Chapter 1. 1. THE GOD. PARTICLE. If the Universe Is the Answer, What Is the Question? As the universe expanded and cooled and grew less dense, particles. From the Big Bang to present. • What is the Higgs boson? • What is mass and energy? • Why is it important to us? Is it the God particle?. The search for the fundamental particles and forces of nature o Revolutions of 20th century physics: relativity and quantum theory. ➢ Quantum fields and waves/ .
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PDF | The Higgs boson has been described as the “God” particle that will explain everything about the universe according to the popular press. PDF | The Higgs mechanism – as part of the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics – is mostly considered to be a real physical process that brings. PDF | On Jan 1, , Walter James Christensen and others published Calculating God from the God Particle.
The Enlightenment gave rise to the view that Creatio ex Nihilo was a primitive myth. God ceased being a personal being and became the first cause, in the view of the deist movement. Pantheism returned with the notion that God was one with the developing universe. Perhaps the greatest challenge to Creatio ex Nihilo was biological evolution.
The condemnation of materialism precluded a deeper look at the theory of evolution. This led to a series of attempts to explain emerging evidence from biology and geology as somehow consonant or concordant with the creation account in Genesis. There were significant efforts during the pontificate of Pius X at the turn of the 20th century to encourage a more literal reading of Genesis and to inhibit the Creatio Ex Nihilo Page: 9 emerging historical, cultural, and linguistic approaches to scripture.
Pius XII in his encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu in opened the door to biblical scholarship and a return to allegorical interpretations of scripture which had been so predominant in the Patristic period and the Middle Ages.
Clifford, , p. The notion of dualism is the metaphysical foundation for the Star Wars saga. The proper ordering of the empire by the victory of the Jedi knights leads to an imbalance in the Force which leads to the rise of dark elements of the Force to re-establish equilibrium. Creation and natural theology are also missing in the Star Wars saga.
God is not acting in creation nor is there a Divine self-disclosure or revelation.
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The protagonists are Post-Modern Platonists striving for ethical poesis using their own gifts to become someone better and more virtuous by adhering to the ideal of the Good. The first is to have children. The third is to use our love for the good to contemplate it and to grow in virtue.
When we are freed of the limitation of this body and shadow world we will then be able to gaze upon the One, the Good, and the Beautiful in unalloyed happiness.
Plato advocates censorship in the Republic since poesis particularly in music and poetry can be subversive to political stability and order.
The world of poesis alone is not a world of grace or transcendence nor it an intrinsically good material world. Matter is partially redeemed by its transformation into useful and beautiful Creatio Ex Nihilo Page: 10 things manifesting a deeper logos or ideal. However, ultimately, there is only the cycle of birth and death.
The proclamation of the Gospel by the early Christian community occurred in this cultural context, which was completely alien to the teachings of the Torah and the apostles.
Lumen Gentium, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, , pp. Things fall into disarray and dysfunction through the sin of Adam and Eve but God does not abandon them. He shepherds and guides his people in history through mighty deeds accomplished by very fallible leaders and His Word spoken through the prophets.
Ultimately, in the Christian Good News, the one God becomes one of us, truly human and truly divine in Jesus, whose real physical death and resurrection in glory, reconcile the Creator with humanity in the love and grace of the Holy Spirit.
This is the core teaching, the kerygma that God in Christ Jesus reveals to us and its foundation relies on the ancient belief of Israel and the Church that God made everything out of nothing.
The parabolic model she presents shows the importance of Creatio ex Nihilo as the mystery of God sweeping through creation in the history of salvation. The parabolic model parabola: to throw outward expresses the one ecstatic movement of God whereby all things originate with God and are returned to God. LaCugna, , p.
The first is theology in continuity with science.
Teilhard de Chardin is an example of this model, in which theology is swept along by science. The second model is science in continuity with religious belief. This can be seen in creation science, an effort by American Evangelicals to adjust the interpretation of scientific findings to accommodate a literal reading of the creation accounts. The third model is that science and theology are totally distinct and separate areas of inquiry and discourse. The fourth model is the mutual interaction of theology and science.
These, as the methods proper to every science and technique must be respected.
