Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SMBUF SMB University: Selling Cisco SMB Foundation Solutions. Networking Fundamentals. archive of html files, raudone.info format, and in other formats as may prove . of selected important network applications, or the basics of network. all part of, computer networks let us share information and resources. In business , In this chapter, you'll begin by relating networks to situations and concepts.
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2. 1. Introduction. -A network can be defined as a group of computers and other devices -Each of the devices on the network can be thought of as a node; each. as server and other act as clients. A server is simply a computer, that available the network resources and provides service to other computers when they request. Download free Basic Networking Tutorial course material and training (PDF ebook on 21 pages).
This list is maintained by examining the Service Advertising Protocol SAP packets which are sent by servers and other routers on the local segment. This scheme relies on the fact that each segment is assigned a unique network number. Figure A-1 shows an example of IPX routing. Each physical network segment is assigned a network number by the routers on the segment. You should generally only have one seed router per network cable segment.
In the diagram above. It may sometimes be desirable for redundancy to have several seed routers on a segment. IPX is relatively simple. If not. AppleTalk Routing Basics All routable protocols work by dividing the physical devices on a network into logical groups. The four IPX frame types are: Fortunately for workstation users.
By examining the destination network number in a packet that must be forwarded. This book provides an in-depth look at the AppleTalk protocol suite and AppleTalk routing. Users only need to install Novell drivers to be able to use the IPX protocols over their network. Each frame type organizes the IPX information in a network packet i. To determine a network number to use for autoseeding.
AppleTalk This is a very brief introduction to AppleTalk networking. Although the basic information may be the same. For this reason. This autoseeding default router configuration simplifies administration of the router since IPX can be routed right out of the box without any configuration.
The address of an individual device on the segment consisted of the network number. Each number in the range allows node addresses. This scheme meant there could be a maximum of devices per network segment. Figure A-2 shows an example of Appletalk routing. The network number or range of numbers can be between 1 and These Phase 2 extended ranges should be used for all new AppleTalk installations.
AppleTalk Phase 2 introduced the concept of extended networks. While the node address remained an 8 bit number. A network number was a sixteen bit value. While this was more than adequate for LocalTalk networks. In Figure A Router Autoconfiguration An autoseeding default router configuration simplifies administration of routers since AppleTalk can be routed right out of the box without any additional configuration.
Only Phase 2 extended networking is turned on in the default configuration. AppleTalk zones provide a way of creating groupings which can correspond to any concept a network administrator cares to use.
Once a device has successfully claimed an address. An extended network can have from 1 to zones. It does this by sending out a packet to all other nodes on its segment asking whether the node address is already in use.
It does this by broadcasting a packet to all other nodes on its segment asking whether the node address is already in use. This gives an administrator the opportunity to make zone names represent groups of devices which are on more than one segment. If another node on the segment responds.
The lookup is then forwarded to the appropriate segment s. If another node using the same number in the network range responds. When a device comes up on an extended AppleTalk network. Devices whose services match the information in the lookup will respond to it. Zones are configured into a router by an administrator. When a device on the network attempts to discover services such as servers or printers using a Chooser program. Unless it has been configured to pick one of the other zones.
This could be the department the devices are used in. This scheme is acceptable on very simple network topologies. In contrast to routers. Maintain a table that tracks which interface a source address has appeared on.
In this case. It operates according to the following rules: They do not provide for the logical grouping of network devices. Transparent Bridging The simplest kind of bridge is called a transparent bridge. Bridging Basics Bridges are used to limit the amount of traffic appearing on network segments other than the destination segment. Examine all packets on all active network interfaces for their source address. Spanning Tree Bridging To avoid bridging loops. If no match is found.
This simplicity is both the strength of bridging.
It will not work correctly if there are multiple paths to the same destination. Because bridges maintain very little information about network topology. But for this same reason.
Look up the destination addresses in this table for all packets. Ethernet addresses. Figure A-4 shows a four interface router which also supports bridging. In all other respects.
Through the listening process. When a packet with a destination address of C arrives at Port 0. A simplified bridging table is shown below: If it does not. The network segments connected to these two interfaces appear as a single logical segment for IP routing purposes. Frame Relay is a connection oriented service requiring circuits to be configured by your carrier to establish a physical link between two or more locations. By removing a number of the X.
