The LSO Archive holds copies of all the orchestra's recordings apart from those in blue. IF YOU FIND THIS DISCOGRAPHY INTERESTING. AND / OR USEFUL. The discography contains details of every recording session the LSO has undertaken – where, when, who and what; Word version (4MB) | PDF version ( 7MB). LSO DISCOGRAPHY PDF - Find London Symphony Orchestra discography, albums and singles on AllMusic. S. ▻ London Symphony Orchestra soundtracks (

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I don't know if this is common knowledge, but Mr. Philip Stuart's LSO discography is available in pdf (about case you want to print it) here. LSO Discography - London Symphony Orchestra. ) In addition to taxpayer actions, standing requirements are also relaxed in California's marriage laws. Find album reviews, stream songs, credits and award information for The London Symphony Orchestra Plays the Music of Queen - London Symphony Orchestra.

About a hundred players attended. They had no regular conductor, and to this day they have pursued this policy of freedom. Georg Henschel. At every one of these concerts brilliant performances were given, and the reputation of the organization as one of the finest of its kind in the world was made.

Richard Morrison , in his centenary study of the LSO, writes of "stodgy programmes of insipid Cowen, worthy Stanford, dull Parry and mediocre Mackenzie"; [n 3] they put the Parisian public off to a considerable degree, and the players ended up out of pocket. The New York Press said, "The great British band played with a vigor, force and temperamental impetuousness that almost lifted the listener out of his seat.

The paper had a little fun at the LSO's expense: from the viewpoint of a country that had long enjoyed permanent, salaried orchestras such as the Boston Symphony , it gently mocked the LSO's "bold stand for the sacred right of sending substitutes" [22] First World War and s[ edit ] Shortly after the beginning of the war the board of the orchestra received a petition from rank and file players protesting about Borsdorf's continued membership of the LSO.

Although he had done as much as anyone to found the orchestra, had lived in Britain for 30 years and was married to an Englishwoman, Borsdorf was regarded by some colleagues as an enemy alien and was forced out of the orchestra. For a year he took the role, though not the title, of chief conductor of the LSO. In his millionaire father died and Beecham's financial affairs became too complicated for any further musical philanthropy on his part.

A third of the orchestra's pre-war members were in the armed forces, and rebuilding was urgently needed. Coates had three attractions for the orchestra: he was a pupil of Nikisch, he had rich and influential contacts, and he was willing to conduct without fee. Their first concert featured the premiere of Elgar's Cello Concerto. Apart from the concerto, which the composer conducted, the rest of the programme was conducted by Coates, who overran his rehearsal time at the expense of Elgar's.

Lady Elgar wrote, "that brutal selfish ill-mannered bounder Whatever the explanation, the sad fact remains that never, in all probability, has so great an orchestra made so lamentable an exhibition of itself. Revenues were substantial, and the orchestra seemed to many to be entering into a golden age. In fact, for lack of any serious competition in the s, the LSO allowed its standards of playing to slip.

These, and later concerts by the same orchestra in and , made obvious the poor standards then prevailing in London. After an early attempt at co-operation between the BBC and Beecham, they went their separate ways. The prospect of joining a permanent, salaried orchestra was attractive enough to induce some LSO players to defect.


In Beecham lost patience and agreed with Sargent to set up a new orchestra from scratch. Under Sir Hamilton it will certainly take on a style of sincere expression, distinguished from the virtuoso brilliance cultivated by the B.

Orchestra and the London Philharmonic Orchestra under Beecham. According to the LSO's website the recording took 14 full orchestral sessions and "started a veritable revolution in film production history.

For the first time, music for the cinema, previously regarded as a lowly art form, captured the attention of classical music scholars and enthusiasts, music critics and the film and music public. The LSO had begun its long historic journey as the premier film orchestra. During the First World War the public's appetite for concert-going diminished drastically, but from the start of the Second it was clear that there was a huge demand for live music.

Between and there were 33 members of the LSO away on active service; between and there were more than 60, of whom seven were killed. This renunciation of the principles for which the LSO had been founded was rejected by the players, and the offered subsidy was declined.

