have a similar size often feels dull and static, lacking contrast in scale. Scale can depend on context. An ordinary piece of paper can contain lettering or images that seem to burst off its edges, conveying a surprising sense of scale.

Likewise, a small isolated element can punctuate a large surface, drawing importance from the vast space surrounding it. For example, 12pt type generally appears legible and appropriately scaled when viewed on a computer monitor, but the same type can feel crude and unwieldy as printed text.

Developing sensitivity to scale is an ongoing process for every designer. Playing with that scale can create spatial illusions and conceptual relationships. Scale is Relative A graphic element can appear larger or smaller depending on the size, placement, and color of the elements around it. When elements are all the same size, the design feels flat.

Contrast in size can create a sense of tension as well as a feeling of depth and movement. Small shapes tend to recede; large ones move forward. Cropping to Imply Scale The larger circular form seems especially big because it bleeds off the edges of the page. Contrasts in scale can imply motion or depth as well as express differences in importance. Ellen Lupton and Zvezdana Rogic, faculty. The surprising size of the text gives the book its loud and zealous voice.

The cover is reproduced here at actual size 1: Software makes it easy to scale photographs, vector graphics, and letterforms. Changing the scale of an element can transform its impact on the page or screen.

Be careful, however: Vector graphics are scalable, meaning that they can be enlarged or reduced without degrading the quality of the image. Bitmap images cannot be enlarged without resulting in a soft or jaggy image. In two-dimensional animation, enlarging a graphic object over time can create the appearance of a zoom, as if the object were moving closer to the screen.

Scaling Letterforms If the horizontal and vertical dimensions of a letter are scaled unevenly, the resulting form looks distorted. With vertical scaling, the horizontal elements become too thick, while vertical elements get too skinny. With horizontal scaling, vertical elements become disproportionately heavy, while horizontal elements get thin.

Full-Range Type Family Many typefaces include variations designed with different proportions. The Helvetica Neue type family includes light, medium, bold, and black letters in normal, condensed, and extended widths. The strokes of each letter appear uniform. That effect is destroyed if the letters are unevenly scaled. Scaling Images and Objects Uneven scaling distorts images as well as typefaces.

Imagine if you could scale a physical object, stretching or squashing it to make it fit into a particular space. The results are not pretty. Eric Karnes. Extreme Heights In the poster at right for a lecture at a college, designer Paul Sahre put his typography under severe pressure, yielding virtually illegible results.

He knew he had a captive audience. Paul Sahre. Texture Texture is the tactile grain of surfaces and substances. Textures in our environment help us understand the nature of things: The textures of design elements similarly correspond to their visual function.

An elegant, smoothly patterned surface might adorn the built interior or printed brochure of a day spa; a snaggle of barbed wire could stand as a metaphor for violence or incarceration. In design, texture is both physical and virtual.

Textures include the literal surface employed in the making of a printed piece or physical object as well as the optical appearance of that surface. Physical textures affect how a piece feels to the hand, but they also affect how it looks. Many of the textures that designers manipulate are not phys- ically experienced by the viewer at all, but exist as optical effect and representation. Texture adds detail to an image, providing an overall surface quality as well as rewarding the eye when viewed up close.

If you touch something it is likely someone will feel it. If you feel something it is likely someone will be touched. Rick Valicenti Whether setting type or depicting a tree, the designer uses texture to establish a mood, reinforce a point of view, or convey a sense of physical presence. A body of text set in Garamond italic will have a delicately irregular appearance, while a text set in Univers roman will appear optically smooth with even tonality.

Likewise, a smoothly drawn vector illustration will have a different feel from an image taken with a camera or created with code.


As in life, the beauty of texture in design often lies in its poignant juxtaposition or contrast: By placing one texture in relation to its opposite, or a smart counterpart, the designer can amplify the unique formal properties of each one. This chapter presents a wide spectrum of textures generated by hand, camera, computer, and code.

Graphic Design- The New Basics

They were chosen to remind us that texture has a genuine, visceral, wholly seductive capacity to reel us in and hold us. TheNewBasics Concrete Texture The physical quality resulting from repeated slicing, burning, marking, and extracting creates concrete textural surfaces with robust appeal.

The studies to the right grew out of a studio exercise where the computer was prohibited in the initial stages of concept and formal development. Turbulence below , an alphabet by Rick Valicenti, similarly evokes a raw physicality. The alphabet began with vigorous hand-drawn, looping scribbles that were then translated into code. Surface Manipulation The textural physicality of these type studies artfully reflects the active processes featured in the words.

Jonnie Hallman, Graphic Design I. Bernard Canniffe, faculty. TheNewBasics Physical and Virtual Texture This exercise builds connections between physical and virtual texture the feel and look of surfaces. Designers used digital cameras to capture compelling textures from the environment.

Using these descriptive texts as content, the designers re-created the textures typographically in Adobe Illustrator, employing repetition, scale, layers, and color.

Graphic design : the new basics

Typeface selection was open, but scale distortion was not permitted. Mike Weikert, faculty. The code-driven letterforms shown here prove otherwise. Generated in the computer language Processing, these forms are effervescent, organic, and, indeed, vital. You just clipped your first slide! Formal study universals?