THE NEW GOD PARTICLE and FREE WILL
Consequently, methodical research in all branches of knowledge, provided it is carried out in a truly scientific manner and does not override moral laws, can never conflict with the faith, because the things of the world and the things of faith derive from the same God.
For its part, theology deals with the Creatio Ex Nihilo Page: 12 transcendent relationship with God and raises a priori questions about the ultimate ground of reality and affirms God as that ultimate ground.
It is also very timely in the post-modern age in which the empirical, logical science of Descartes and Newton have given way to the relativity of Einstein, the uncertainty of Heisenberg, and the evidence from quantum mechanics that human intention — consciousness and not matter - affects the outcome of physical experiments on the quantum level. Creatio Ex Nihilo as a Contemporary Issue In the second paragraph of the first chapter of Lumen Gentium, we find an example of the importance of creation ex Nihilo in the very self-definition of the Church.
The eternal Father, in accordance with the utterly free and mysterious design of his wisdom and goodness, created the entire universe.
Contemporary physics, based on quantum mechanics, has led to a broader cultural crisis regarding what we can know with certainty and what truth is. The work of physicist Amit Goswami is an example of the increased relevance of creation and natural theology. Goswami claims that the intentionality effect in physics experiments proves the existence of the spiritual. The governing principle of the physics of the cosmos is not the action of matter on matter but the action of consciousness on matter.
Consequently, our collective direction of consciousness can save us from ourselves and lead us to a world of peace and plenty. Of course the major difference, in the work of Chardin is that God is the source, direction, and end of the human spiral to the Omega Point.
Certainly, Teilhard de Chardin alarmed many scholars and Church officials because of a possible interpretation of his work that might imply that God is the physical universe — pantheism — which, as we have seen was one of the key convictions of the dualistic non-Christian, ancient world.
Indeed Goswami does defend the otherness of God outside the physical world but he also sees God as immanent in the pantheistic sense. For Goswami, God is not transcendent to the extent that God is directed by our conscious intentionality. Nevertheless the well intentioned work of Goswami shows that Creatio ex Nihilo is a resurgent contemporary issue. Creatio ex Nihilo also comes to the fore in the search for the God particle and its attendant world wide publicity.
The other response is to reaffirm the battle between faith and reason. The use of the term creation implies an apprehension of the cosmos as created, as an overflowing of Good that is diffusive of itself. Our faith inspired reflection on this experience leads us to a theology of nature or a natural theology. He lists the revelatory modes of communication as: The order of nature, historical events, symbolic words, interior illuminations and propositional statements…The true content of revelation — revelation in the objective sense — is the divinely intended and humanly perceived significance of the events and words.
Since natural revelation is open, in principle, to all human beings, it can be the basis for evangelization in our post-modern culture. In The Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation, section 3 of Dei Verbum, the Second Vatican Council states: God, who creates and conserves all things by his word see Jn , provides constant evidence of himself in created realities see Romans …and he has never ceased to take care of the human race, in order to give eternal life to all those who seek salvation by persevering in doing good see Rom Dei Verbum, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, , p.
When other tiny building blocks pass through it, they stick together, slow down and form atoms. However, we will focus on a few key concepts in order to understand what the Higgs boson is and its significance for the Standard Model and our understanding of the physical world.
The Standard Model is an attempt to use one mathematical formula to describe all of the physical interactions of the universe.
According to the Standard Model, in the beginning there came to be particles moving at the speed of light without mass. Ian Sample a science correspondent for the Guardian Newspaper in London, presents this explanation in a 4 and one half minute video.
The God Particle: If the Universe Is the Answer, What Is the Question?
Sample, In the first trillionths of a second of time, the particles such as electrons and quarks entered the Higgs field and were transformed from particles without mass into particles with mass.
If the Higgs field is compared to a tray of sugar, the Higgs boson could be compared to a grain of sugar. It is the prime constituent of the Higgs Field. The photon, however, continued and continues to be a mass-less particle traveling at the speed of light. Creatio Ex Nihilo Page: 16 In the large hadron collider LHC at CERN which is 27 kilometers 17 miles in diameter and meters feet below the surface of the earth, protons are accelerated to speeds approaching the speed of light.
