The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) formerly known as National Open NIOS operates through a network of Departments, Regional Centres and . Contents. Module 1: Environment through Ages. Origin of Earth and Evolution of the Environment ( KB) PDF File Opens in a new window · Environment and. NIOS – Environmental Studies Sr. Secondary Course Study Material & Textbook for UPSC Civil Services Exam, APPSC, TSPSC and Other.

Nios Environment Book

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Page 1. NIOS ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY · MATERIAL pdf Download · Click Here To Download. (E-BOOK) NIOS: Environment And Biodiversity. Contents: Module 1: Environment through Ages Origin of Earth and Evolution of the Environment Environment. (Download) NIOS PDF: Environment-Class General Studies Pre. Cum Mains Study Materials · Books · E-Book · NIOS e- Books.

On an average, he supplies 40 of them to vendors and collects Rs 20 from each. It provides my son part-time job. But 20 years ago, it was just a bald patch of land. But it would dry up quickly and the crops wilted.

In , the Dhan Foundation approached the villagers, Chinnalagu among them. The tank was deepened and a sluice built. He says the groundwater table has risen and he now plans to dig a well. Last year, he made an investment of Rs 22, to cultivate paddy on about 1.

Books are her best friend. She participates in group discussions on books in the library. Jyoti often reads to her classmates and siblings. There are about RTR libraries in the district; of these are run with Disha.

Thankfully, her father Md Shamim stood by her. Old Delhi houses and lanes are about antiquity. Parents are restrictive. But relatives were a bother. Zoreshia says her mother and her principal, Chitra Gupta, egged her on and gave her the confidence to shatter barriers. Despite her Urdu-medium education, Zoreshia speaks fluent English.

Her school focused on academics and also gave equal importance to overall grooming. Her father Md Shamim makes tin boxes for a living. He says girls in the Old Delhi area are outdoing the boys. And I made many friends. I need to study at my own pace. If she got caught, she was forced to work in the field all day as payment for the wood. Her husband died 10 years ago. In the early s, Navsarjan Trust identified acres of government land near the village that upper-caste farmers were cultivating illegally.

The trust got the lease cleared for landless dalits. But, they were threatened and ousted. Finally in , Navsarjan helped Baluben set up a micro-credit group of 51 women and got them the necessary permissions to start farming on the land. The village has also elected a dalit woman as sarpanch.

The then something newly-wed from Gujarat, was intrigued by the training sessions on gender and society held next door to her home, organized by one of the grassroots organizations under the Association for Democratic Reforms.

For lack of resources, her first lesson on the Hindi alphabet was executed by forming shapes in the dust. In the last few centuries, the exploitation of environmental resources has dramatically increased, leading to serious damage and degradation of the environment. In this lesson you shall learn about the utilization and exploitation of natural resources and how, they are being overexploited. When humans evolved more than two million years ago, the natural resources were over abundant as compared to human needs.

As human population increased, more and more food and resources for shelter were required and these were drawn at an increasing rate from the environment.

Even today, natural resources are being exploited by humans to meet their needs. In this lesson you shall learn how human activities degrade and deplete the natural resources of the environment.

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Module 2: Ecological Concepts and Issues. In the previous module module-1 you have learnt about the origin and evolution of the environment. You have also learnt how humans have been interacting with the environment.

In this lesson, which is the first one in the module-2, you will learn some important concepts of ecology which is an established branch of science. You know that earth is perhaps the only planet in the solar system that supports life. The portion of the earth which sustains life is called biosphere. Biosphere is very huge and cannot be studied as a single entity. It is divided into many distinct functional units called ecosystem. In this lesson you will study about the structure and functions of ecosystem.

Whenever you travel long distance you come across changing patterns of landscape. As you move out from your city or village, you see croplands, grasslands, or in some areas a forests, desert or a mountainous region.

These distinct landscapes are differentiated primarily due to the type of vegetation in these areas. Physical and geographical factors such as rainfall, temperature, elevation, soil type etc. In this lesson you will learn about the natural ecosystems with their varied vegetation and associated wildlife. The greed and need of human being has modified and changed the natural ecosystems greatly.

Inspiring stories of amazing people and their work which changed lives

The main reasons for the modification of natural ecosystems are and 1 increasing human population 2 increasing human needs and 3 changing life styles. In this lesson you will learn about different types of human modified ecosystems, the modifications brought about for their optimum utilization. Humans have lived in close contact with the environment ever since they first evolved way back in time between one million to two million years ago.

In the beginning they were hunters and gatherers as you have already learnt in lesson Gradually, with time, humans began to lead a settled and well organized life. As humans increased in numbers and progressed culturally, they began to draw more and more from natural resources so much so that environmental degradation has become a matter of serious concern nowadays. In this lesson you shall learn about the settlements of humans in villages and cities, related characteristics, associated life styles and environmental changes resulting from explosive growth of human population and human settlements.

In the previous lessons you have learnt about environment, its components and various ecological concepts. You have also acquainted yourself with natural ecosystem and manmade ecosystems. Humans have altered the ecosystems according to their own needs without thinking about the consequences.

Their need combined with greed have caused much damage to the environment, which will affect the coming generations. The expansion of agriculture, urbanization and industrialization needed the land which was obtained by large scale clearing of forests. The deforestation has changed the scenario of developed and developing countries, and has brought out vast changes resulting into a various environmental problems.

In this lesson you are going to study about deforestation, its causes and effect on environment. Module 4: Contemporary Environment Issues. Developmental activities such as construction, transportation and manufacturing not only deplete the natural resources but also produce large amount of wastes that leads to pollution of air, water, soil, and oceans; global warming and acid rains. Untreated or improperly treated waste is a major cause of pollution of rivers and environmental degradation causing ill health and loss of crop productivity.

