In this book, Juval Portugali intro duces a new idea: Cities are self organizing systems. To substantiate his revolutionary concept, he uses several interlinked. What is self-organization, and how can these mechanisms be defined and recognized in specific areas? What kind of self-organizing mechanisms are there in. PDF | On Jan 1, , Roger White and others published Book review: Self- organization and the city, by Juval Portugali.
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Self-Organization and the City | 𝗥𝗲𝗾𝘂𝗲𝘀𝘁 𝗣𝗗𝗙 on ResearchGate | On Nov 1, , Steven M. Manson and others published Self-Organization and the City. Self-Organization and the City by Juval Portugali. Article in SIAM Review 43(2) · January with Request Full-text Paper PDF. Citations (0). References (0). PDF | The idea that cities are self-organizing systems, and that the state Savini F. () Deconstructing urbanity and disaggregating the city-.
To substantiate his revolutionary concept, he uses several interlinked methods.
On the one hand, and to my own delight, he employs in his arguments theoretical tools developed in the interdisciplinary field of synergetics. On the other hand, jointly with his co-workers, he has performed detailed model calculations on cellular nets. It has been a great pleasure and a wonderful experience for me to discuss these concepts with Juval Portugali over a number of years. I was repeatedly and deeply impressed by the way he established profound and often surprising links to other fields of science.
From the reviews "The author and his associates This book succintly and succesfully discusses urban process and urban revolution, the utility of heuristic models in studying social, economic, and cultural segregation in cities, and the development of synergetic theories of cities and city planning.
download Hardcover. download Softcover. FAQ Policy. About this book Cities first came into existence more than five thousand years ago.
Negotiation and Design for the Self-Organizing City: Gaming as a method for Urban Design
Now in fact, the results do often show macroscopic predictability or we must assume they do as Portugali gives representative outputs from his experiments in his diagrams, showing the value of some variable at locations on the cellular automata grid.
These representative samples must of course be giving human-recognisable patterns for them to be representative. Thus, when Portugali tells us that such and such an order parameter is emerging, it is emerging in a predictable manner.
However, this is not a criticism of the games themselves, but of the philosophical import - the games themselves are intriguing. City[-0] is a thorough investigation of 'blue' and 'green' segregative agents on a cellular automata.
In the course of the investigation, Portugali explains notions of stability and instability at local and global levels, and draws out a new principle to insert into Haken's synergetics. City-1 shows how combinations of local parameters can affect global outcomes, while City-2 and City-3 look at the effect of changing either intention or behaviour in order to avoid the 'cognitive dissonance' of a gap between the two; the results are examined in the context of actual changes in attitudes of Jewish inhabitants to having Arab neighbours.
City-4 goes further in that it encodes memes for individuals where in this case a meme is a genotype that might represent 'cultural identity' for example. The results are interesting in that coexisting stable meme populations arise or demes - see Wright , while the individual memes remain unstable. City-5 shows that the FACS framework does not have to be based upon traditional cellular automata, but may use GIS as the locational input, thus creating a very similar idea to O'Sullivan's graph cellular automata.
City-6 returns to the first City implementation, but imposes hierarchical familial relationships between the agents, so they act according to groups and subgroups.
Different 'cultures' are prescribed different hierarchical structures, and the results analysed using Q-analysis. Part III Self-Organizing Planning takes on a major theme from the philosophical standpoint of the book: how can you plan the unplannable?
Of course, as explained before, we do have to take it that cities really are unplannable. If so, though, Portugali suggests that planning should be 'just-in-time' rather than 'just-in-case'.
The just-in-time planning should however consist of actual plans, albeit short-range and micro in scale, rather than letting the postmodern milieu take over. Thus, the overall plan is allowed to emerge fromthe system, growing the infrastructure as it goes - along the lines of building the paths where the people actually walk Helbing et al.
Part III also considers planning games, which allow the planner to 'experience' different planning outcomes. Again, as previously pointed out, it does appear fruitless to do this. If the games really are chaotic, and self-organisation results in different order parameters based on initial conditions, then planners may actually see anything or at least, a the results of a number of order parameters develop before their eyes.
Self-Organization and the City
By changing a single lamppost, they may end up changing not just the entire microscopic course of development of the city, but also its macroscopic order parameter. However, once again, Portugali's demonstration game does show macroscopic similarity between game runs p. Part IV Synergetic Cities includes the only serious mathematics in the book. It begins by applying Haken's pattern recognition approach used successfully in a synergetic computer to levels of populations within the city worlds.
It is good to have a taste of the type of solutions that might be applied directly to non-linear differential equations for FACS-style evolutions. There are problems, such as the states cultural identity, etc. The book then goes on to consider decision-making in city planning as a pattern-recognition task. It is exciting material to read. The work of the decision-maker is considered as a synergetic inter-representation network SIRN , that is, an interaction between the individual internal mind and the external collective memory of the city which produces plans.
There are also caveats to the method. To what extent is decision-making simply applying schemata? Does such a method allow creative solutions? And so on. That said, the SIRN approach leads to fascinating experiments with multiple 'planners', currently in preparation by Portugali.
Part V Self-Organization and Urban Revolutions is a brief section on connecting self-organisation principles to the idea of urban revolutions, in relation to the work of Childe and Lefebvre. In it, Portugali proposes that trying to identify 'cause' should be abandoned, since the trigger of a revolution may be the proverbial butterfly.
The Self-Organizing Economy
It is a grand claim, and apparently flawed. Although the butterfly may be the trigger, the group of prevalent 'causes' should be taken into account. Portugali even does this himself, when he investigates, for example, the effects of the immigration of Jews to Israel from Russia in City The immigration wave is a cause, while Portugali seeks to find the effect of such a cause.
Thus, claiming that there are no 'causes' is disingenuous; the point is really that hunting the trigger may be impossible. In conclusion, Self-Organization and the City is a stimulating book, a collection of various strands of Portugali's work, with many ideas poking through a grandiloquent baldachin.This case is particularly interesting as Paris experienced large modifications in the 19th century the Haussmann period allowing us to try to quantity the effect of central planning.
Yufik and Friston propose a theory of understanding this issue that is highly compatible with that of this paper, except that their theory focuses on neuronal events underlying understanding, while this one is more concerned with mental acts on a conscious level.
A familiar challenge to Prigogine can easily be levelled at Portugali's book: Planning the Unplannable: This case of understanding is, of course, very simple, and probably minimally conscious.
Can these two paragraphs have anything to do with each other? The preceding quotation applied in the original to termites, but it can apply equally well to cognitive understanding in an intelligent individual.
Discussions regarding the Angachilla wetland and urban development conflicts took place in
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