These protons crash together inside vast detectors that are 3 stories high.
When the constituents of the protons collide a very small amount of energy is released. Photons and quarks will come out and occasionally a Higgs boson will come out. The Higgs boson is only observed once in 1 trillion proton-proton collisions.
In addition the Higgs boson almost immediately decays into other particles which in turn decay into other particles. This makes looking for the Higgs boson very difficult. According to Sample, the Higgs boson will help with several mathematical explanations and will probably round out the Standard Model. We should remember that the Standard Model does not explain gravity. Sample commented that scientists hope that once they really study the Higgs boson it will lead them into new directions and open up new horizons.
Sample, Science and Natural Theology Lederman, in his book The God Particle, makes it clear that the Standard Model does not deal with the actual beginning of the Big Bang or the actual moment of creation.
The Standard Model deals with the first trillionths of a billionth of seconds. Krauss, In an interview with Stephen Colbert, Krause explains that Creatio Ex Nihilo Page: 17 according to quantum mechanics nothing - that is empty space - is roiling with virtual particles going in and out of existence and if you wait long enough real particles will emerge.
Clearly, Krause might come close to a natural theology if he knew more about contemporary scripture studies and theology. Unfortunately, many scientists and the general public misconceive of theology as an anti-rational biblical literalism.
If electroweak symmetry was somehow being broken, it might explain why electromagnetism's boson is massless, yet the weak force bosons have mass, and solve the problems. Shortly afterwards, in , this was shown to be theoretically possible, at least for some limited non-relativistic cases. Main article: Higgs mechanism Following the and papers, three groups of researchers independently published the PRL symmetry breaking papers with similar conclusions and for all cases, not just some limited cases.
They showed that the conditions for electroweak symmetry would be "broken" if an unusual type of field existed throughout the universe, and indeed, some fundamental particles would acquire mass. The field required for this to happen which was purely hypothetical at the time became known as the Higgs field after Peter Higgs , one of the researchers and the mechanism by which it led to symmetry breaking, known as the Higgs mechanism.
A key feature of the necessary field is that it would take less energy for the field to have a non-zero value than a zero value, unlike all other known fields, therefore, the Higgs field has a non-zero value or vacuum expectation everywhere.
It was the first proposal capable of showing how the weak force gauge bosons could have mass despite their governing symmetry, within a gauge invariant theory. Although these ideas did not gain much initial support or attention, by they had been developed into a comprehensive theory and proved capable of giving "sensible" results that accurately described particles known at the time, and which, with exceptional accuracy, predicted several other particles discovered during the following years.
There was not yet any direct evidence that the Higgs field existed, but even without proof of the field, the accuracy of its predictions led scientists to believe the theory might be true. By the s the question of whether or not the Higgs field existed, and therefore whether or not the entire Standard Model was correct, had come to be regarded as one of the most important unanswered questions in particle physics. Higgs field[ edit ] According to the Standard Model, a field of the necessary kind the Higgs field exists throughout space and breaks certain symmetry laws of the electroweak interaction.
When the weak force bosons acquire mass, this affects their range, which becomes very small. For many decades, scientists had no way to determine whether or not the Higgs field existed, because the technology needed for its detection did not exist at that time. The hunt is not really for the Higgs boson, of course, it is for an understanding of the origin of mass, or more technically "electroweak symmetry breaking".
Mass is what breaks the symmetry between the electromagnetic force and the weak nuclear force, and this happens at the energies we have reached with the LHC. The Higgs may do it, it may not. We just need to know, one way or the other. Unfortunately, it is not possible to review this book without a grumble at the use of the "God Particle" tag in the subtitle other editions have the subtitle "The Missing Particle that Sparked the Greatest Hunt in Science".
As Sample is well aware , it's an outrageous bit of hyperbole which irritates practically everyone. Nevertheless, you can see the analogy. Like some people's idea of God, the Higgs field is postulated to fill the whole universe and to be essential to the way it all works.Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics for this work.
Physics Letters B.
The condemnation of materialism precluded a deeper look at the theory of evolution. About Leon M. CERN Bulletin Lecture Notes in Physics.