By the orchestra was anxious to resume promoting its own concert series. His commitments in Vienna preventing him from becoming the LSO's chief conductor until , but from his first concert with the orchestra in December he influenced the playing for the better.

The principals argued that the future of the LSO lay in profitable session work for film companies, rather than in the overcrowded field of London concerts. They also wished to be free to accept such engagements individually, absenting themselves from concerts if there were a clash of dates. With the new intake the orchestra rapidly advanced in standards and status. After Krips's resignation the orchestra had worked with a few leading conductors, including Klemperer, Stokowski, Jascha Horenstein and Pierre Monteux , but also with many less eminent ones.

Fleischmann later said, "It wasn't difficult to change the list of conductors that the orchestra worked with, because one couldn't do much worse, really". Though 86 years old, Monteux asked for, and received, a year contract with a year option of renewal.

He lived for another three years, working with the LSO to within weeks of his death. He gave them extended horizons and some of his achievements with the orchestra, both at home and abroad, gave them quite a different constitution. This was another coup for Fleischmann, who had to overcome Bernstein's scorn for the inadequate rehearsal facilities endured by London orchestras.

Most of its members were amateurs, but at first, they were reinforced by a small number of professionals. This led to disputes over the balance between amateurs and professionals. This was an extremely short schedule as compared with the model envisaged by Mallinson and the LSO.

As an interviewee explained to me, 'Gergiev is a busy man. When Sir Colin Davis was the principal conductor, he was based here, we could go through things again if we had to. So we're trying to adapt to his busy schedule and see what comes out of it! Consequently all but two recordings of the ten symphonies were based on only one concert.

This meant that the orchestra often had to stay for late night patching sessions after having been surrounded all day by microphones. So nearly every attempt the performers made at the score stayed on record. When asked about the new recording conditions, some of the LSO's members accepted them as part of their jobs as orchestral musicians, but all acknowledged some level of anxiety caused by the relentless presence of microphones.

This anxiety could be perceived in the Barbican concert hall, particularly when compared to the relaxed atmosphere when rehearsing at LSO St. The following excerpts from interviews express their views: 'The Mahler cycle has been even more difficult, because we have played only one concert rather than two.

So generally speaking, it has been more stressful. Having a patching session after the concert when you are exhausted is not easy. We have been 23 up for twelve hours, and you know, when you play a concert you get all accelerated and it's good, it helps you to focus, but it's also exhausting, and once you finish you have to play again!

It's a bit hectic. However we play, it gets in the can. Wind instruments generally play solo, which doesn't make it easier. It's much more stressful. There's a double-bass who thinks it's good, it's healthy, that we have to push our limits, that we can't live in our comfort zones forever.

I can't agree with him! But it's a big ask. You have to make it perfect every time you play. This is unnecessary pressure. Everyone is on the edge, and for no extra money. But we agreed to do recordings only on repeated concerts, which hasn't happened. You play and it's gone. But you have to take a chance; you don't wanna sit thinking 'microphone', you wanna sit thinking 'music'.

It's a lot of pressure, but then playing with the LSO is a lot of pressure anyway. And people might be more used to it than before. But everybody will feel exposed anyway. The good thing is that we have a listening committee. People can ask 'please find a better take' and they are more reconciled with that. We have to maintain our international profile. Recording means going on tour. It's a mix of an artistically driven project with urgent commercial imperatives.

London Symphony Chorus

And as long as the profile is kept high, it is worthwhile. But it is at a cost: hard work! I hope you don't hear the work! I don't think you do, because the orchestra finds the energy.

Energy to make great music. These comments express the musicians' unease with the way recording has percolated every aspect of their professional life without any additional motivation.

While it could be said that they resent the new business model, they are also sharply aware of the economic circumstances that led to its conception. The last comment particularly succeeds in encapsulating some of the complex issues at stake in the decision to create LSO Live. Firstly, the comment entails the understanding that recording is necessary to foster and maintain an international profile. As discussed earlier, a record provides 'a tangible expression of the group identity'38 that can be distributed far beyond the immediate socio-musical network, drawing attention not only to a wider circle of potential downloaders, but also to potential agents interested in hiring them for more recordings or concerts.

