PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . Plant tissue culture (PTC) is basic to all plant biotechnologies and is an exciting area of Plant Tissue Culture: An Introductory Text Download book PDF. culture techniques are often used for commercial production of plants as well Tissue culture involves the use of small pieces of plant tissue (explants) which.
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This book is intended to provide a general introduction to this exciting field of plant cell and tissue culture as tool in biotechnology, without overly dwelling on. Book · November with 94, Reads Download full-text PDF Plant tissue culture is an essential component of plant biotechnology. PDF | Plant tissue culture is a modern technique that describes the range of procedures used to maintain Book · April with 3, Reads.
More recently, a number of books describing the Methods and Protocols for one or more techniques of PTC have been published which should serve as useful laboratory manuals. The book comprises of nineteen chapters profusely illustrated with self-explanatory illustrations.
Most of the chapters include well-tested protocols and relevant media compositions that should be helpful in conducting laboratory experiments. For those interested in further details, Suggested Further Reading is given at the end of each chapter, and a Subject and Plant Index is provided at the end of the book. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents.
Advertisement Hide. Plant Tissue Culture: An Introductory Text.
Front Matter Pages i-xvii. Historical Sketch. Pages General Requirements and Techniques.
Culture Media. Tissue and Cell Culture.
Cellular Totipotency. Somatic Embryogenesis. Triploid Production. Zygotic Embryo Culture. Somaclonal Variation. For example, an excess of auxin will often result in a proliferation of roots, while an excess of cytokinin may yield shoots.
A balance of both auxin and cytokinin will often produce an unorganised growth of cells, or callus , but the morphology of the outgrowth will depend on the plant species as well as the medium composition. As cultures grow, pieces are typically sliced off and subcultured onto new media to allow for growth or to alter the morphology of the culture. The skill and experience of the tissue culturist are important in judging which pieces to culture and which to discard.
As shoots emerge from a culture, they may be sliced off and rooted with auxin to produce plantlets which, when mature, can be transferred to potting soil for further growth in the greenhouse as normal plants. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The specific differences in the regeneration potential of different organs and explants have various explanations.
The significant factors include differences in the stage of the cells in the cell cycle , the availability of or ability to transport endogenous growth regulators, and the metabolic capabilities of the cells. The most commonly used tissue explants are the meristematic ends of the plants like the stem tip, axillary bud tip and root tip.
These tissues have high rates of cell division and either concentrate or produce required growth regulating substances including auxins and cytokinins. Shoot regeneration efficiency in tissue culture is usually a quantitative trait that often varies between plant species and within a plant species among subspecies, varieties, cultivars , or ecotypes. Therefore, tissue culture regeneration can become complicated especially when many regeneration procedures have to be developed for different genotypes within the same species.
The three common pathways of plant tissue culture regeneration are propagation from preexisting meristems shoot culture or nodal culture , organogenesis and non-zygotic embryogenesis.
The propagation of shoots or nodal segments is usually performed in four stages for mass production of plantlets through in vitro vegetative multiplication but organogenesis is a common method of micropropagation that involves tissue regeneration of adventitious organs or axillary buds directly or indirectly from the explants. Non-zygotic embryogenesis is a noteworthy developmental pathway that is highly comparable to that of zygotic embryos and it is an important pathway for producing somaclonal variants, developing artificial seeds, and synthesizing metabolites.
Plant Tissue Culture: Theory and Practice, Volume 5
Due to the single cell origin of non-zygotic embryos, they are preferred in several regeneration systems for micropropagation, ploidy manipulation, gene transfer, and synthetic seed production. Nonetheless, tissue regeneration via organogenesis has also proved to be advantageous for studying regulatory mechanisms of plant development.
Choice of explant[ edit ] The tissue obtained from a plant to be cultured is called an explant. Explants can be taken from many different parts of a plant, including portions of shoots, leaves, stems, flowers, roots, single undifferentiated cells and from many types of mature cells provided are they still contain living cytoplasm and nuclei and are able de-differentiate and resume cell division.
This has given rise to the concept of totipotentency of plant cells. The choice of explant material also determines if the plantlets developed via tissue culture are haploid or diploid.
Also the risk of microbial contamination is increased with inappropriate explants. The first method involving the meristems and induction of multiple shoots is the preferred method for the micropropagation industry since the risks of somaclonal variation genetic variation induced in tissue culture are minimal when compared to the other two methods.
Somatic embryogenesis is a method that has the potential to be several times higher in multiplication rates and is amenable to handling in liquid culture systems like bioreactors. Some explants, like the root tip , are hard to isolate and are contaminated with soil microflora that become problematic during the tissue culture process.
Certain soil microflora can form tight associations with the root systems , or even grow within the root. Soil particles bound to roots are difficult to remove without injury to the roots that then allows microbial attack.
Plant Tissue Culture Books
These associated microflora will generally overgrow the tissue culture medium before there is significant growth of plant tissue. Some cultured tissues are slow in their growth.For gas exchange, an opening of about 1. Still, it may sometimes be desirable to include protoplast fusion in one or the other research program, and so the topic shall be briefly discussed here.
Due to the fast development of gene technology during the last 10—15 years, through which selected genes can be transferred from a donor genome to the genome of any other species, this aim can be achieved more precisely. This system is available with a volume of 1. For example, roots or the developing seeds require the import of assimilates from shoot tissue, or phytohormones produced in other, remote tissue to stay alive, function, and grow.
This method has been used to study processes related to the regeneration of the cell wall, and to better understand its structure.
Top Equipment used for explantation: