PDF | On Mar 22, , Moses Okechukwu Onyesolu and others published Understanding Virtual Reality Technology: Advances and Applications. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | This report provides a short survey of the field of virtual reality, highlighting application domains, technological requirements, and currently available. Introduction to VR. Lectures. Lecture 1 Introduction to Virtual Reality. Lecture 2 Human senses, 3D audio. Lecture 3 3D graphics &.

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The concept of virtual reality (VR) refers to a system of principles, methods and techniques used for designing and creating software products in order to be used . Greenbaum (). Virtual Reality is an alternate world filled with computer- generated images that respond to human movements. These simulated. In this paper a historical overview of virtual reality is presented, basic . Augmented Reality (AR) – a technology that “presents a virtual world that enriches.

Moreover, self-reported cybersickness was minimal and had no association with exposure to immersive virtual reality.

These results imply that the contribution of VR applications to health in older adults will neither be hindered by negative attitudes nor by cybersickness.

Introduction Virtual reality VR has received great interest from the health community, as it offers many opportunities to improve the assessment and treatment of health problems 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6. A growing trend of VR health publications is indeed evident Fig.

Within this body of literature, VR is defined in various ways, referring to a vast number of devices and different levels of immersion. Oculus Rift or projection-based systems e.

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Fully computer-generated environments presented on displays with a limited field of view e. Xbox Kinect. Figure 1 VR health publication trends. Full size image VR health applications frequently target health conditions that are prevalent particularly among older individuals For instance, AV has been used for post-stroke motor rehabilitation 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 and HMD-VR has been used for memory training in nursing home residents 17 and for post-stroke cognitive assessment 18 , Compared to traditional computerized methods, immersive VR offers the opportunity to assess and train cognition in a more sensitive, ecologically valid and safe way 1 , 2 , 5.

Moreover, head-mounted devices offer optimal control over sensory stimuli resulting in easy standardization of the testing conditions e. Until recently, the development of VR health applications often relied on custom-made devices that were not broadly available to others. The new head-mounted immersive VR devices e. Since technology usage depends on technology attitudes 23 and older adults have more negative attitudes towards new technology 24 , 25 , it is important to understand attitudes towards HMD-VR in this target group.

According to the unified theory of acceptance and usage of technology UTAUT 23 , the intention to use technology or technology acceptance is influenced by the perceived usefulness of technology performance expectancy and the perceived ease of using technology effort expectancy.

When combined, performance and effort expectancy are also referred to as attitude A recent meta-analysis revealed that technology acceptance was negatively associated with chronological age and that this association was fully mediated by performance and effort expectancy Although studies based on UTAUT or related models clarify how attitudes affect technology usage in older adults 26 , they give no insight into age- or generation-associated antecedents of technology attitudes Previous studies have revealed the importance of experience with technology on technology attitudes and adoption 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , Moreover, although technology usage has a negative association with intelligence 33 , the potential influence of global cognitive decline on technology attitudes in older adults has received less attention than the influence of technology experience.

Global cognitive impairment may therefore be associated with more negative technology attitudes. Importantly, researchers who develop, and clinicians who wish to use immersive VR health applications for older adults, will need to take into account the acceptance of immersive VR in this population.

Although the efficacy of VR health applications has been studied in diverse clinical populations 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 36 , the assessment of the user acceptance, experience and safety of these approaches is often limited It has been evaluated whether stroke survivors are more sensitive to cybersickness due to HMD-VR exposure than age-matched healthy controls in a small sample by Kang and colleagues 21 and whether objective performance in an HMD-VR driver simulation was associated with subjective comfort level by Simone and colleagues These studies revealed that stroke patients were equally sensitive to cybersickness than neurologically healthy participants and that objective performance in a HMD-VR driver simulation was not associated to subjective comfort level.

Participants preferring the VR task reported it to be more engaging and immersive than the pen- and paper task. However, some participants preferred the pen- and paper task, and reported that it was easier to use, looked more familiar to them and was less tiring for their eyes as compared to the immersive VR task This study suggests inter-individual differences in the acceptance of immersive VR in older adults, but does not provide insight into the characteristics of older individuals predicting these differences.