In other words, the record is not just a product to be sold, but also a calling Cottrell, Professional music-making in London, With or without the support of the record industry, the LSO needed to record in order to maintain its profile. And recording live was the financially most viable solution to continue the orchestra's long-standing and comprehensive recording history. Secondly, like the previous excerpts, this comment makes reference to the inherent value of live recording.

While all the comments reveal some anxiety about the idea of continuously being surrounded by microphones, there seems to be a sense that the implicit risk involved in this type of recording is a driver for the making of great music. Even the most sceptical, like the performer in the first excerpt, admit that the concert situation is 'good, it helps you to focus'.

As I will illustrate below with further examples, live performance is preferred over studio recording, and the extent of this preference is such that it has helped musicians to come to terms with the uncertainties of the record industry and the consequent acceptance of LSO Live's business model.

Finally, although in passing, the comment addresses the orchestra's attitude to editing. As explained above, this was widely discussed both formally and informally, until the LSO agreed to edit out clapping and other audience noise, and use the material from rehearsals and two concerts as back-ups.

Editing allows musicians to make mistakes in the knowledge that it can be replaced by a better take. A mutual arrangement between the musicians and recording team was put in place to support this. On the one hand, musicians are free to talk to the producer about a certain passage during the concert, perhaps suggesting other takes to patch their flaws.

On the other, a selected team of musicians gets to listen to the first edited version, and with their feedback, the recording team prepare a final version. This arrangement provides some confidence for musicians and a sense of control over the final product.

Without leaving aside issues relating to the maintenance and development of the orchestra's international profile in a complex economic environment, I wish to focus in the 26 remainder of this article on the tension between the last two aspects of music-making highlighted in the previous comment: live recording and editing.

Each was deeply ingrained in both LSO Live's marketing strategy and the orchestra's recording practices, and finely woven together to create a discourse of music-making that was at the heart of the orchestra's aesthetic imperatives. It is at this point that I return to Lydia Goehr's39 distinction between the 'perfect performance of music' and the 'perfect musical performance' to draw a parallel with the techniques and practices of studio and live recording. As we will see, the tension between live recording and the techniques and practices associated with studio recording, such as editing and sound manipulation, provided a fertile ground to foster and maintain, yet at the same time transform, the values of classical music.

Live versus studio Throughout the production of LSO Live, the two types of recording models, live and studio, lived in constant tension, often overlapping with each other. As we have seen, Mallinson elaborated a discourse of the LSO Live model that depended on the juxtaposition of live broadcast and the studio element of traditional live recording.

Editing, a process associated with the studio, was approached with concern: was editing desirable, if so, why?

Yet, when confronted with the final product, the general perception was that more patching could be done, and so the listening committee was born. One orchestra member explained that he preferred being allowed to play through extensive passages rather than in short fragments—to make music, as he said, 'in a natural way, not the tedious repetition of the studio': 'And to listen to?

It's live There might be more mistakes, too, but then, it's live. And they aren't really mistakes either, they're part of the music, of making music.

Yes, I do prefer live. He did not mind if the recording was not perfect, and enjoyed the risk involved in live recording: 'I don't think about recording. You always have the patching session if things go terribly wrong. It's a matter of concentration and that's what concerts expect of you anyway'.

Yet another described the specific advantages of LSO Live by highlighting its live element: LSO Live offers something different: not quite the same control that you would find in German recordings, or a bit less so in EMI. I like to compare our recordings with organic products, as opposed to non-organic or just artificial.

Our recordings have grit, they also have noise, but that's ok, it's part of it. LSO Live is a new direction. And we were the first, we have historically been at the forefront. It's local produce, done by us, and it gives us international attention.

As in Goehr's perfect musical performance, performers feel that they are given the space to express themselves, they are literally at centre stage, and the work, at least for the duration of the performance, becomes secondary. LSO Live also hints at the situatedness of the performance. Recall Sir Colin Davis's remark that through LSO Live recording 'you can take part in what was actually a performance or you can have it as a memory of something you might have enjoyed'.

