Forensic Pathology as a Forensic Science: History, Current Challenges,. Improving Quality, and Understanding Cognitive Bias. Andrew M. PDF | div class="WordSection1"> In the past, several futile attempts were Forensic Pathology is defined as the special branch of pathology. PDF | On Jun 1, , M A Dada and others published Forensic Pathology Reviews: Volume 1.
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Download the Medical Book: Atlas of Forensic Pathology PDF For Free. This Website we Provide Free Medical Books for all Students. Summary. The aim of this chapter is to explain what legal medicine is (from its background to the present), and forensic pathology in particular—what its. Part 1—Forensic Medicine and Pathology 1 Introduction and History of Forensic Medicine The origin of medicine is as old as civilization. In the they deal with.
Composition Thicker Thinner 2. Curvature Lesser Greater 3. Obliquity [cranio—caudal inclination] Less oblique. Length of ribs in relation of body Less [ribs are relatively shorter] More [ribs are relatively longer — better accommodate height abdominal distension during pregnancy] Table Sex differences in human thoracic bones S. Shape of thorax Longer and narrower Shorter and wider 2.
Coracoid [C] should have united by now. In this case, which is a variation, coracoid is still showing minor non-union. Scaphoid and trapezium should have appeared by now normally, but this X-ray shows a variation. Tattoo made with a UV reactive ink. Elastic tissue is however present - Aluminum green, violet ; barium white ; cadmium in striae gravidarum.
Erasure copper blue, green ; iron brown, red, black ; lead Scars can be erased by 1 Skin grafting and 2 Excision with yellow, green, white ; mercury red ; nickel black ; suturing of edges of excised area.
This results in another titanium white , ultramarine [double silicate of scar, but which is less prominent that the earlier one. Metal oxides used are ferrocyanide and ferricyanide 7. MLI yellow, red, green, blue. Tattoos radiates visible light after having absorbed energy earlier. Sometimes radioactive materials are also added.
These work on the principle name of self, husband, or a of luorescence; the inks are made of lorescent material. Permanency permanently on the skin of 1 Once imprinted, tattoos remain on the body almost the body [Fig 3.
Tattooing has been practiced since ancient times. A common tattoo specialized procedures. Several deity fade depends upon a composition of dye b depth up Egyptian mummies have been found to which the dye is inserted - Dye should be injected to 1 Site - Tattoos can be to have tattoos.
Dye injected supericially gradually fades found on just about any part of the body, though the in some years. Dye injected too deep is removed by commonest site is front of forearm. Other common sites phagocytes c Site: Even facial tattoos are known.
Faded tattoos site. Photography is better. Faded tattoos may be made visible by 1 UV lamp 1. Technique 2 Infrared photography Can also reveal old tattoos Coloring matter dye is injected deep in the dermis superimposed by new tattoos [please see ch 30, under the with sharp needles, or an electric vibrator, so that heading photography] 3 Removal of epidermis: An inaccurate technique tattoo very clearly visible on dermis ii In decomposed would deposit the pigment in supericial layers of or burnt bodies — can be done easily Fig 3.
Dyes the area. Bistouri 2. Bone nipper 3. Bone rongeur 4 i. Brain knife sharp point 4 ii. Brain knife round point 5.
Brunetti chisel 6. Cartilage knife 7. Catlin knife 9. Councilman blade saw Director grooved Disecting knife 8. Chisel Dissecting scissors Dura stripper Enterotome Hammer Langenbeck Metacarpal Saw Large ampulation knife Large needle with twine Large scissors Metacarpal Saw Myelotome PM40 Knife Plastic visor Postmortem stapler Probe Rib knife Richter Dissecting scissors Scalpel 29 i. Rachiotomy saw 29 ii.
Spinal knife Spencer Wells forceps Fig. Usual instruments required for postmortem examination.
Please see text for details. Introduction A. Thanatology Thanatology Gk Thanatos, the God of Death is that branch of science that studies death in all its aspects. Forensic Thanatology 1 2 3 Study of death from a medico-legal angle e. Immediately after 1 hour after brain 2 hours after brain brain stem death stem death stem death II. Stages of Death Fig. Immediately after somatic death, muscles can be made to Human body consists of about 60 trillion cells, of which the brain contract by electrical stimulation.
