FIBRA OPTICA PDF

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PDF | La actividad fundamental del Laboratorio de Fibras Ópticas es el desarrollo de técnicas de fabricación de componentes y dispositivos de fibra óptica. PDF | Dissertação de Doutoramento em Física, área de especialização em Electromagnetismo e Electrónica, apresentada à Faculdade de Ciências da. Pruebas en Fibra raudone.info - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online.


Fibra Optica Pdf

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SPE The Optic Oil Field: Deployment and Application of Permanent In-well Fiber Optic Sensing Systems for Production and Reservo. Los sensores basados en fibra óptica son cada vez más utilizados en http:// raudone.info Para evaluar la calidad de un enlace de fibra óptica se suele tomar como parámetro de calidad, la tasa de error (BER) que mide los bits.

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You will be assisted by one of our advisors. Fiber optic sensing systems can be implemented in singlepoint. It also contains the software required to control the data acquisition. Cable and Connectors. The tubing encases a specially coated.

In standard implementations. The wellhead outlet provides for feed-through and exiting of the fiber optic cable from the well in a safe and reliable manner and is similar to that for an electrical system.

Bragg Grating Sensors Bragg gratings are intrinsic sensor elements that can be written into the core of an optical fiber by an ultraviolet photoinsciption process. The standard wellhead outlet contains a minimum of two sealing barriers to every potential leak path and is rated to a working pressure of It utilizes two Bragg gratings. This avoided the need for any fusion splicing or welding on the platform. Since Bragg grating sensors are intrinsic to the fiber.

Bragg grating-based sensors represent the next generation of single. No additional rig time was required for installation of the fiber optic gauge over that for a conventional gauge. The gauge is still operational to its original accuracy and resolution after over The mandrel is specially designed to protect the transducer during the trip down the hole.

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Sensor Assembly. The singlepoint fiber optic pressure gauge provides real-time measurements of wellbore temperature and pressure. The transducer housing contains an oilfilled dual buffer tube assembly to prevent direct contact between the wellbore fluids and the sensing element and to serve as shock protection for the element. The specific sensors are described in more detail in the following case studies. All surface equipment. The sensor assembly consists of the actual fiber optic sensors and transducers.

It did not involve Bragg grating-based sensors.

The FOWM systems demonstrated that fiber optic sensors can be deployed in harsh wellbore environments and gave the industry and manufacturers valuable installation and operational experience. They also demonstrated that fiber optic cable and connectors can survive for extended periods in the wellbore. Prior to shipment offshore. The system was designed and manufactured by Optoplan A. Between and a total of 10 FOWM systems were installed. The following three case studies discuss some of the first deployments of this new permanent downhole monitoring technology.

Together with the cable. The system consisted of a Bragg grating-based pressure and temperature gauge. Although the field is under steam flood.

The optical fibers are packaged in the FIMT with a hydrogen gettering grease. Installation of the fiber optic pressure and temperature system is very similar to installation of a conventional downhole electronic gauge system.

Improvements have also been made to the wellhead outlet. The cable spool and transducer were shipped along with the gauge mandrel. A Pruett Industries.

The most important advancement has been the development of Bragg grating-based sensors. Pioneer Fiber Optic Deployments The first in-well fiber optic pressure and temperature system was installed for Shell in the Sleen field in the Netherlands in In the years since the first FOWM deployments. The pressure gauge was fed from the spooling unit. The performance of the gauge to-date has exceeded expectations.

These included five subsea installations. The design of the in-well fiber optic cable has been changed to increase protection from hydrogen ingression. Swagelok fittings were installed above and below the hanger to provide a double seal. A sampling of the pressure and temperature data from the first nine months of operation of the gauge is shown in Fig.

It delivers real-time measurements of downhole flow rate. In fact. Flowmeter Description. Once outside the well. While there was no absolute check of the downhole shut-in pressure data from the optical gauge.

The optical fiber is terminated at the instrumentation unit in the control room Fig. During the run-in-hole. Results from this analysis were used in decision-making on future management of the well.