Here Davis focusses on the event and its uniqueness, over and above the work played. The musician's observation that LSO Live 'is local produce, done by us', stresses the place and origins of its creation, in the same way that farmers market their organic food. Similarly, the description of live recordings as 'more real' is a reminder of the Real Ale Campaign, together with its claim to authenticity see also Philip40 for more food analogies.

The participatory element of the perfect musical performance is also conveyed by Alfred Brendel41, whose use of the concept of aura is reminiscent of the definition given by Walter Benjamin It is the participation of the public, the aura of physical presence, the contribution of which cannot be altogether assessed on a live record; and yet, in some happy instances, these leave their mark in the heightened intensity of a performance, in the increase in the player's vision, courage and absorption.

Benjamin, 42 Walter : The work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction. Brendel, 'A case for live recordings', It is here that studio techniques gain relevance—even if in critical antagonism. On the one hand, the excerpts communicate the feeling that studio recording is structured in the service of the work, expecting from the performers 'tedious repetitions' geared towards a virtual performance that is perceived as 'non-organic and artificial'.

On the other, as I have illustrated through the description of LSO Live's tight recording schedules, much is at stake in the musicians' minds when recording live. Apart from clapping and other audience noise, the orchestra is exposed to additional risk factors associated with the circumstances surrounding the LSO's busy concert life itself.

Indeed, under the recurrent time limitations, it is not surprising that LSO Live is continuously seeking solutions to minimise risk, and studio techniques offer exactly such solutions. On one occasion, the recording team followed the LSO on a tour to Paris to record in the Salle Pleyel the second performance of a concert that had already been given at the Barbican.

When I asked Mallinson if the acoustics of the two halls were compatible, he replied: 'Oh yes, we will have to manipulate the recordings a bit, but they are close enough to edit them together. It was a difficult concert. But in spite of the amount of editing and sound manipulation needed for the musicians to feel satisfied with their recorded performance, the rhetoric and special arrangements reveal that editing remains an issue and is often set against the value of live recording.

Note in the following excerpt from my notes the continuous attempt to play down the amount of sound manipulation: The producer points towards the mixing desk: 'the celesta is next! The head engineer explained: 'What we do is we mix live, moving the channels a bit, but only a bit, depending on who is next, or when some instruments are less audible than others.

Here [he was referring to Mahler's Seventh symphony] the harps, for instance. Or the mandolin or the guitar. We help them a bit.

Also with effects. Here we have the [off-stage] cowbells, for instance. We try and do a little bit of an effect there too'. When the turn for the cow-bells comes the producer grumbles: 'That sounds like 20 cows coming in! The resistance to studio techniques can be explained by drawing a parallel between studio processes and the concept of the perfect performance of music. One characteristic aspect of studio recording is the practice of multiple takes, epitomised by the 'tedious repetition of the studio'.

This practice is geared towards eliminating any trace of human mediation or external noise, including the studio techniques themselves. By so doing, studio recordings of classical music create an illusion of virtual transparency, 'a window through which audiences directly perceive works' So understood, the musicians' resistance to their own invisibility becomes fully justified.

Yet this resistance also entailed a fallacy, for the recording model deployed by LSO Live was structured like studio recordings, only with live material.

Like studio recordings, LSO Live recordings were scheduled to allow for the production of multiple takes, which would then serve for the process described by Mallinson as 'knitting', the composition of a virtual performance without the mediating factors of a live broadcast.

The aim is a 'better musical experience', as the performer above put it, 'coughing is not part of the performance, a door slamming, something falling'.

Gillinson and Vaughn, 'The life of an orchestral musician', , italics are mine. Concerned that the live element in LSO Live recordings might destroy this illusion and with it the music's values, the LSO turned to and drew upon studio recording techniques. This suggests that, like the two traditions of performance highlighted by Goehr, the interaction and overlap of live and studio recording techniques and practices was unbalanced: 'first, the tilt has mostly favoured works; second, when the tilt has favoured performances or performers, the result has not in fact been simply to favour performances over works, but to try to meet both extremes simultaneously' As we have seen, it is not just by creating the illusion of performer transparency that the Werktreue ideal pervades LSO Live recordings: all levels of mediation are removed from the recording process in order to bring the listener to the closest possible experience of the work itself.