What is new in basic also modulate, in subtle ways, the organize visual content dates back to schools analyzed form in terms expanded on the Bauhaus approach, was considered to be tainted by design? Consider, for example, message or content of the work. They from Moholy-Nagy and Gyorgy its link to universalistic ideologies. School in Germany; to Emil Ruder universal language of making through each other. We constantly of moving images.

Each of these language of vision in a universal screens. Software organizes visual the modern period have worked Photoshop files to sound or rational solutions through planning Point and Line to Plane. His structural approaches to design from material into menus of properties, with transparency, but never more motion timelines.

According disciplinarity, and descriptive What does transparency them new again is their omnipresent standards and norms.

The modernist Courses taught by Josef Albers to postmodernism, which emerged power. Photoshop, for example, is mean? Transparency can be used to accessibility through software.

For Powerful digital tools are commonly forms now coexists with a desire to personal intuition, objectivity over for inherent meaning in an image of an image its contrast, size, example, compressing two pictures available to professional artists build systems that yield unexpected emotion.

InDesign into a single space can suggest and designers but also to children, results. Today, the impure, the Albers and Moholy-Nagy forged bring their own cultural biases and and QuarkXpress are structural a conflict or synthesis of ideas amateurs, and tinkerers of every contaminated, and the hybrid hold as the use of new media and new personal experiences to the process explorations of typography: Their language has become much allure as forms that are sleek materials.

They saw that art and of interpretation. As postmodernism software machines for controlling Designers also employ transparency universal. And yet academy and in the marketplace, placement and page layout. It is than reduce an image or idea to its their ideas remained profoundly the design process got mired in In the aftermath of the Bauhaus, competing elements, and so on. In place of a straight cut, brief, site and to deliver meaningful Design, they argued, is never and color, organized by principles of an animator or editor diminishes messages and rich, embodied reducible to its function or to a scale, contrast, movement, rhythm, the opacity of an image over experiences.

Each producer animates technical description. In practice, context. While this book centers education and upkeep. This recurring inculcation on all things design, has those components mix and overlap, around formal structure and learning curve, added to already created a tidal wave of design makers as they do in the examples shown experiment, some opening thoughts overloaded schedules, often cuts outside our profession.

Indeed, in our throughout the book. By focusing on process and problem solving short the creative window for previous book, D. Design It Yourself, attention on particular aspects of are appropriate here, as we hope concept development and formal we extolled the virtues of learning visual form, we encourage readers readers will reach not only for more experimentation.

We hope the book will inspire more thought and creativity in the years ahead. The first edition of this book constituted my degree project in the Doctorate in Communication Design program at the University of Baltimore. Special thanks go to the dozens of students who contributed work. My contribution to this book is dedicated to Malcolm Grear, mentor and friend, who taught me to approach design from the inside out, and instilled an appetite for invention and formal rigor.

The culture at MICA is a joy in which to work, thanks in large part to the vision and support of our past president, Fred Lazarus; our new president, Samuel Hoi; provost Ray Allen; vice provost for research and graduate studies Gwynne Keathley; and our talented faculty colleagues. Deep respect and thanks to our students for their commitment and contributions. Heartfelt gratitude goes to my friend and close collaborator, Ellen Lupton, for raising the bar with grace and generosity.

I am thankful for the support of my family and close friends, especially my parents Ann and Jack; and my sisters Lanie and Jodie. The Bauhaus Legacy In the s, The idea of searching out a shared faculty at the Bauhaus and other framework in which to invent and schools analyzed form in terms organize visual content dates back of basic geometric elements.

They to the origins of modern graphic believed this language would design. In the s, institutions be understandable to everyone, such as the Bauhaus in Germany grounded in the universal instrument explored design as a universal, of the eye. The modernist emphasized systematic thinking over personal intuition, objectivity preference for reduced, simplified over emotion.

Today, the impure, the contaminated, and the hybrid hold as materials.

They saw that art and design were being transformed much allure as forms that are sleek by technology—photography, and perfected. Visual thinkers often film, and mass production.

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And yet seek to spin out intricate results from simple rules or concepts rather their ideas remained profoundly humanistic, always asserting the role than reduce an image or idea to its of the individual over the absolute simplest parts. Design, they argued, is never reducible to its function or to a technical description.

Each of these revolutionary educators articulated structural approaches to design from distinct and original perspectives. Some of them also engaged in the postmodern rejection of universal communication. According to postmodernism, which emerged in the s, it is futile to look for inherent meaning in an image or object because people will bring their own cultural biases and personal experiences to the process of interpretation.

The New Basics Designers at the Bauhaus believed not only in a universal way of describing visual form, but also in its universal significance. Reacting against that belief, postmodernism discredited formal experiment as a primary component of thinking and making in the visual arts.

Formal study was considered to be tainted by its link to universalistic ideologies. This book recognizes a difference between description and interpretation, between a potentially universal language of making and the universality of meaning.