Furthermore, to our knowledge, no studies have reported on the acceptance of HMD-VR in older populations. For this purpose, we compared post-pre attitude differences between a group of participants exposed to HMD-VR and a control group exposed to time-lapse videos presented on a standard notebook computer Fig. Figure 2 Schematic representation of the study protocol including the order of the test instruments and questionnaires that were administered to participants.

In the first session, all participants completed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment 40 , the praxis scale of the Birmingham Cognitive Screen 43 , computer self-efficacy, computer proficiency and attitude towards HMD-VR scales. The two groups were matched on age, education, gender and independent living status.

Afterwards participants completed a second administration of the attitude scale and completed the simulator sickness questionnaire A subset of 44 participants also completed the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability scale Full size image Additionally, we hypothesized that age would have a negative association with initial attitudes towards HMD-VR attitudes prior to the HMD-VR or video exposure , similarly to what has been shown before 24 , 25 , Given the hypothesis that the negative age-attitude association relates to a generation-related lack of technology experience 28 , 29 , 30 , we predicted that computer proficiency would mediate the relation of age and initial attitudes.

Computer proficiency was measured by letting participants rate their ability to perform beginner and advanced computer activities. In addition, previous studies identified computer self-efficacy as an important mediator of age and technology usage 33 , and therefore we predicted that computer self-efficacy would also mediate the relation of age and initial attitudes.

Computer self-efficacy was measured by letting participants rate their confidence and anxiety in performing computer activities. We additionally included global cognitive status as a third potential mediator of the association between age and initial attitudes, given that previous literature showed that cognitive abilities were related to technology adoption Global cognitive status was measured with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment MoCA on which scores range from 0 to 30, and scores below 26 indicate mild cognitive impairment Attitudes, user experience and computer self-efficacy were measured with scales consisting of 5-point Likert rated items in which 3 represented a neutral position, 1 represented the lowest score, and 5 represented the highest score.

Finally, we measured the ability of the participants to execute purposeful actions with their upper limbs using the praxis subscale of the Birmingham Cognitive Screen 43 , and registered their level of independence in activities of daily living and their experience with technology e. Analyses were performed with frequentist statistics, complemented by Bayes Factors BF to quantify the relative strength of evidence in favor of the null or alternative model.

A BF01 represents the strength of evidence in favor of the null hypothesis, while a BF10 represents the strength of evidence in favor of the alternative hypothesis Results Participants Seventy-six volunteers between ages 57 and 94 years participated in this study. One participant of the control group refused further participation during the first session prior to completing a single test or questionnaire and was replaced by a new participant to complete the sample of 38 individuals.

The groups were also matched on gender and independent living status. More details on participant recruitment are reported in the Methods section.

The interaction between self-reported user experience and group suggests that a more positive self-reported user experience was associated with a larger post-pre attitude difference in the HMD-VR group, but not in the control group Fig.

Each dashed grey line represents the observed scores of one participant, while the black solid line represents the group average. The grey area represents the density plots of the observed mean attitude scores. Each dot represents the observed mean score of one participant. The results suggest a positive relation between self-reported user experience and attitude difference in the HMD-VR group but not in the control group.

The 5th is Wu in Cluster 4, with citation counts of The 6th is Dunleavy in Cluster 4, with citation counts of The 7th is Zhou in Cluster 5, with citation counts of The 8th is Bay in Cluster 1, with citation counts of The 9th is Newcombe in Cluster 1, with citation counts of The 10th is Carmigniani et al. The identified clusters highlight clear parts of the literature of AR research, making clear and visible the interdisciplinary nature of this field.

However, the dynamics to identify the past, present, and future of AR research cannot be clear yet. It is clear that cluster 1 tracking , cluster 4 education , and cluster 5 virtual city environment are the current areas of AR research. The top ranked document by bursts is Azuma in Cluster 0, with bursts of The third is Lowe in Cluster 1, with bursts of The 4th is Van Krevelen in Cluster 5, with bursts of The 5th is Wu in Cluster 4, with bursts of The 6th is Hartley in Cluster 0, with bursts of The 7th is Dunleavy in Cluster 4, with bursts of The 8th is Kato in Cluster 0, with bursts of The 9th is Newcombe in Cluster 1, with bursts of The 10th is Feiner in Cluster 8, with bursts of Our findings have profound implications for two reasons.