Like performers, the recording team also strives to be self-effacing. While their talk about their own work is revealing, the techniques employed are even more so: sound manipulation in classical music aims to be transparent. If anything, sound manipulation is thought of as aiding the listening experience by compensating for the lack of visual clues.

As we have seen, the sound of individual instruments is slightly boosted to bring them to increased attention. But the extent to which this happens is always circumscribed by the idea of transparency. This contrasts with pop and rock records, where part of the potential enjoyment is precisely to listen to the wizardry of sound manipulation: shifting environments and atmospheres carrying deep basses that contrast with high voices, sound moving from one Goehr, 'The perfect performance', 7.

In classical music sound manipulation is welcomed to the extent that it aids the experience of a virtual performance, not that it has a life of its own. Other middle-people in live recordings include the audience. The audience interests me not only because of its silence, but mainly because of what that silence entails in the first place.

Here I would like to focus on the extent to which concert recordings should be seen as competing with studio recordings at all. To start with, due to the size of symphonic orchestras, it is common that classical 'studio' recordings take place in concert halls. However, concert halls are ideally designed to sound at their best when they are fully occupied. So, in theory at least, a concert offers the ideal circumstances under which to record, provided the audience is silent.

And, as it happens, the audience in classical music is silent. The contemplative behavioural code of classical music itself endorses the importance of the artwork and the composer's intention. Classical music concerts thus offer arguably the ideal recording situation. The additional removal of any accidental audience noise in live recordings further reinforces this. In this way, live recordings have imprinted in themselves a whole behavioural code associated with the music they display, and what is more, as witnesses of the performance, they offer the excitement that is said to be lacking in studio recordings.

Tied to the audience's behaviour is the idea of the 'best seat in the concert hall'48, which says little about what really happens in terms of microphone placement. But its sonic effect, This idea was immortalised by producer Walter Legge in his memoirs, where he wrote: 'I want to make 48 records which will sound in the public's home exactly like what they would hear in the best seat in an acoustically perfect hall' in Schwarzkopf More recently, Colin Symes has used this phrase to conceptualise and structure a series of text-based recording practices.

For the record listener, this idealised reproduction means, to borrow Cook's words, being 'in direct communion with the composer himself' The authoritarian power structure associated with the Werktreue ideal is here clearly displayed. While the artwork reigns over classical music, the composer is the person who offers it to the world: the performer merely transmits it and the recording team produces a record of it, so that listeners, removed from the ordinary event, can sit back to experience the work in all its glory.

Or as Georgina Born50 has put it: 'the composer-hero stands over the interpreter, conductor or instrumentalist, interpreter over listener, just as the work ideal authorises and supervises the score, which supervises performance, which supervises reception' To summarise thus far, I have presented the musicians' expressions of intuitive preference of live recordings. Like in the perfect musical performance, live recording is preferred for its immediacy, its uniqueness, and its situatedness, and is contrasted to what is perceived as the artificiality of studio performance.

But I have also demonstrated that the recording model discussed and agreed to by the musicians betrayed these expressions. Drawing on the processes of studio recording, the model is geared towards the production of a flawless performance that requires the invisibility of the process of production: like in the perfect performance of music, the expectation is of performer transparency, as well as that of Cook, Music, 24, referring here to Beethoven.

Born, 'On musical mediation', The Werktreue ideal inherent in this production model is underscored by the evident authoritarian power structure supporting it.

As Colin Symes52 has pointed out, this structure has taken different forms beyond the purely aural, for instance, on covers. In the case of LSO Live covers, these most clearly display the name of the work and composer, followed by a smaller presentation of the conductor and orchestra, whilst the LSO logo is featured discreetly on a corner. Information about the recording team started to be included on record sleeves only from the s as prescribed by the International Association of Sound Archives.

On LSO Live recordings, like on most labels, it is carried on the back cover or inside the booklet in small print.

Category:London Symphony Orchestra albums

LSO Live cover artworks are generally abstract without any obvious extra-musical references. If anyone might still be in doubt as to the centrality of the composer, the heavy liner notes containing academic content on the composers' lives and work provide sufficient proof. Traces of the Werktreue ideal are also carried through the repertoire. As I demonstrate elsewhere53, until the repertoire featured by LSO Live was mainly based on core classical symphonic repertoire, a repertoire stressing the composer-centric perspective by eluding words and potential expressions of showmanship implied in solo performances.

