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Stephen Crane: Prose and Poetry: Maggie, A Girl of the Streets The Red Badge of Courage Stories, Sketches, Journalism The Black Riders War Is Kind (Library. Stephen Crane's Maggie: A Girl Of The Streets (Bloom's Guides). Read more · Maggie, A Girl of the Streets (Webster's Korean Thesaurus Edition) · Read more. KB Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF Maggie: a girl of the streets / edited & with an introduction by Harold Bloom. p. cm. -- (Bloom's guides) Includes.
In example 9 and 10 we can see that the relative pronoun who, has been replaced by the use of what. I always tell these people some name like that, because if they got onto your right name they might use it sometime. The mother slowly gathered herself up from the floor. As speakers became gradually bi-lingual, the more dominant of the codes — obviously Irish for many years — will have imposed its norms on the less dominant one, English, in the mind of the speaker.
The fact that speakers probably had little exposure to more standard models of English and would have been speaking it mainly to other speakers with similar verbal repertoires, and who were thus subject to the same linguistic forces, must have meant that idiosyncrasies would have become the unmarked forms.
It is the lack of Englishness of Hiberno-English that supplies its fascination to the English. In Anglo-Irish, there is also a significant influence of Gaelic.
This can be seen in some of the passages of Maggie a girl of the streets. Quotes 1 and 2 above in the analysis are an example of this. This was found in Cranes text, which is made of narrative and dialogues between Irish immigrants.
But dey gits t'rowed right our! I jolt dem right our in deh street before dey knows where dey is! The Irish have made the English their own and have preserved qualities of speech and writing that many standard English speakers feel they have lost.
Isolation due, partly by the geographical situation of the island and partly because it is a learned language, arrested on the language evolution.
Many words and phrases commonly used in Ireland are not to be found in standard English or American Lexicon. The condition of English in Ireland is still Elizabethan, who were eloquent before they were grammatical.
The same is true for the Irish.
Shakespeare would have spoken more like the Irish. Words such as bother and unwell come from the Irish translation and adaptation.
Irish and American English have many characteristics in common. Both have acquired their distinctive vocabulary and accents from the 17 th century English and although the language has evolved further in America than in Ireland, there are still some points in common.
So many of the features in Crane's characters' speech could also be typically American. From the analysis above we can see that non-standard features of English, commonly found in some parts of the British Isles are found in the language used by these Irish immigrants. This is due to the fact that most Irish men acquired their English from non-standard speakers.
Even the English of the landlords was influenced by the speech of their servants, stewards, grooms and gardeners, many of whom would be expressing Irish Gaelic phrases in English as direct translations giving rise to Hiberno-English. However, no specific Irish words have been found in Crane's dialogues even though there could be expression such as: An' now, git out an' go ahn wid dat doe-faced jude of yours.
Go the hell wid him, damn yeh, an' a good riddance. Nevertheless, even though the author clearly expresses the accent orthographically, so characteristic of this social class, no contrasting information has been found which could enable us to positively say that these expressions are exclusively Irish.
One may trust that Crane, who was not Irish himself, was acquainted with Irish immigrant speech, previously documenting himself before writing the novel, and therefore, dialogues such as the one above could be clear expressions of the characters' Irishness.
This comes from English: And she was a-crying as if her heart would break, poor t'ing. He t'inks he kin scrap, but when he gits me a-chasin' 'im he'll fin' out where he's wrong, deh damned duffer. This variations were brought to America by the Irish Immigrants in the 19th Century and even before since the beginning of the colonies. Therefore, at the time of the novel, those people living among the Irish vicinity used the same non-standard features. Irish in Ireland has even more distinctive features derived from the influence of Irish-Gaelic, which have been detected in the text, only in a small proportion, partly due to the lack of knowledge of Irish-Gaelic and partly due to the fact that the author was not Irish himself.
Non-standard deviations, similar to those of the English native speakers, were detected in a great proportion, because most Irish people learned their English from non-standard speakers. He does not mix various dialects together, although one of the characters has a more Standard English than the rest, but all the other characters are Irish immigrants from the slums.
He does not even introduce forms that would be unlikely or impossible for a speaker from that region or social group and the language keeps being similar all throughout the story. However, he does not reflect Irish Gaelic translations into English so typical of the Irish speech, especially by those coming from rural areas of the west and rough areas of the cities. The narrator uses standard English.
The effect the writer is trying to achieve by using the dialect is to make the story about Irish immigrants from the end of the 19th century tenements in New York, more realistic and close to the real manner in which these poor people used to express themselves at that time. The language shows the roughness and toughness of the people, always swearing and cursing. It is a language of the street. It is, therefore, difficult to understand, also due to the fact that the accent is expressed orthographically.