At first the present work highlighted the evolution and development of VR and AR research and provided a clear perspective based on solid data and computational analyses.

Secondly our findings on VR made it profoundly clear that the clinical dimension is one of the most investigated ever and seems to increase in quantitative and qualitative aspects, but also include technological development and article in computer science, engineer, and allied sciences. The outset of VR research brought a clearly-identifiable development in interfaces for children and medicine, routine use and behavioral-assessment, special effects, systems perspectives, and tutorials.

This pioneering era evolved in the period that we can identify as the development era, because it was the period in which VR was used in experiments associated with new technological impulses. The confluence of pioneering techniques into ergonomic studies within this development era was used to develop the first effective clinical systems for surgery, telemedicine, human spatial navigation, and the first phase of the development of therapy and laparoscopic skills.

With the new millennium, VR research switched strongly toward what we can call the clinical-VR era, with its strong emphasis on rehabilitation, neurosurgery, and a new phase of therapy and laparoscopic skills.

The number of applications and articles that have been published in the last 5 years are in line with the new technological development that we are experiencing at the hardware level, for example, with so many new, HMDs, and at the software level with an increasing number of independent programmers and VR communities. The dynamics to identify the past, present, and future of AR research cannot be clear yet, but analyzing the relationships between these clusters and the temporal dimensions of each article tracking, education, and virtual city environment are the current areas of AR research.

AR is a new technology that is showing its efficacy in different research fields, and providing a novel way to gather behavioral data and support learning, training, and clinical treatments. Looking at scientific literature conducted in the last few years, it might appear that most developments in VR and AR studies have focused on clinical aspects. However, the reality is more complex; thus, this perception should be clarified. Although researchers publish studies on the use of VR in clinical settings, each study depends on the technologies available.

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Industrial development in VR and AR changed a lot in the last 10 years. In the past, the development involved mainly hardware solutions while nowadays, the main efforts pertain to the software when developing virtual solutions.

Hardware became a commodity that is often available at low cost. On the other hand, software needs to be customized each time, per each experiment, and this requires huge efforts in term of development. Researchers in AR and VR today need to be able to adapt software in their labs. Virtual reality and AR developments in this new clinical era rely on computer science and vice versa.

The future of VR and AR is becoming more technological than before, and each day, new solutions and products are coming to the market. Both from software and hardware perspectives, the future of AR and VR depends on huge innovations in all fields. First 30 years of VR and AR consisted of a continuous research on better resolution and improved perception. Now, researchers already achieved a great resolution and need to focus on making the VR as realistic as possible, which is not simple.

In fact, a real experience implies a realistic interaction and not just great resolution. Interactions can be improved in infinite ways through new developments at hardware and software levels. For example, the use of hands with contactless device i. The Leap Motion device 1 allows one to use of hands in VR without the use of gloves or markers. This simple and low-cost device allows the VR users to interact with virtual objects and related environments in a naturalistic way.

When technology is able to be transparent, users can experience increased sense of being in the virtual environments the so-called sense of presence.

Other forms of interactions are possible and have been developing continuously. For example, tactile and haptic device able to provide a continuous feedback to the users, intensifying their experience also by adding components, such as the feeling of touch and the physical weight of virtual objects, by using force feedback.

Another technology available at low cost that facilitates interaction is the motion tracking system, such as Microsoft Kinect, for example. This tracking allows a great degree of interaction and improves the overall virtual experience. A final emerging approach is the use of digital technologies to simulate not only the external world but also the internal bodily signals Azevedo et al. For example, Riva et al.

This approach allowed the development of an interoceptive stimulator that is both able to assess interoceptive time perception in clinical patients Di Lernia et al. In this scenario, it is clear that the future of VR and AR research is not just in clinical applications, although the implications for the patients are huge. The continuous development of VR and AR technologies is the result of research in computer science, engineering, and allied sciences. First, all clinical research on VR and AR includes also technological developments, and new technological discoveries are being published in clinical or technological journals but with clinical samples as main subject.