The concept of Werktreue is thus fully established. To paraphrase Goehr, the resulting position demonstrates that live recording as practised by LSO Live is a complex event insofar as the performers strive to meet conflicting ideals.

Yet, while the live aspect has an antagonistic, though legitimate, role to play in a practice transformed by changing economic circumstances, the Werktreue ideal underwrites the final product.

Thus, by asserting itself as different, live Symes, Colin, Setting the record straight: a material history of classical recording Middletown: Performing for LSO Live In this final section, I wish to reconsider the distinction between live and studio recording by introducing an additional factor: listeners' expectations.

As I aim to demonstrate, the Werktreue ideal is more complex and more ingrained in both performance and recording than Goehr's clear distinction would suggest. I begin by returning to Brendel's quote above, where he described the imprint left on recordings by the public, what he called the aura. I repeat his description here for simplicity: It is the participation of the public, the aura of physical presence, the contribution of which cannot be altogether assessed on a live record; and yet, in some happy instances, these leave their mark in the heightened intensity of a performance, in the increase in the player's vision, courage and absorption.

According to Benjamin, the aura is the unique presence in time and space of a particular event and its location in a particular tradition. Inversely, in dislocating an event from a particular time, space and tradition, mechanical reproduction destroys the aura of the event; as Benjamin famously put it, the aura is that 'which withers in the age of mechanical reproduction' But interestingly, it is only in the same age that the awareness of the concept of aura came to exist, for an event is said to be invested in aura insofar as there is a Benjamin, The work of art, 3.

To talk about the aura of an event means to talk about the possibility of the event's reproduction. But at the same time, and this is clearly addressed in Brendel's quote, the mechanical reproduction has also the retrospective characteristic of evoking the aura of the reproduced event. Benjamin too was aware of this, as he acknowledged describing the power of photography: 'the aura emanates from the early photographs in the fleeting expression of a human face' It is this dual interpretation of the concept of aura that Brendel seemed to be toying with: he praised the indiscretion of capturing something meant to be unique, savouring in anticipation the evocation of the event's uniqueness in its mechanical reproduction.

This argument is seductive, but it presupposes a clear separation between an original and a reproduction. Similarly, the LSO introduced changes to its concert programme in order to accommodate it to the production of its recordings. These changes included the addition of rehearsals, patching sessions and concerts, as well as onstage microphones. And as expressed by the musicians, the recording model also added a new dimension not envisaged by Benjamin in his short essay: the influence of the audience's expectations on contemporary performance practice.

Benjamin, The work of art, 6.


The concept of 'recording consciousness', which was coined by Stith Bennett, describes the strong familiarity with recordings of 'a society which is literally wired for sound'60 and whose expectations refer overwhelmingly to recorded soundscapes—even when attending a live performance.

This concept is also useful to understand Philip Auslander's61 work on liveness. Auslander has reflected on the phenomenon of what he has called 'mediatised live performances' to describe live performances modelled on reproduced performances.

Mediatised live performances are designed to meet the audience's expectations: 'not only are theatre audiences seeing live performances that resemble mediatised ones as closely as possible, they are also apparently modelling their responses to the live event on those expected of them by television' Thus, whether mediatised live performances are in fact recorded or not is of secondary importance.

While this observation describes the relationship between theatre and television, it can be applied equally to the relationship between concert performance and recordings: live performances have become 'microphone-ready'. This is echoed by a series of performers, when they describe the anxieties involved in their profession.

Brendel, for instance, was acutely aware of the contemporary interaction between recordings, listening habits and performance practice: 'The gramophone record today sets standards of perfection, mechanical not musical, which the concert hall seldom confirms. It induces some artists to play in a concert as though for a record, in the fear that the audience is listening as though to a record' His concern was that '[t]he interpreter who aims at accuracy risks less panache, lesser tempi, less self-effacement' This has been strongly felt also by pianist Susan Tomes66, who wrote that 'when we appear in person to play a concert somewhere, we want to be able to match up to, or do better than, our recordings' The clarinettist Roger Heaton68 expressed a similar anxiety: 'The worry of technical perfection, living up to the recording with not a hair out of place, affords the listener a safer, one could say blander experience where spontaneity and risk-taking in the moment for musical ends seems Auslander, Liveness, Tomes, 'Learning', Firstly, that performers' recording consciousness has developed in their role not just as performers, but also as listeners.

