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For instance, ambivalent users with the female as the majority like to make a sound in midnights and at weekends.
They mention their close friends frequently in ambivalent tweets, which attract more replies and serve as a more private communication way. Ambivalent users also respond differently to public affairs from others and demonstrate more interests in entertainment and sports events.
The above observations, though being promiscuous seemingly, actually point to the self-regulation of negative mood in Weibo, which could find its basis from the traditional emotion management theories in sociology but makes an important extension to the online environment in this study. Finally, as an interesting corollary, ambivalent users are found connected with compulsive downloaders and turn out to be perfect targets for online marketing.
Introduction Emotional expression is a psychological behavior with the purpose of communicating affective states between different individuals. This behavior could be either verbal or nonverbal, including texts, voice, face expressions and body languages [ 1 ].
In the epoch of the Internet, tremendous developments of online social media provide abundant innovative and powerful means of information exchange, bringing unprecedented richness and diversity to the forms of emotional expression. Among these new forms, the emoticon is becoming more and more popular with the rapid growth of Weibo, a Twitter-like service in China.
This differs from a smiley which is formed by combining punctuation marks as used in Twitter. Indeed, users seem to show increasing interests in expressing sentiments through approximately 2, emoticons designed by Weibo, ranging from facial expressions like laughing or crying, body languages like applause or hug, to some icons like the sun, a Christmas tree or birthday cake.
Utilization of emoticons in posts is very common since posts to Weibo are very short and lack context due to the character limitation. Emoticons allow posts to convey emotions and context in a vivid way without wasting precious character slots.
It has been found that both smileys and emoticons are strongly related with typical sentiment words, and could serve as convincing indicators of different emotions [ 2 ]. Tossell et al. Researchers also realize that emoticons and smileys could be effective features for texts to improve the precision of sentiment analysis [ 4 — 9 ], or be treated as sentiment labels to avoid intensive labor costs for preparing training data [ 5 ].
As a speical social behavior, emoticon usage is shaped by cultural and social factors. The pattern of emoticon usage in short-message texting is investigated and the discrepancies between male and female users are revealed [ 10 ].
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For instance, female users send more messages containing emoticons, while male users use a wider range of emoticons. Schnoebelen et al. Park et al. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Objective To investigate the feasibility of dual-energy CT for contrast media CM reduction in the diagnosis of hypervascular and hypovascular focal liver lesions FLL. VX2 tumors were implanted in two different segments of the liver in 13 rabbits.
The mean HU and standard deviation SD were measured in the liver, the hypervascular portion of the VX2 tumor which represented hypervascular tumors, and the central necrotic area of the VX2 tumor which represented hypovascular tumors in kVp images with I as a reference standard and in monoenergetic images between 40keV and keV with I and I Results For hypervascular lesions, the CNRratio was not statistically different from 1.
For hypovascular lesions, the CNRratio was similar to or higher than 1.
It is also a predisposing factor for both future kidney function loss and long-term adverse events such as death, stroke, myocardial infarction, and other cardiac and kidney diseases [ 4 , 5 ]. While the pathophysiology of CIN is not yet completely understood, direct cytotoxicity to endothelial and tubular cells, high viscosity, and high osmolarity of contrast media CM are thought to play major roles in the development of CIN [ 3 ].
Although there has been extensive study on ways to prevent CIN, the only methods proven to be effective are extracellular volume expansion and the use of low- or iso-osmolar iodinated CM rather than high-osmolar iodinated CM [ 6 — 8 ]. In terms of CM doses, the administered CM dose has been positively correlated with CIN risk and a higher dose of CM was reported to even increase in-hospital mortality [ 9 , 10 ]. Hence, there have been attempts to reduce CM dose during CT angiography by applying the low tube voltage—high tube current technique [ 11 — 13 ].
As tube voltage decreases, it becomes closer to the k-edge of iodine and the photoelectric absorption of iodine increases, resulting in increased Hounsfield Units HU of iodine on CT [ 14 — 16 ].
Hence, with the low tube voltage—high tube current technique, iodine manifests with higher HU values than it does with the standard CT technique, even with the same CM dose.
However, it is more difficult to apply this technique to the liver because the liver is enhanced less than the aorta or artery after contrast enhancement, resulting in a lower contrast-to-noise ratio CNR in liver CT compared to CT angiography.
Therefore, previous studies regarding focal liver lesion FLL evaluation with the low tube voltage—high tube current technique focused on improving the CNR or lesion conspicuity, rather than on decreasing CM dose [ 17 — 20 ].
Gemstone spectral imaging GSI dual-energy CT can almost simultaneously acquire image data from two different tube voltages via rapid kVp switching 80 kVp and kVp; switching delay, 0. In lower keV images, a lower concentration of iodine can have similar HUs to higher concentrations of iodine in standard kVp images [ 13 , 15 ].
Based on these reports, we assumed that the CNR of focal hypervascular and hypovascular hepatic lesions might be non-inferior in lower keV images even with CM doses of lower iodine concentration which suggest a smaller total amount of iodinated CM if the injection duration is fixed, compared to standard kVp images with CM of standard iodine concentrations.
The blood supply of VX2 carcinoma is similar to that of hepatocellular carcinoma in humans, and it shows a hypervascular nature on contrast enhanced CT [ 22 ].Surprisingly, we find many ambivalent tweets containing both positive and negative emoticons, indicating inconsistent emotions [ 19 ]. Further explorations on the behaviors of ambivalent users disclose more interesting patterns.
EMBO J. Javadi-Razat and M. Although there has been extensive study on ways to prevent CIN, the only methods proven to be effective are extracellular volume expansion and the use of low- or iso-osmolar iodinated CM rather than high-osmolar iodinated CM [ 6 — 8 ].
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