As noted in our research, main journals that publish numerous articles on technological developments tested with both healthy and patients include Presence: It is clear that researchers in psychology, neuroscience, medicine, and behavioral sciences in general have been investigating whether the technological developments of VR and AR are effective for users, indicating that clinical behavioral research has been incorporating large parts of computer science and engineering.

A second aspect to consider is the industrial development. In fact, once a new technology is envisioned and created it goes for a patent application. Once the patent is sent for registration the new technology may be made available for the market, and eventually for journal submission and publication.

Moreover, most VR and AR research that that proposes the development of a technology moves directly from the presenting prototype to receiving the patent and introducing it to the market without publishing the findings in scientific paper.

Hence, it is clear that if a new technology has been developed for industrial market or consumer, but not for clinical purpose, the research conducted to develop such technology may never be published in a scientific paper. Although our manuscript considered published researches, we have to acknowledge the existence of several researches that have not been published at all. Generally, the most important articles in journals published in these databases are also included in the Web of Knowledge database; hence, we are convinced that our study considered the top-level publications in computer science or engineering.

Accordingly, we believe that this limitation can be overcome by considering the large number of articles referenced in our research. Considering all these aspects, it is clear that clinical applications, behavioral aspects, and technological developments in VR and AR research are parts of a more complex situation compared to the old platforms used before the huge diffusion of HMD and solutions. We think that this work might provide a clearer vision for stakeholders, providing evidence of the current research frontiers and the challenges that are expected in the future, highlighting all the connections and implications of the research in several fields, such as clinical, behavioral, industrial, entertainment, educational, and many others.

PC and GR conceived the idea. PC made data extraction and the computational analyses and wrote the first draft of the article.

IG revised the introduction adding important information for the article. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The reviewer GC declared a shared affiliation, with no collaboration, with the authors PC and GR to the handling Editor at the time of the review.

The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychol v. Front Psychol. Published online Nov 6. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Edited by: Reviewed by: Pietro Cipresso, ti. This article was submitted to Human-Media Interaction, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology.

Received Dec 14; Accepted Oct The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

Theorem's Definitions for Augmented, Mixed and Virtual Reality

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Supplementary Materials. ZIP K. Introduction In the last 5 years, virtual reality VR and augmented reality AR have attracted the interest of investors and the general public, especially after Mark Zuckerberg bought Oculus for two billion dollars Luckerson, ; Castelvecchi, Virtual Reality Concepts and Features The concept of VR could be traced at the mid of when Ivan Sutherland in a pivotal manuscript attempted to describe VR as a window through which a user perceives the virtual world as if looked, felt, sounded real and in which the user could act realistically Sutherland, Higher or lower degrees of immersion can depend by three types of VR systems provided to the user: They provide a stereo image of a three dimensional 3D scene viewed on a monitor using a perspective projection coupled to the head position of the observer Ware et al.

Furthermore, higher immersive systems, than the other two systems, can give the possibility to add several sensory outputs allowing that the interaction and actions were perceived as real Loomis et al. From Virtual to Augmented Reality Looking chronologically on VR and AR developments, we can trace the first 3D immersive simulator in , when Morton Heilig created Sensorama, a simulated experience of a motorcycle running through Brooklyn characterized by several sensory impressions, such as audio, olfactory, and haptic stimuli, including also wind to provide a realist experience Heilig, Virtual Reality Technologies Technologically, the devices used in the virtual environments play an important role in the creation of successful virtual experiences.

Augmented Reality Concept Milgram and Kishino , conceptualized the Virtual-Reality Continuum that takes into consideration four systems: Augmented Reality Technologies Technologically, the AR systems, however various, present three common components, such as a geospatial datum for the virtual object, like a visual marker, a surface to project virtual elements to the user, and an adequate processing power for graphics, animation, and merging of images, like a pc and a monitor Carmigniani et al.

Augmented Reality Applications Although AR is a more recent technology than VR, it has been investigated and used in several research areas such as architecture Lin and Hsu, , maintenance Schwald and De Laval, , entertainment Ozbek et al. Results The analysis of the literature on VR shows a complex panorama. Table 1 Category statistics from the WoS for the entire period and the last 5 years.