Related Papers. Consequently, Crane was forced to publish it at his own expense under the pseudonym Johnston Smith. In spite of all the difficulties, Maggie: A Girl of the Streets has been critically acclaimed for several decades and it is considered one of the most powerful examples of literary naturalism.
Like Stephen Crane, Dreiser was originally a journalist. Dreiser was persuaded by his friend Arthur Henry to start writing novels. This proposal, which Dreiser reluctantly accepted, was the first step in the creation of Sister Carrie.
It was finally published by Doubleday, Page and Company of New York in , although a revised edition of the novel appeared in , including several cuts of the most explicit scenes and a reduction in the number of pages. This last edition was the source for most subsequent reprints of the novel. Frederick J.
Stephen Crane's Maggie: A Girl Of The Streets (Bloom's Guides)
Nevertheless, the novel went on to become a cult novel 3 within contemporary American Literature. As we can see, both novels share a similar plot and a similar history of publication. However, Maggie and Carrie have very different destinies, a fact which invites a deeper analysis of both texts.
Thus, they are part of the naturalist movement, which relied heavily on determinism, a philosophical position according to which the environment and the surroundings condition the outcome of the lives of every human being. In other words, the environment has a crucial role in the physical and psychological development of every one of us.
As a result, it is essential to describe the social environment that surrounds Maggie and Carrie. Both novels are set during the last years of the nineteenth century. Before the Civil War, the rural, agrarian social model predominated. However, once the war was over, the Second Industrial Revolution gave way to a new urban nation.
Those changes were especially felt in big urban areas such as New York or Chicago the places were Maggie and Carrie live. In the last thirty years of the nineteenth century some inventions such as the steam locomotive or electricity became widespread. As a result, railroad communications improved enormously. Moreover, agricultural and industrial mechanization provoked a tremendous amount of production. Consequently, a huge labour force was required in order to carry out the productive process on a large scale.
In order to meet the need for labour force, millions of immigrants arrived in the USA, most of them coming from Europe. Therefore, the population of the major cities increased dramatically. For instance, Chicago the place where Carrie moves after leaving her hometown Columbia City, Wisconsin grew from , to almost two million inhabitants between and In the case of New York, the population increased from roughly 1,, in to almost 4,, in Maggie and Carrie emerge from impoverished neighbourhoods inhabited by thousands of workers.
Areas such as the Bowery in New York where Maggie lives were ruled by extreme poverty, violence and social degradation. In stark contrast with the harsh life of the disadvantaged neighbourhoods that serve as initial settings for both Sister Carrie and Maggie: A Girl of the Streets, some magnates took advantage of their economic and political power and amassed enormous fortunes.
Morgan, John D. These tycoons took advantage of new structural forms for business: while the corporation limited owners' liability, organizations such as pools, trusts, and holding companies allowed for greater control of the market. Zinn Tycoons such as those mentioned above are not featured in the works.
In the case of Maggie the action is set in a small, impoverished neighbourhood in which such privileged individuals cannot even be conceived. Nevertheless, Pete, who belongs to the lower class but has a slightly more privileged position than most people in the Bowery, is regarded as a sort of tycoon by Maggie. The county moved from a stratified society to a class society. Both Carrie and particularly Maggie belong to the lower classes, although Carrie manages to promote to a well-off middle class.
Nevertheless, the role of women within the society of the period was a secondary one. Their access to education was very restricted and, as a result, most of them did not have a public voice. In general terms, women were kept out of the productive process, but when the big companies required their labour they started to be seen as competitors by their male colleagues, and thus despised. The first steps of the feminist movement were taken during this period, and a new model of woman starts to emerge.
This new kind of woman has very little to do with the traditional canon of the Victorian Lady that was preponderant at the time.
Literary critic Claire Eby considers Carrie a transitional figure, not part of the Victorian model but not yet a new woman: The "New Woman" typically had a career and was economically independent.
Frequently New Women aligned themselves with members of their own sex in partnerships that were not necessarily romantic rather than in conventional marriages. Carrie follows this pattern when, deserting Hurstwood, she earns a fine income on stage and moves in with the more upbeat Lola Osborne. Yet the typical New Woman was better educated and frequently more politically inclined than Carrie, and so we might best think of Dreiser's heroine as a transitional figure, moving from the Victorian model of True Woman toward the recognizably modern New Woman.
She is by no means an independent woman and does not show any ambition or intention to climb up the social ladder. However, her personality may have been shaped differently had she been raised in a wealthier environment. This unsettled atmosphere was the breeding ground for 7 both Maggie and Carrie.
Victorian Morality spread its influence all over the Anglo-Saxon world during the 19th century. It was a kind of morality based on decorum, virtue or, at least, the appearance of virtue , laboriousness, austerity, social formalisms, patriarchy and the undervaluation of women. It brought about strong sexual repression and ignorance.
