Slides by: Sheelagh Carpendale. Visual Representation from. Semiology of Graphics by J. Bertin. Slides by: Sheelagh Carpendale. This material is partially based upon work supported by the The University of Wisconsin Press Preface to the English Edition by Jacques Bertin ix (2) Possible . This item:Semiology of Graphics: Diagrams, Networks, Maps by Jacques Bertin Hardcover $ Jacques Bertin is a French cartographer and theorist. In he founded the Cartographic Laboratory of the École pratique des hautes études and in he was named director of education.

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Semiology of graphics by Jacques Bertin, , University of Wisconsin Press edition, in English. JACQUES BERTIN. Semiology of. Graphics diagrams networks maps are the components of the graphic system and will be called the visual variables. Semiology of Graphics: Diagrams, Networks, Maps. Bertin. Take a Look Inside. Table of Contents ( Excerpt from Part One: Semiology of the Graphic.

Published under the PNAS license. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract In the information age, the ability to read and construct data visualizations becomes as important as the ability to read and write text. However, while standard definitions and theoretical frameworks to teach and assess textual, mathematical, and visual literacy exist, current data visualization literacy DVL definitions and frameworks are not comprehensive enough to guide the design of DVL teaching and assessment.

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The holistic DVL-FW promotes both the reading and construction of data visualizations, a pairing analogous to that of both reading and writing in textual literacy and understanding and applying in mathematical literacy.

Specifically, the DVL-FW defines a hierarchical typology of core concepts and details the process steps that are required to extract insights from data. Advancing the state of the art, the DVL-FW interlinks theoretical and procedural knowledge and showcases how both can be combined to design curricula and assessment measures for DVL. Keywords: data visualization, information visualization, literacy, assessment, learning sciences The invention of the printing press created a mandate for universal textual literacy; the need to manipulate many large numbers created a need for mathematical literacy; and the ubiquity and importance of photography, film, and digital drawing tools posed a need for visual literacy.

Analogously, the increasing availability of large datasets, the importance of understanding them, and the utility of data visualizations to inform data-driven decision making pose a need for universal data visualization literacy DVL. Like other literacies, DVL aims to promote better communication and collaboration, empower users to understand their world, build individual self-efficacy, and improve decision making in businesses and governments.


Pursuit of Universal Literacy In what follows, we review definitions and assessments of textual, mathematical, and visual literacy and discuss an emerging consensus around the definition and assessment of DVL. Major tests for textual literacy are issued by PISA 2 and are regularly administered in over 70 countries to measure how effectively they are preparing students to read and write text.

For advanced students, the Graduate Record Examination Subject Tests are widely used to assesses verbal reasoning and analytical writing skills for people applying to graduate schools 3 , 4. A review of major international education surveys with varying degrees of global coverage and diverse intended age groups can be found in ref. The PISA Draft Mathematics Framework 8 explains the theoretical underpinnings of the assessment, the formal definition of mathematical literacy, the mathematical processes that students undertake when using mathematical literacy, and the fundamental mathematical capabilities that underlie those processes.

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More recently, the Association of College and Research Libraries defined standards, performance indicators, and learning outcomes for visual literacy 11 , Other works have sought to advance the assessment of DVL.

Boy et al. Results show that participants had significant limitations in naming and interpreting visualizations and particular difficulties when reading network layouts Maltese et al.

Lee et al. Analytical presentations ultimately stand or fall depending on the quality, relevance, and integrity of their content. Tufte claims that good graphical representations maximize data-ink and erase as much non-data-ink as possible. He put forward the data-ink ratio which is calculated by 1 minus the proportion of the graph that can be erased without loss of data-information.

Above all else show data. Maximize the data-ink ratio.

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Erase non-data-ink. Erase redundant data-ink. A graphical element may carry data information and also perform a design function usually left to non-data-ink.

Or it might show several different pieces of data. Mobilize every graphical element, perhaps several times over, to show data. The graphical element that actually locates or plots the data is the data measure. Building data measures out of data increases the quantitative detail and dimensionality of a graphic, e.

Semiology of graphics

Varying shades of gray show varying quantities better than color, they have a natural visual hierarchy. Different visual angles for different aspects of the data also organize graphical information. Each separate line of sight should remain unchanging preferably horizontal or vertical as the eye watches for data variation off the flat of the line of sight.

For multivariate work, several clear lines can be created.

Jacques Bertin

Aim for high data density graphs. Maximize data density and the size of the data matrix within reason. Apply the Shrink Principle: most graphs can be shrunk way down without losing legibility or information. They are: 1. Comparative 2.

Multivariate 3. Shrunken, high-density graphics 4. Usually based on large data matrix 5.

Drawn almost entirely with data ink 6. Efficient in interpretation 7. Often narrative in content, showing shifts in the relationship between variables as the index variable changes Sparklines are a subset of small multiples that are data-intense, design-simple, word-sized graphics.

Keep in mind the hierarchy of text sizes 3. Maintain adequate spacing between text and image.

No Myriad! Restrained use of color is highly effective in organizing a narrative and calling attention to certain elements. Use a defined Swatch Library from Illustrator as a starting point, or select a key color and use the Color Guide palette in Illustrator or Kuler.

Generally, using fewer colors works best in diagrams. Try using one key color to highlight a grayscale palette, or select a few colors within the same hue family. One-handed Triple Spellbound No. With one dimension marching along to the regular rhythm of seconds, minutes, hours, days, week, months, years, centuries, or millennia, the natural ordering of the time scale gives this design a strength and efficiency of interpretation found in no other graphic arrangement.

Best for big data sets with real variability 2. Can be used to demonstrate cycles or linear time 3.

Work well with small multiples to show movement 4.Results show that participants had significant limitations in naming and interpreting visualizations and particular difficulties when reading network layouts Cleveland, M.

Conveying Shape: Line Drawings D. Comparative 2. Ware, Information Visualization, Academic Press, He took part in a project on the Paris social space led by the sociologist Paul-Henry Chombart de Lauwe Shacked, D. Erase non-data-ink. Show multivariate data; that is show more than 1 or 2 variables. You are expected to download and print these papers yourselves.

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