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Recent theoretical research has shown that translation is not only a textual operation, but also an act of communication and a cognitive process. Therefore, translation research should start from this triple perspective and, fortunately, can now count on a minimum theoretical foundation based on discourse analysis of comparative texts, the translator's cognitive processes, and the factors that intervene in translation as an act of communication.

Teaching Translation from Spanish to English: Worlds beyond Words is situated within this integrating line of research, taking into account not only the internal relationships between original text and translated text, but also the relationships between text and context, and the cognitive processes involved. James Holmes' classification of Translation Studies1 is beginning to be a reality.

To a certain extent, Holmes was a prophet, who foresaw the future of our discipline.

sábado, 20 de febrero de 2016

Both theoretical and descriptive translation studies have multiplied in recent years, but perhaps the advances have been fewer in applied translation studies translation teaching, translation in language teaching, and translation criticism and evaluation.

Given the worldwide importance of translation and translator training, and the rise of Translation Studies, translation teaching has not developed as fast as one might expect. Most of the publications in translation teaching have been either contrastive which identify learning problems in translation training with problems of a contrastive nature , or theoretical with a few practical exercises which 1. This article has been published on several occasions: , , Thus, translation teaching still lacks clearly defined learning objectives and a specific methodological framework.

Jean Delisle has been a pioneer in developing translation-teaching methods based on learning objectives which go beyond contrastive linguistics. I believe that the most important challenge facing translation-teaching research is defining general and specific learner objectives for direct and inverse translation, and for each branch of specialized translation technical and scientific translation; economic, legal, and administrative translation; audiovisual translation; and literary translation.

At the same time we have to develop appropriate methodologies and learning activities aimed at achieving these objectives. This research will help us to distinguish between problems of translation i. Allison Beeby's book should be seen as an advance in this field, defining specific learner objectives and a methodological framework. It filis an urgent need for teaching methodologies that avoid the pitfalls outlined above, teaching proposals for translation between Spanish and English, and, above all, specific teaching methodologies for translation into the foreign language.

Translation theorists have concentrated on translation into the mother tongue considered the only "real" translation and have ignored translation into the foreign language despite its importance in the work market and the fact that it is taught in most translator and interpreter training centres.

The specific nature of the inverse translation process, which implies greater difficulties in the reformulation stage, is reflected in the specific nature of the work market that tends to be confined to standardized or static text types, such as commercial or legal texts, and conversation interpreting.

Thus, teaching inverse translation should be distinguished from teaching direct translation by giving full importance to the specific nature of the process and the market.

Teaching Translation from Spanish to English: Worlds beyond Words is important because it fulfils a real need in translation-teaching methodology, due to the absence of research into inverse translation. This book demonstrates the specificity of translating into the foreign language and proposes interesting and varied teaching 2. It has the further merit of proposing a theoretical framework that integrates process and product, and a teaching methodology that is designed to achieve learner objectives.

I am sure that the proposals made here will be of great use to translator trainers and trainees. The first is the practical perspective gained from exposure to the problems of translating and teaching translating. The second is the theoretical perspective gained from exposure to representatives of many different schools of translation studies.

Coseriu, J. Delisle, E. Etkind, V. Hatim, J. Ladmiral, M. Lederer, I. Mounin, P. Newmark, E. Nida, S. Nirenburg, K. Reiss, and D. My personal interest in some of the central issues discussed in this book began at a very early age. Born in Amoy, China, and brought up in Taiwan, speaking Taiwanese and English, I learned to appreciate misunderstandings due to "translation" errors.

One of the ongoing discussions in my home was the question of deverbalization: my father maintained that there was no thought without words and my mother argued for the possibility of thought without words. I started reading translation theory under the guidance of Victor Raskin, who taught me linguistics at Purdue in When I started to teach translation in Barcelona, I found that what I had read was not of much use in the classroom.

My guide was a colleague from the French department, Amparo Hurtado, who introduced me to the Paris School and, in particular, to Jean Delisle at the University of Ottawa. Term by which a given translation procedure can be judged in terms of the purpose of the translation. Preferred to Equivalence. Back reference. The suitability of language use to its context. True bilingualism; native-language competence and performance in more than one language is very rare.

Processing a text on the basis of surface textual evidence. See also Topdown. Forward reference. Cognitive environment.

The set of assumptions, beliefs, knowledge, and so on shared and referred to by language users. The surface network of lexical, grammatical, and other relations that provide formal links between various parts of a text.

Los mil y un textos en una noche – Volumen I

The tendency of certain words to co-occur regularly in a given language. The part of a sentence that has most communicative importance or provides new Information. See also Topic. First stage in the translation process, when the translator makes sense of a sequence of sounds or graphic symbols. See also Deverbalization; Reformulation; Verification. A word or phrase that links together two clauses, groups, or words. Additional meanings that a lexical item acquires beyond the primary, denotational meaning.

See also Denotation. Consecutive interpreting. Oral translation following a speech or segment of a speech. The extratextual environment that exerts a determining influence on the language used.

Context of situation. All aspects of the situation in which a language event takes place that are relevant to the interpreting of that event. Co-operative principie. The assumption that interlocutors co-operate with each other by observing certain conversational maxims.

Cultural codes.

Teaching translation from Spanish to English: worlds beyond words

Conceptual systems that allow denotative meanings to take on extra connotative meanings. Formal features of language demonstratives, personal pronouns, tense, and so on that relate the concepts and entities evoked to the time and place of utterance. The primary meaning of a lexical item, involving its relation to the nonlinguistic entities that it represents.

See also Connotation. Second stage in the translation process, stage of language-free semantic representation. See also Comprehension; Reformulation; Verification.