In addition, it encouraged a confined way of life and a lack of respectable public amusements, which resulted in the establishment of widespread social hypocrisy, as it has been explained at length by historians such as Judith R. In other words, those attitudes which were not admissible in public were often tolerated in the private sphere for instance, there was a prostitution boom during the period.
Many precepts from the Victorian Morality model were incorporated to patriotic discourses in the US, and some of them still endure in the most conservative and fundamentalist stratum of American society. The Puritans, as well as the Victorians, practiced a very rigid morality. They sanctified the culture of effort, work ethics and the accumulation of wealth. In Maggie there are not such clear examples of Puritanism or attachment to Victorian values.
Nevertheless, the way in which Maggie is judged by her relatives may imply a certain influence of these ideologies, or at least some concern regarding what their neighbours may think of them.
Although in origin a very restricted and radical group, 8 some of the puritan ideas had a deep impact within American Society. They believed themselves to be predestined to create a perfect society, blessed by God.
Other ideological tendencies can also contribute to understanding the social environment that surrounded the two heroines. This is exactly what both heroines try to do in the texts, although only Carrie obtains economical success. The foundations of literary naturalism were established by French writer Emile Zola in his essay Le Roman Experimental.
Zola considered that the novelist was both an observer and an experimenter. In other words, the novelist, after observing reality, presents the facts just as they are and then experiments with the characters of the story that he is narrating. Naturalism relies heavily on positivism, which states that the only possible knowledge derives from positive facts those which can be perceived through the senses and can be tested by experience. The determinist ideology declares that all events are determined by a certain reason.
This implies that the concept of fate does not exist and that we are not fully capable of making decisions freely. According to this philosophical position, human conduct would be the consequence of genetic heredity and the past events that have given shape to it. As incumbent of that office, he stumbled upstairs late at night, as his father had done before him. As a result, for the sake of survival, they can legitimately employ their superiority and exercise dominion over the less able or the weakest ones.
Moreover, these currents of thought allowed them to keep on oppressing the disadvantaged majorities. Either she falls into saving hands and becomes better, or she rapidly assumes the cosmopolitan standard of virtue and becomes worse.
Of an intermediate balance, under the circumstances, there is no possibility. This brief depiction of Maggie, still a girl, suggests a deterministic, desolated and impoverished environment, an idea which is corroborated immediately afterwards and that critics like George T.
Maggie, a girl of the streets.
Both heroines are also similar at the beginning regarding how easily they get fascinated by male seducers. Carrie is very soon spotted and courted by Drouet, who epitomizes that kind of man. Nevertheless, as time passes by, Carrie proves to be a more independent and ambitious woman than Maggie. First, he leaves Drouet when she becomes enchanted with Hurstwood, a more mature and interesting man. After Hurstwood loses his job, she realizes that he is not excessively determined to look for another one, thus becoming a burden for her incipient career as an actress.
As a result, she decides to abandon him and moves with a fellow actress, Lola, not caring much about what is going to become of him. In this respect she is very far from the traditional role of the submissive woman. However, it is true that she was economically sustained by both Drouet and Hurstwood at different stages of the novel. Thus, she took advantage of the status that those men could offer her but later on she got rid of them when she considered it necessary.
In other words, she adjusts to the Social Darwinist precepts and is able to succeed by proving to be more determined than those who surround her. Literary critic F. Riggio delves even further into this subject: With Carrie Meeber, Dreiser set out to write a different and subtler story, one that demanded a more complex psychology than his psychological analysis could account for.
The contradictions in Carrie that disturb many critics were for Dreiser the central drama of her inner life. She is a character whose destiny is unclear because her identity, from beginning to end, is only in the process of being formed.
Nevertheless, Dreiser seems to be much more at ease when dealing with male characters.
She comes from such an impoverished background that she has developed a tremendous, illogical feeling of inferiority towards Pete.
This feeling increases even further when she leaves her tenement for several weeks and moves with him, a decision for which she would later be despised and rejected by her family. Pete usually takes her out to the theatre and different shows, which are not excessively interesting but which cause a very powerful impression on her. The attraction Pete feels towards Nellie is as irrational as the one that Maggie feels for him. Paradoxically, 14 both Pete and Maggie suffer a terrible decline following the end of their relationship, as they are trapped in a cruel, naturalistic atmosphere from which they cannot escape.
Another key difference between both heroines has to do with the way in which they are treated by the community in response to their adulterous relationships.
On the on hand, Maggie is immediately despised by her family and neighbourhoods once it is known that she has spent several weeks away from home with Pete. Look ut her!All rights reserved. Gandal, Keith. Sharla Finley. Finally, Maggie is accosted by a huge fat man in greasy clothes. And Pete will soon show his true nature as he is easily seduced by a former acquaintance. The very idea that the middle class could resolve all the problems of poverty by inculcating the poor with vague and arbitrary morals and family values is based on the overwhelming need to have an explanation for the horrors of poverty.
Morgan, John D.