Here current is applied to a recently contains 20 billion 10 billion nerve cells in the cerebrum and 10 billion dead individual. Note how muscles can contract on application of in cerebellum. Brain stem contains still fewer cells 2 billion cells.
The extent and strength cells may still be alive e. These may take some time to die. Thus death occurs in two stages: This is the time when the individual dies as a whole. At this time continue metabolism. Except for the rare situation of death occurring several of his body cells may still be alive somatic death ii Second, in a nuclear holocaust, all 60 trillion cells of the body never die at the when all his body cells have died molecular death.
Even fragmentation of a body by a bomb does not kill all the body cells instantaneously. Somatic Death die in bits and pieces! Molecular Death organism as a whole. Historically the concept of when somatic death Molecular death is the death of all individual cells within occurs has kept changing.
All biochemical molecular activity within the criteria - please see below]. The concept was gradually changed to brain cells comes to a stop. It comes hours after somatic death and eventually to brain stem death. With modern technology, death Fig 8. Circulation and respiration of a brain stem 1. Distinction death 1 Legally speaking a person is dead when somatic death has Practical importance of the distinction between somatic and molecular an individual would be somatically alive, which is an absurd situation.
One does not have to occurred. It involves complete and irreversible stoppage of vital wait for molecular death to occur. Life A hours usually B Usual postmortem ii Skeletal muscles continue to respond to electrical and mechanical Supravital period changes cooling, stimuli for up to hours after death Fig 8.
A simplified conceptual view of somatic and molecular death. He is physostigmine causes constriction. This is the brain stem movements. This is molecular death. The period between A and B is known as the supravital period, and is x Anaerobic chemical processes continue - a liver cells continue best for harvesting of organs for transplantation.
Usual postmortem dehydrating ethyl alcohol [if present] to acetic acid b muscle cells changes, e. Hemolysis of RBCs releases Hb, which combines with H2S released by bacteria to form sulfhemoglobin, which stains the walls of veins [esp over neck, shoulders, chest, roots of limbs, sides of abdomen and thighs].
This gives a marbled appearance [linear branching pattern, resembling branches of a tree] to the body ii Time" 48 h. May give the appearance of gangrene, but can Fig. Demonstration of flammability of putrefactive gases. In this body who had been dead for three days, putrefactive be differentiated easily [Table 5]. A small syringe needle was poisoning"orange [ch 36]. The clear blue flame is due to methane, hydrogen and H2S. TK Bose — i Form because ch 39]. Fluids and liquid fat may also be pushed in the blisters ii Must be differentiated from antemortem blisters [ch 14].
Summers- Shiv Ratan Kochar Fig. Table 5: Differences between Putrefaction and gangrene S. Criteria Putrefaction Gangrene 1. Pus Not formed Usually formed 2. Phenomenon Postmortem Antemortem 3. Line of demarcation None. All Present Fig. PM blister on chest. Area All over Localized vii.
Development of foul smelling compounds A Chemical processes in putrefaction are those of reduction. Many of these gases are inlammable, and they can be ignited [Fig 9. This breakdown occurs also in living people under certain circumstances as in bad breath and bacterial Fig. Several small PM blister on lower trunk can be seen.
A large blister has been punctured and spread on the table by the pathologist vaginosis. Cadaver dogs [ch 1] discover hidden bodies by to demonstrate its size. Greenish discoloration may be seen on lower smelling these ptomaines [for more on ptomaines please see trunk. Their concentration. On the skin the less i. Hard contact noticeable zone with respect to soot this light zone 1 Characteristics: Hard contact wound with will be found more toward the center of the zone.
This is thus a special case, where burnt powder from the entrance, impacting distal to the entrance [smoke] also produces tattooing. Loose contact 1 1 Characteristics: Compare with ig This be produced in hard temporary gap cannot More noticeable 1 2 zone w. Seared black iii Soot carried zone more prominent here by the gas is deposited in a Less noticeable zone w.