Variation in language performance depending on the characteristics of the user. The making explicit of an implied meaning. See also Implicature.

Aspect of register, variation in language according to the use to which it is put in various professional and social settings, such as scientific or legal discourse. See also Mode; Tenor. Conventional forms of texts associated with particular types of social occasion sonnet, cooking recipe, and so on.

A specific word in a semantic field. See also Superordinate. Features of language-use characteristic of an individual language user. Having to do with the intentions of the speaker of an utterance. An implied meaning derived from an utterance on the basis of a shared cultural code.

See also Explicature. The part of a sign that serves to identify it. See also Interpretant; Object. The effect that a sign is meant to convey. See also Initiator; Objec Intersemiotic translation. Translating from one semiotic code to another. A precondition for the intelligibility of texts, involving the dependence of one text on another. Inverse translation. Translation from the translator's AL to his or her BL. Lexical set. Having to do with the act of uttering.

Macrostructural processing. Another term for top-down processing. See Unmarked. The use of language to comment on language. Microstructural processing. Another term for bottom-up processing. See also Field; Tenor. The part of a sign that serves as a vehicle of the sign itself.

See also Initiator; Interpretant. Having to do with the effect intended in uttering a sentence. Prose translation. Third stage in the translation process, when the translator expresses what he or she has understood in the first and second stages.

Se also Comprehension; Deverbalization; Verification. The tendency to pattern language behaviour in relation to a particular type of activity. See also Field; Mode; Tenor. The recurrence or repetition of an item or phrase in a text. One of the aspects of the co-operative principie whereby interlocutors seek to relate their utterances to the current situation. Restricted code register.

Any variety of language that is characterized by a restricted range of formal properties phonology, lexis, and grammar. The part of a sentence that occurs last and usually has most communicative importance. See also Theme. Semantic field. Conceptual field that reflects the divisions and subdivisions imposed by a linguistic community on the continuum of experience. Newmark's term for translation from AL to BL.

Simultaneous interpreting. Oral and simultaneous translation of a speech. Source language. Source-language text. Speech act. The action that is intended in the utterance of a sentence. Variation in language-use achieved by choosing from the range of phonological, lexical, and grammatical resources of a language in order to produce some effect.

A general word in a semantic field.

The meaning of a superordinate includes the meaning of all its hyponyms. Aspect of register that reflects the relationship between addresser and addressee, such as level of formality, distance. See also Field; Mode. A set of mutually relevant communicative functions, structured in such a way as to achieve an over-all rhetorical purpose.

Text linguistics. The branch of linguistics that analyzes spoken and written texts above the level of individual sentences.

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Text type. Classification of texts according to the parameters of register: field, mode, tenor. Text-type focus. The aspect of context that is seen to be the dominant function of a text and that determines text type.

The part of a sentence that occurs first and usually has less communicative importance. See also Rheme. French term for translation from AL to BL. Target language. Target-language text.

Predicting the meaning of a text on the basis of information gathered from contextual and preliminary textual evidence. See also Bottom-up. The part of a sentence that has less communicative importance or carries known information.

See also Comment. Spanish term for translation from BL to AL. Spanish term for translation from AL to BL. The meaning of a linguistic item in terms of its denotation within the linguistic system. Aspect of language variation relating to what a user is doing with language.

Fourth stage in the translation process, when the translator returns to the SLT to check if the sense expressed in the TLT is the same. See also Comprehension; Deverbalization; Reformulation. French term for translation from BL to AL.

Vouloir dire. Preverbal intention behind an utterance. World knowledge. Whatever extralinguistic or real-world factors are brought into text-processing activity.

However, the importance of translation should not be underestimated, particularly in a world that has to learn to husband its resources as one world or perish in the attempt.

Without translators, commerce, trade, international relations, politics, law, science, and art would be severely limited, and in some cases would wither away. However, recognition of the importance of this profession has been slow. El guarda se agacha para mirar dentro del carro y la pistola de Trudy le apunta entonces a la sien. Al suelo 3 pp. El protagonista -y Grace y Norm, aunque sus tramas sean secundarias-, Jake Sully, cuenta con dos cuerpos -el avatar y el humano- y una sola mente-alma.

Ella trata de cogerle, pero es demasiado pesado. Le grita, intentando despertarle desesperadamente… p. JAKE se sienta a horcajadas sobre la criatura, sintiendo su poder. La sala se mantiene en silencio. Deben seguir las reglas p. Lo estadounidense se convierte por antonomasia en lo humano. Tengo la carne de gallina. Es decir, fijaos en esa oportunidad. Para Grace, ellos son una fuente de aprendizaje, una especie de laboratorio natural del que poder extraer conocimiento nuevo para la ciencia.

Avanza entre la multitud hasta la tarima, seguido de Norm, que lleva el avatar de Grace. Ella abre los ojos con gran esfuerzo. El mismo Jake es un personaje ambiguo. No saben ver p. JAKE: A aprender. Sin miedo. Ella se le acerca. JAKE: Era un marine, eh, un guerrero. Del clan Cabezabote. Y entonces es cuando ellos ven. Jake, montado en sus hombros, desconecta su antena. Pero les mandaremos un mensaje.

Decidles que Toruk Macto les convoca a todos. Y ahora volad todos conmigo, hermanos, hermanas. Concretamente, contridownloaderon al mantenimiento del sistema en dos niveles distintos. Esta idea relativista es encarnada en Avatar por la Dra.Bahia: Universidade Federal da Bahia.

Peirce, Signs, and Meaning. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Thus, teaching inverse translation should be distinguished from teaching direct translation by giving full importance to the specific nature of the process and the market.

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