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IP communications between these two segments will be bridged. Virtual Circuits Like X. In this example. IPX communications between these two segments will be bridged. Ports 0. It also has its own IPX network number. Frame Relay Frame Relay is a streamlined subset of the X.
Since the physical connection is always there in the form of a leased line. That is. Multiple virtual circuits which appear as virtual point-to-point links can be run through the same physical connection. There are two types of virtual circuits supported in Frame Relay: The network segments connected to these two interfaces appear as a single logical segment for IPX routing purposes. PVCs are like dedicated point-to-point private lines.
SVCs are generally not yet available from Frame Relay carriers. Global addressing simplifies address administration but allows for only DLCIs in the entire network. RFC also specifies a simple fragmentation procedure for carrying large frames over a frame relay network with a smaller maximum frame size. All protocol packets are encapsulated within a Q. The Annex D specification is the most widely used in the United States.
The Annex A specification is primarily a European specification. To accomplish this. Over the years. In other words. The Networking protocol also has addresses IP address , and these addresses are not fixed but assigned by a network administrator or automatically using a service called DHCP Dynamic host Configuration protocol.
Ethernet Broadcasts, Broadcast Domains and Collisions To send a message to all computers on an Ethernet network a broadcast address Mac Address of all ones is used. See Understanding binary numbers The broadcast domain is the effective range of the broadcast, which can be limited by inserting level 3 IP level network devices e.
A broadcast will be re-transmitted by hubs, switches, bridges level 2 and repeaters level 1. Note: Levels are the levels in the 7 layer OSI data model. Network devices Bridges and switches working at level 2 data link layer can create separate collision domains. Even though bridges and switches divide a network into separate collision domains, the computers are still part of the same broadcast domain.
This is shown in the diagram below. However a broadcast will be seen by devices on both sides of the switch.
Bridges vs Switches Bridges and switches do very similar functions and today you can only download switches. Bridges were used to join network segments i. Hubs vs Switches Hubs operate at the physical level, and were once the primary mechanism for connecting computers together. Hubs do not create a separate collision domain they just repeat packets.
They have been replaced by switches. If you look on site for a hub it will be a switch. The term frame is used for data units at the data link level and the the term packet for data units and the networking level. Hence we have Ethernet frames and IP packets. The data frame contains data and frame management information. The concept used to describe data frames is that of a letter and envelope.
The letter is the data which is placed inside an envelope that contains the addressing information. This concept of data being inserted into an envelope is used repeatedly in data communications, and it is an important one to grasp. The envelope containing the data letter can simply be inserted into another envelope and so on. Although the Ethernet protocol alone is sufficient to get data between two nodes on an Ethernet network, it is not used on its own.
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Ethernet represents what is known as a data link protocol, and for networking we need a networking protocol which in our case is IP internet protocol. It is however the IP protocol which contains the important IP addresses, which are used for connecting computers together across the Internet, and in local networks. The diagram below illustrates how data is placed inside protocol envelopes headers. At the receiving end it is unpacked in the reverse order.
The IP address is the most important address as far as we are concerned, as it is a logical address, meaning it is assigned by us, and can be changed. Current networks use IPv4 Addresses.
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The IP IPv4 address is a 32 bit address and is written in dotted decimal notation and appears like this: So it is of this form: a. When troubleshooting network problems you will need to be able to identify network addresses, and if a device has one, and whether that address is valid.
If a client cannot get an IP address then some clients will auto assign an IP address. Note: Different versions of windows use different default IP addresses In either case it is unlikely to work correctly because clients with a In our street analogy they think they are on different streets.
Finding Your IP Address To find the IP address on a windows computer using ipconfig, open a command line dos prompt and type the command ipconfig at the prompt. The IP address here is You will also see the default gateway address This is the IP address of the Router, the term gateway is an old Unix expression that is still used.The number of host IDs per network ID is 2 raised to 8 minus 2, or With the advent of the tablet computer, and the touch screen devices such as iPad and iPhone, our definition of workstation is quickly evolving to include those devices, because of their ability to interact with the network and utilize network services.
You will find your happiness without trouble! Boot process. When troubleshooting network problems you will need to be able to identify network addresses, and if a device has one, and whether that address is valid. A network component and a node component.