Angled-contact wound 1 Position of the gun. Incomplete contact 1 Tattooing A few unburnt 1 Characteristics: Note that there is be deposited on weapon is held against some gap through which gases can escape. Please compare the zone of soot the body surface is not 2 with Fig Area of burning, [Fig Angled contact is a gap between the tattooing merged 1 Characteristics: Incomplete contact muzzle is not in contact with it. Its salient features are as follows Fig Six types of contusions.
Black dotted arrow depicts line of impact. Coup contusion; 2. Counter coup contusion; 3. Intermediary 5 coup contusion; 4. Fracture contusion fracture occurring away from 4 point of impact ; 5.
Gliding contusion [at junction of gray and white Fig. Positive pressure theory of matter]; 6. Herniation contusion temporal lobe herniating through free edge of tentorium. This also produces uncal grooving ; 7. Herniation Lindenberg. See text for details Ashesh Gunwantrao Wankhede i At the beginning of fall, skull is accelerated.
Brain lags behind due to inertia stage 1 in Fig This creates a negative pressure at the leading skull surface the surface that is going to hit the surface , and a positive pressure at the trailing skull surface stage 2 in igure. Mechanism of Fig. Coup contusions very little CSF remains at the trailing skull surface, by the time production of coup contusions of brain. Thus there is no cushioning effect of CSF there. Both factors combine contusions. Also known over the crests of gyri. Russel agrees with the irst three stages Table 3: Coup and Countercoup Contusions described by Lindenberg, but asserts that countercoup lesions do not occur at the time of impact, but a fraction of a second 1 A blow to the head produces coup contusions no or minor after.
His salient features are: In general, coup lesions predominate if head is accelerated after impact. Negative pressure theory of Russel.
A Depicts Fig. In general, contrecoup lesions predominate tensile stress. Pl see text for details.
ASPHYXIA i Photography — First step is to take photographs [at close range] before removal of ligature ii The ligature 2 should now be cut opposite the knot, and the two cut 1 ends secured with a string Fig A Hanging B Strangulation.
If circumference of the ligature 2 is MORE than the circumference of the neck 3 , the ligature must have been oblique as in hanging. If it is SAME, the ligature must have been horizontal as in strangulation the deepest groove would be at the back with neck tilted backwards. Method of securing the knot. Ligature round the neck. Portions of his shirt had been caught between the ligature and the neck.
The knot is towards the lower right side. The entire loop was removed via top of the head. Found usually in b. Ligature mark accidental hanging, especially sexual asphyxias [please Ligature mark is a type of pressure abrasion due to continued see below]. Strangulation mark found lying on the ground. In such cases, it becomes is described later.
Introduction to Forensic Pathology
It can initially, but as the skin dries up, becomes hard parchment be done by a examining like and dark brown. It runs from midpoint of the neck the other end of ligature upwards, outwards and backwards [from either side of which must be found the neck] to reach behind the neck where it is deicient tied to the suspension [Fig Less common chin, below either ear are 3 Granny knot and 4 Reef subaural or any other syn, square knot.
In granny knot, the crossings are opposite, while speciic location. In in reef knot they are same. Classical oblique ligature mark in hanging. Method of securing the may sometimes give away the knot. Limbs A and B form the actual profession, predilection or hobby noose around the neck. If A and B are not secured with a string D, it would be knot etc. Death by ligature at the back of neck. The ligature has and experience may indicate the Any two of the three limbs would slipped up and has formed a patterned abrasion on the left cheek.
Ligature mark at the face is an exception rather than the rule. Types of hyoid fractures. A Inward compression fractures [seen in throttling] B Outward periosteum outside]; compression fractures [seen in hanging] C One cornu fractured inwards and the other outwards but outward movement [seen in hanging, when one end is caught up against a bony ridge or sides of the vertebrae]. Exactly the opposite happens in b. Outward Anteroposterior compression fractures anteroposterior compression fractures.
Examine bone with a was pulled backwards by the assailant standing at the back. This causes the hyoid to push back against the vertebra causing outward displacement stereomicroscope [ times magniication]. In all cases microinjuries in sexual assaults — ch 25]. A very effective method of mechanism is same - hyoid is pushed backwards against the vertebra.