In this lesson you will study about the major causes of pollution, their effects on our environment and the various measures that can be taken to control such pollutions. It is well known that various human activities have caused damage to land, air, water and organisms that inhabit them. The degraded environment in turn poses a serious threat to affect human health and social well-being.

In developing countries like India the biological contamination of food, water and air with germs has remained a health menace. Introduction of toxic chemicals and harmful radiations has created new types of potentially serious health problems.

Developmental projects have led to pollution of the environment resulting in different type of health problems. Some of those will be discussed in detail in this lesson. In nature catastrophes such as floods, drought, earth quake, tsunami, happen from time to time causing immense damage to life and property. It is important to devise means and methods to manage and minimise from natural disasters as far as possible.

Disasters caused by human activities such as fires, accidents, epidemics are no less sudden than natural disasters and may be equally devastating.

In this lesson you shall learn about causes, effects, prevention and management of natural as well as human made disaster. By now you are familiar with the term environment. You are also aware that the environment has no geographical boundaries. Whatever damage is done to the environment at a place it affects nearby or even distant places. These effects show up immediately or slowly. The explosive growth of the human population has been accompanied by rising expectations and increase in the standard of living.

More food, more houses, more transport, more energy and more of everything is required. This growing human need has resulted in depletion of natural resources; deforestation, loss of biodiversity, water and energy scarcity, increasing exploitation of mineral resources etc.

It is important to identify and address important issues to conserve and improve the environment. Some major national environmental issues such as land and forest management, water scarcity, energy, fast depletion of natural resources and many other will be discuss in the lesson.

For Senior Secondary XIIth(12th)

There is much to celebrate and appreciate about the world we live in. It includes our environment. However, mostly due to our actions we are altering the very environment, which sustains us. It would be very difficult for us to live in an unfriendly environment.

NIOS 12th class subject list

This lesson exposes you to the various global environmental issues or concerns and possible strategies to cope with them.

A wide variety of living organisms including plants, animals and micro-organisms with whom we share this planet earth makes the world a beautiful place to live in. Living organisms exist almost everywhere from mountain peaks to the ocean depths; from deserts to the rainforests. They vary in their habit and behaviour, shapes, sizes and colour. The remarkable diversity of living organisms form an inseparable and significant parts of our planet however, the ever increasing human population is posing serious threats to bio-diversity.

In this lesson we shall learn the ways humans are causing loss of biodiversity and the efforts that are being taken or need to be taken to protect and conserve the biodiversity. Resource is anything useful or can be made useful to humans to meet their needs.

The resource that is directly available for use from nature is called natural resource, which includes air, water from rainfall in lakes, rivers and wells, soil, land, forest, biodiversity, minerals, fossil fuels etc. Thus natural resources are supplied by our environment.

When human population was small and they lived a controlled and moderate life, the resource use was limited. But increasing population and economic activity resulted in excessive material consumption is putting heavy burden on natural resource base and that is causing severe damage to the environment. Soil erosion and land degradation together, constitute one of the major problems that disturb the ecological balance of the world. In this lesson, we will discuss the causes of soil erosion and land degradation.

You will also learn about remedial measures that can be taken to reduce or prevent soil and land degradation. You have already learnt in the previous lesson 16 that water and energy are required for survival of all organisms.

You have also learnt that there is growing shortage of water and energy which limits growth and development.

Human beings, through overexploitation of water resources have made water scarce. Pollution of natural water bodies such as sea, rivers, lakes etc. The problem of growing shortages of two essential resources namely water and energy can be solved only through their wise use and effective conservation.

In this lesson, you shall learn about water and energy conservation. Humans have made a very impressive economic progress, specially during the past two centuries, in creating material and luxuries of life style.

This progress has been achieved at a tremendous cost to the environment. Ever increasing exploitation of natural resources coupled with environmental degradation has reached a point that now threatens the well being and future of mankind. Environmentalist and even the common man around the world are seeking answers to this question like - can we keep up industrial and economic development without depleting or degrading our natural resources? Can forests be cleared endlessly for cultivation and habitation?

Can agricultural land be regularly used up for building, cities, factories and shopping malls? Can intensive farming be carried out through the year? Can fossil fuels be pumped out in a never-ending manner? How long can our natural resources last at the increasing rate of exploitation and consumption?

In this lesson we shall learn about the concept of sustainable development. Modern agriculture has made impressive contribution in increasing food grain production in the country.

The country could achieve self-sufficiency in food grain production by using modern methods of agriculture using better quality of seed, proper irrigation and adequate supply of plant nutrients by using chemical fertilizers and control of pests and diseases in crop plants by using pesticides.

It has also involved modern cultivation practices using tractors, combine harvesters and tube wells for irrigation. Rapid growth in food grain production from using seeds of high yielding variety is termed as Green Revolution.

(E-BOOK) NIOS : Environment And Biodiversity

Protection of air, water, soil and human health while producing bumper crops should be the prime concern of modern agriculture. Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fibre and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and raising of domesticated animals.Lab Exercise To study the quality of a sample of water collected or provided.

The main reasons for the modification of natural ecosystems are and 1 increasing human population 2 increasing human needs and 3 changing life styles.

It is absolutely essential for survival of all living beings. A verifcation code has been sent to your mobile number Please enter the verification code below. The main reasons for the modification of natural ecosystems are and 1 increasing human population 2 increasing human needs and 3 changing life styles.

Every country builds industries which provide employment, serve the consumers needs and help to generate revenue.

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