Open in a separate window. Category from the WoS: Country network node dimension represents centrality. Table 2 Cluster ID and silhouettes as identified with two algorithms Chen et al. Table 3 Cluster ID and references of burst article.

Table 4 Cluster ID and silhouettes as identified with two algorithms Chen et al. Discussion Our findings have profound implications for two reasons. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Footnotes 1 https: Supplementary Material The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: Advantages and challenges associated with augmented reality for education: Springer International Publishing; , 23— An if—thEN theory of personality: The calming effect of a new wearable device during the anticipation of public speech.

Recent advances in augmented reality. IEEE Comp. Augmented reality trends in education: The effect of behavioral realism and form realism of real-time avatar faces on verbal disclosure, nonverbal disclosure, emotion recognition, and copresence in dyadic interaction. Presence 15 — Presence and reality judgment in virtual environments: Psychological variables and reality judgment in virtual environments: Moving from virtual reality exposure-based therapy to augmented reality exposure-based therapy: Behavioral, neural, and computational principles of bodily self-consciousness.

Neuron 88 — Virtual reality in neuroscience research and therapy. Feasibility of a walking virtual reality system for rehabilitation: Treating cockroach phobia with augmented reality.

Recent progress in virtual reality exposure therapy for phobias: Psychiatry Rep. Mixing realities? An application of augmented reality for the treatment of cockroach phobia.

A faster algorithm for betweenness centrality. An augmented reality system validation for the treatment of cockroach phobia. Virtual reality: TechTrends 60 — Scientometrics — Multimodal virtual reality: Virtual Reality Technology Vol. Augmented reality technologies, systems and applications. Tools Appl. Nature — The History of Augmented Reality.

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Available at: CiteSpace II: The structure and dynamics of cocitation clusters: Use of tangible and augmented reality models in engineering graphics courses. Issues Eng. Augmented reality: Methods Med. International Association of Engineers; , 17— Virtual reality applications in manufacturing industries: Modeling behavior dynamics using computational psychometrics within virtual worlds.

Virtual Reality: Technologies, Medical Applications and Challenges. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Psychometric assessment and behavioral experiments using a free virtual reality platform and computational science.

BMC Med. An augmented reality system for patient-specific guidance of cardiac catheter ablation procedures. IEEE Trans. Imaging 24 — Toward an embodied medicine: Sensors Basel Feel the time.

Introduction to Virtual Reality

Time perception as a function of interoceptive processing. Looking into the future. IEEE Softw. Teaching with technology in higher education: Comparison of pubmed, scopus, web of science, and Google scholar: IEEE; , 74— Virtual reality in the assessment, understanding, and treatment of mental health disorders. A set of measures of centrality based on betweenness.

Understanding Virtual Reality Technology: Advances and Applications

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Mapping recent information behavior research: Being there: Presence 1 — Interactivity in the context of designed experiences. Sensorama simulator. Patent No - 3, United States Patent and Trade Office. Experimenting with electromagnetism using augmented reality: Schumaker R.

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A pilot study in hemiparetic individuals with acquired brain injury. Brain Inj. At the heart of it all: Immersive virtual environment technology as a basic research tool in psychology. Methods Instr.

Navigation system for the blind: Presence 7 — Virtual reality rehabilitation of balance: A taxonomy of mixed reality visual displays. Do virtual reality games improve mobility skills and balance measurements in community-dwelling older adults? Systematic review and meta-analysis. Mobile augmented reality: Procedia Soc. Quantifying the changing role of past publications. Denver, CO: Android App with Augmented Reality: Mind Blow-Ing.Comparison of best VR headsets: Morpheus vs.

Hemley, Matthew Window on World Systems WoW world with the senses of a human operator. Introduction to Virtual Reality explains what VR is about, without going into the underlying mathematical techniques, but at the same time providing a solid understanding and foundation of the techniques and applications involved. Sufficient power supply is needed to run technological devices Mahmuda, Mixed Reality.

A VR user is able to navigate by walking, running or even flying through a virtual environment and explore viewpoints that would be impossible in the real world.

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