In the case of the LSO, the over recordings, stretching over almost a century, mean that its current members have been raised and trained as musicians with these recordings in the background, and that through them and their practice with the LSO, they have had plenty of time to internalise the LSO's sound ideal, as Cottrell has put it In other words, the success of the LSO as witnessed by these musicians has ultimately familiarised them with what works with listeners.

Secondly, these concerns confirm Auslander's argument on mediatised performances: performers shape their performances to meet the listeners' expectations, which, in turn, are modelled on their habits of listening to recordings. And these habits, as demonstrated above, are largely shaped by the Werktreue ideal inherent in classical music recordings. From this follows that, if mediatised live performances have become common practice— that is, musicians performing to sound as closely as possible to recordings—the LSO has spotted an opportunity to exploit their performances by recording them.

Jenkins' challenge of producing recordings from concerts that were 'as good as studio recordings', as described above, would then be supported by contemporary performance practice. If they indeed perform in a 'microphone- ready' way, the 'discomfort experienced at the sight of microphones', as Brendel has put it, would Heaton, 'Reminder', As one of the performers put it above, '[i]t's a matter of concentration and that's what concerts expect of you anyway'.

While Auslander's argument might lead to the conclusion that concerts have become less exciting, the underlying thread of LSO Live's advertising material expressed also by Brendel is that they haven't: 'despite the funeral orations Glenn Gould delivered on concert halls, they continue to be the setting for the most vivid music-making' As we have seen, Brendel's argument, like the expressions of LSO staff and musicians, is founded on the belief that there is a special aura to concert performances: the contribution of the audience's physical presence.

For Brendel and the LSO, the potential of live recordings resides in the aura leaving its trace on the record—even if the audience noise is to be edited out later.

My claim, then, is that LSO Live's model involved exploiting the 'energy and excitement' of 'mediatised live performances'. While performers perceived the recording model as an additional strain to their already busy profession, the circular system envisaged by Auslander means that the transition from the previous model may have been less demanding than it appeared to be.

Put another way, in hindsight it could be said that current performance practice and listening habits had already prepared performers for what would be the next step: live recording. The success experienced by LSO Live corroborates this. I also argue that the distinction between live and studio recording becomes blurred when the agency of the mediating actors is restored. While in the Werktreue power structure outlined above the listeners' passivity serves to uphold the supremacy of the work, within the context of the current discussion listeners enjoy a much greater role in the music-making process.

Like the technological and economic realities of the time, this role is fluid and Brendel, 'A case for live recordings', ; for more on Gould's views see in particular Gould, Glenn, 71 'The prospects of recording', in The Glenn Gould Reader, edited by Tim Page New York: , This is also the case of the other actors in the structure: the agency of performers and recording team stretches beyond that constructed by the Werktreue ideal in myriad ways.

Some of these ways have been outlined in this paper, where the producer has occupied a central role, not only in defining the final musical product, but also in shaping the performance context.Yet the Werktreue ideal serves as a driver for the actions involved in the production of LSO Live by overseeing the label and giving shape to the actors' expressions of anxiety during its development.

When Sir Colin Davis was the principal conductor, he was based here, we could go through things again if we had to. What can we do? These actions involve not just the creative act of the individuals who give meaning to the music, but also the social and cultural dimensions arising from the collective engagement with the music of composers, performers and listeners.

To achieve this, the orchestra agreed with the production team to use the material from the concerts as the main framework to build into and employ the remaining takes only as subsidiary material. Furthermore, he is the founder of Khtéléchargementurian Conducting Competition. HNH was widely known for extending beyond the core repertoire with lesser known and, therefore, more affordable orchestras.

Everyone is on the edge, and for no extra money.

GLYNDA from Mission Viejo
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