Since hyoid moves backwards and also sideways, one fractures. If for some reason, could not be done before end may get caught up against a bony ridge or sides of the vertebrae. As the hyoid is pushed further back, this end would fracture inwards, start of autopsy, the thyrohyoid complex should be while the other end would fracture outwards as usual. The of fracture - i Like inward compression fractures, it x-ray or CT plates should be preserved as evidence. Dissection of neck in hanging and at 2 places.
Similarly complete detachment of smaller strangulation cases fragment from the hyoid may occur if the compression is severe.
The smaller fragment may seen to be lying Please see ch 5. Suffocation 2. According to Mechanism of fracture Suffocation is exclusion of air from lungs from any means a. Direct pressure fractures When pressure is exerted directly on the hyoid. These are most commonly other than ligature [Fig Environmental suffocation b. Avulsion fractures Environmental suffocation is deprivation of oxygen due 1 There is no direct pressure on the hyoid.
Replacement attached to its upper and anterior surface"If there is associated violent downward or lateral movement of the thyroid cartilage or of O2 by a poisonous gas such as Cl2 or H2S would not pressure between hyoid and thyroid, traction occurs on hyoid through cause death primarily by asphyxia, but by poisonous thyrohyoid ligament"Avulsion fracture of hyoid 4 These are also effects.
But if fractures are present in absence of soft tissue occurs within a few minutes. Causes C. Demonstration of fractures 1 During play - children may get locked in large boxes, 1 Palpatory method: The Stages and Mechanism of Drowning Dogs have been experimentally drowned to study the stages of drowning. Before drowning, dogs were prepared as follows: Postural asphyxia in a drunk person who collapsed to record the respiratory movements. He had been drinking, waiting for a friend to arrive.
White arrows depict weight of abdominal organs acting upon lungs preventing their expansion. Dog inspired once or twice, but was otherwise inactive drowning was divided into 5 stages: The dog He had an extremely heavy and deformed head, and was exhibited as a human was violently agitated. Struggled against its bonds, and tried to reach curiosity. Because of excessive weight of respiration — Lasted for 1 minute.
Dog inspired deeply when unable to surface. It shut its mouth and did not breathe. White foam formed, which rose to the surface. On 11 General agitation ceased. Mouth and eyes were open. A few swallowing April , aged 27, he decided to sleep Lasted for 1 minute. Respiration stopped. Thoracic movements stopped movements were observed. Respiration restored again but Sir Frederick Treves, who conducted in the form of terminal gasps.
Acute lung injury and hypoxemia an autopsy on him found his neck to be dislocated. Lung dysfunction leads favoring positional asphyxia - to alveolar collapse and acute respiratory distress syndrome ARDS.
Victim is incapacitated due to Fibrillary contractions were seen in the lip and jaw muscles. The entire some reason so that he cannot Fig. Classification respire i strong intoxication asphyxia due to excessive 1.
Wet Drowning weight of his head. PM Findings 1 Enormous quantities of liquid is inhaled into lungs 1 Same as that in traumatic asphyxia, except fractures 2 The victim suffers from severe chest pain. MLI ibrillation iii Hyperkalemia 1 Almost always accidental. Dry Drowning position. In dry drowning, there is no signiicant presence of liquid in the lungs.
Introduction to Forensic Pathology
Drowning i Laryngospasm - Just a few drops of liquids enter Drowning is a form of asphyxia caused by aspiration the larynx"elicit a violent laryngospasm"death of luid into air-passages, caused by complete or partial due to asphyxia without entry of water in lungs. Other sp gr in increasing order are i Fat Natural tendency of the body is thus to sink down.
Introduction III. Symptoms and signs Starvation is a severe reduction in nutrient, vitamin and A. Acute Starvation energy intake that occurs either from withholding of food or Starvation is an acute severe form of primary PEU from administration of unsuitable food.