Maximum overall diameter of the tool is 5. This also provided wellbore temperature and pressure data during the run-in. The surface instrument in this installation acquires a pressure and temperature reading every 2.

In addition. An electronic gauge was also installed at the surface for the test. The system is deployed with the production tubing string during well completion in a manner similar to conventional. There was an attempt to deploy two memory gauges via wireline for the test as a check on the optical gauge.

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Approximately one month into the life of the well. The flow assembly is about 12 ft in length and contains the velocity and phase fraction sensors. Noted on the plot are a pressure transient test and several well shut-ins. It is capable of measuring volumetric flow rate and. The pressure assembly is about 5 ft in length and contains a Periodically the data is downloaded from the unit.

The fiber optic cable exited the well through the DNV-certified wellhead outlet. At each tubing joint. A subset of the data is pulled into the data historian system for permanent archiving with other platform data. The fiber optic gauge in this Gulf of Mexico well continues to perform within specifications. On the other hand.

The data is currently being used to manage drawdown as the well is put on compression. It consists of two subassemblies. A second in-well fiber optic pressure and temperature system will be installed in another well on the same platform in mid The two-phase fiber optic flowmeter system provides permanent. It contains no downhole electronics. These checks were carried out during other well completion activities and resulted in no additional rig time during the installation.

Because of fluid compressibility effects. The platform data system allows data access to personnel both on the platform and on shore.

Having a real-time pressure and temperature gauge installed in the well means that each of these shut-ins. To penetrate the tubing hanger. Installation of the flowmeter was performed as planned with no additional rig time required.

This enabled system to be hooked up and data to be logged shortly after the flowmeter reached total depth.

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Volumetric flow rate is determined from a series of full-bore. As in any well completion operation. In addition to pressure. The systems described in this paper have accumulated over four years of in-well operating experience without a failure. Since these checks were conducted while the rig crew was picking up more tubing.

Early-time performance of the fiber optic flowmeter has exceeded expectations and demonstrates the value of realtime downhole production data. The well completion was finished approximately three days ahead of the budgeted schedule and no lost rig time was attributed to installation of the flowmeter. A fiber optic pressure and temperature system will be installed on the same platform in mid The meter uses fundamentally new multiphase flow measurement methodologies which take advantage of the high bandwidth capabilities of optic fiber and the ability to multiplex many sensors on a single fiber.

Testing included a wide range of oil and water types.. The authors would also like to acknowledge the significant efforts of coworkers in BP Exploration. Installation of the flowmeter was similar to installation of any other production tubing-conveyed system. Shell Offshore. The flowmeter assembly. The periodic. Conclusions Real-time downhole production data has been a dream of production and reservoir engineers for years.

All sensors in the flowmeter are based on fiber Bragg grating technology. Permanent in-well fiber optic monitoring systems are increasingly being turned to as a reliable alternative to conventional downhole systems. In addition to these applications. Although the well was shut-in shortly after it was brought on line. Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge BP. The flowmeter was landed at a measured depth of Optical checks of the flowmeter and pressure and temperature measurements were performed approximately every thousand feet of completion.

Downhole flow rate measurements offers the opportunity to test the well at any time without having to use a test separator.

They were set up. Note the variability in the actual downhole flow rate and pressure during the test.

Bragg grating-based fiber optic systems offer additional advantages of high stability. Significant advantages of optical sensiing systems include no downhole electronics and high temperature operation.

Prior to deployment. As these systems continue to develop a track record of reliabity. Phase fraction is determined from a acoustic-based sound speed measurement that utilizes the contrast between the speed of sound of the two phases. Along with providing the production engineer with downhole pressure data to control drawdown while the well was being ramped up. Bragg grating-based sensors are being developed to measure acoustics.

Lightwave Technol.: May It is a measure of the amount of power reflected by a connection. While there was no absolute check of the downhole shut-in pressure data from the optical gauge. In a continuous configuration the entire optical fiber is used as a sensor. To update this list, click on Refresh network list.

Yen downloaden. It is recommended for directly buried cables and for special application aerial and duct cables.

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