Today, software designers have realized the Bauhaus goal of describing but not interpreting the language of vision in a universal way. Software organizes visual material into menus of properties, parameters, filters, and so on, creating tools that are universal in their social ubiquity, crossdisciplinarity, and descriptive power.

Photoshop, for example, is a systematic study of the features of an image its contrast, size, color model, and so on. InDesign and QuarkXpress are structural explorations of typography: In the aftermath of the Bauhaus, textbooks of basic design have returned again and again to elements such as point, line, plane, texture, and color, organized by principles of scale, contrast, movement, rhythm, and balance.

This book revisits those concepts as well as looking at some of the new universals emerging today. Transparency and Layers The Google Earth interface allows users to manipulate the transparency of overlays placed over satellite photographs of Earth.

Jack Gondela. What are these emerging universals? What is new in basic design? Transparency is a condition in which two or more surfaces or substances are visible through each other. We constantly experience transparency in the physical environment: Graphic designers across the modern period have worked with transparency, but never more so than today, when transparency can be instantly manipulated with commonly used tools.

What does transparency mean? Transparency can be used to construct thematic relationships. Designers also employ transparency as a compositional rather than thematic device, using it to soften edges, establish emphasis, separate competing elements, and so on. In place of a straight cut, an animator or editor diminishes the opacity of an image over time fade to black or mixes two semitransparent images cross dissolve.

Such transitions affect a. They also modulate, in subtle ways, the message or content of the work. Although viewers rarely stop to interpret these transitions, a video editor or animator understands them as part of the basic language of moving images. Layering is another universal concept with rising importance. Physical printing processes use layers ink on paper , and so do software interfaces from layered Photoshop files to sound or motion timelines. Transparency and layering have always been at play in the graphic arts.

Powerful digital tools are commonly available to professional artists and designers but also to children, amateurs, and tinkerers of every stripe. Their language has become universal.

Even the most robust visual language is useless without the ability to engage it in a living context. While this book centers around formal structure and experiment, some opening thoughts on process and problem solving are appropriate here, as we hope readers will reach not only for more accomplished form, but for form that resonates with fresh meaning.

Before the Macintosh, solving graphic design problems meant outsourcing at nearly every stage of the way: This protocol slowed down the work process and required designers to plan each step methodically. By contrast, easily accessed software, cloud storage, ubiquitous wi-fi, and powerful laptops now allow designers and users to control and create complex work flows from almost anywhere.

This recurring learning curve, added to already overloaded schedules, often cuts short the creative window for concept development and formal experimentation. In the college context, students arrive ever more digitally adept. Acculturated by social media, smart phones, iPads, and apps, design students command the technical savvy that used to take years to build. This network knowhow, though, does not necessarily translate into creative thinking.

Too often, the temptation to turn directly to the computer precludes deeper levels of research and ideation—the distillation zone that unfolds beyond the average appetite for testing the waters and exploring alternatives.

People, places, thoughts, and things become familiar through repeated exposure. It stands to reason, then, that initial ideas and, typically, the top tiers of a Google search turn up only cursory results that are often tired and trite. Getting to more interesting territory requires the perseverance to sift, sort, and assimilate subjects and solutions until a fresh spark emerges and takes hold.

Visual Thinking Ubiquitous access to image editing and design software, together with zealous media inculcation on all things design, has created a tidal wave of design makers outside the profession. Indeed, in our previous book, D. Design It Yourself, we extolled the virtues of learning and making, arguing that people acquire pleasure, knowledge, and power by engaging with design at all levels.

This volume shifts the climate of the conversation. Instead of skimming the surface, we dig deeper. Rather than issuing instructions, we frame problems and suggest possibilities. Inside, you will find many examples, by students and professionals, that balance and blend idiosyncrasy with formal discipline. Rather than focus on practical problems such as how to design a book, brochure, app, or website, this book encourages readers to experiment with the visual language of design.

To experiment is to isolate elements of an operation, limiting some variables in order to better study others. An experiment asks a question or tests a hypothesis whose answer is not known in advance.

The book is organized around some of the formal elements and phenomena of design. In practice, those components mix and overlap, as they do in the examples shown throughout the book. By focusing attention on particular aspects of visual form, we encourage readers to recognize the forces at play behind strong graphic solutions. Likewise, while a dictionary presents specific words in isolation, those words come alive in the active context of writing and speaking. Filtered through formal and conceptual experimentation, design thinking fuses a shared discipline with organic interpretation.

Diagramming Process Charles Eames drew this diagram to explain the design process as achieving a point where the needs and interests of the client, the designer, and society as a whole overlap. Choose your corner, pick away at it carefully, intensely and to the best of your ability and that way you might change the world. Charles Eames. Formstorming I like a lot the adage that for every problem there is a solution that is simple, obvious, and wrong.Paul Sahre, Office of Paul Sahre.

Visibility Others can see my Clipboard. By Meredith Davis and Deb Littlejohn. The code-driven letterforms shown here prove otherwise. Reas and Benjamin Fry.

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Participants generate images of their chosen spaces in diverse media, including photography, drawing, painting, printing, collage, or video. Right to remedy by a competent tribunal 9. Upcoming SlideShare.

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