Clinical is gradual. Chronic malnutrition, as occurs in poor, deprived sections a. Causes b. Circumstantial causes a Cheeks - sunken b Eyes — sunken, glistening. Medical causes g Muscular weakness — progressive, severe h 1 Ankylosis of jaw 2 Alcohol and drug addicts [partial Loss of wt — Marked.
Food is ignored due to overwhelming desire for drug. In towards death.
Shows follicular malnutrition] 3 Anorexia nervosa 4 Bulimia nervosa 5 hyperkeratosis and trophic skin changes ii Hair cancer and stricture of esophagus 6 Coma 7 Diabetes and nails — brittle, dry, lusterless, hair loss. Ashesh Gunwantrao Wankhede 3.
Miscellaneous 1 Eccentrics may refuse to eat food for no reason. According to manner 1. Accidental starvation Same as mentioned above [circumstantial causes]. Suicidal starvation i Fasting - a political reasons [fast unto death] b 2 3 purely exhibition. Homicidal starvation Withholding of food from unwanted children, step Fig. PM appearances in starvation. Please note 1 scaphoid children, illegitimate children, child abuse, elderly abdomen 2 prominent ribs and 3 concavities within intercostal people, feeble minded, jail inmates etc.
Virginity 8 are about 4 cm long; they are two soft, small, thin, pink and sensitive folds just within the labia majora. A poetic likening of the rupture of hymen by sexual intercourse boat; a boat shaped depression]. Such a woman is called a organ located near the anterior junction of the labia delorate woman. It rupture of hymen results not in a delorate woman, is covered with a fold of skin that surrounds and protects it [clitoral but a false virgin. Normal Female Genital Anatomy surface of clitoris, created by the two medial parts of 1.
External the labia minora. Urethral opening is 2.
The Stark County Coroner
It is a pad of fat lying in front of Memory Aid 1 pubis. They meet in front at anterior commissure 3 F ossa navicularis is in F ront of F ourchette; V estibule is and at the back at posterior commissure 4 in front V entral to V agina.
Vulva completely close the vaginal oriice 6. The labia minora includes mons veneris [which forms its anterior portion], labia major, labia minora, clitoris, vestibule, hymen and urethral opening. The perineum 15 is 10 14 15 a wedge shaped area between the lower end of the 2 posterior wall of vagina and the anterior anal wall. The 3 cervical canal is nearly at right angles to the vagina when bladder and rectum are empty.
Unless diseased or infected, they cannot be seen or felt. The 9 15 4 syn female prostate, lesser vestibular glands, paraurethral glands are located on the upper wall of the vagina, around the lower end of the 5 urethra. They drain into the urethra and near the urethral opening They are the source of female ejaculation. Just as in the male, they are the principal source of PSA. Hymen Hymen [Fig Normal female genital anatomy External. In their place new chapters on cruelty to children, sudden death, the scene of death and anaesthetic deaths have been added.
All of these are necessary topics in a reference manual and their inclusion has improved the usefulness of this edition. Other sections have been updated, particularly those devoted to wounds, which again occupy a considerable proportion of the text. Whilst this has been expanded to include such relatively insignificant aspects as boxing injuries, the absence of any detailed discussion of road traffic injuries is a surprising omission.
The presentation has been improved, the use of art paper enabling the photographs to appear in context instead of being grouped separately. This book is a useful addition to the library of forensic medicine but it cannot be classed as a comprehensive treatise. Karger, Base1 and Sydney. The authors are well-known in Australia following their prominent roles in the International Tutorial in Clinical Cytology held in Melbourne last year.
The subject matter is basically of two parts. The first major topic concerns endometrial adenocarcinoma and its precursors, a subject which is assuming increasing importance in.
Your name. Thus, the practice of forensic pathology involves applying forensic scientific and pathological techniques to the investigation of lethal episodes. The main role for most forensic pathologists is to perform medicolegal autopsies; however, the nature of the practice is very variable depending on jurisdictions.
In some jurisdictions in the United States, such as certain county-based medical examiners systems and most coroner systems, the official, legally mandated responsibility for the Skip to main content.
Advertisement Hide. Introduction to Forensic Pathology. Reference work entry. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.It is a joy to read, and never fails to yield pertinent information and details on cases, conditions and issues.
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