PDF | E-waste contains both hazardous and non-hazardous substances in their components. Globally, the e-waste generation is estimated at 20 to 50 million. PDF | Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is becoming major thread to the whole world. Its toxic emissions mixed with virgin soil and air and. Electronic Waste, also recognized as. E-Waste, is a combination of used or unwanted electronic products that have exceeded their shelf life. • Computer.
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This publication was produced by the Global E-waste Statistics Partnership. It is our pleasure to present to you the Global E-waste Monitor, a joint effort. Illustration The six e-waste categories. Electronic waste, or e-waste, refers to all items of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) and its parts that have. electronic waste (e-waste) recycling and material recovery, while it is intended to provide background and sector/documents/publication/wcms_pdf.
Belgium is home to Nyrstar and Umicore smelters while Aldel and Nystar both operate facilities in the Netherlands.
Figure 2. Total flows in tonnes of e-waste to Europe from Africa, A small amount of e-waste, 34, tons, leaves Europe and arrives in destinations outside the region Figure 3. This is slightly over 2.
Figure 3. Export destination countries ranked by total exports received from European sources, These are important patterns to appreciate since the dominant storyline about discarded electronics as a waste problem is that they flow from so-called developed countries to developing countries.
This storyline is very prevalent in Anglophone European reportage on e-waste e. It is also an understanding of e-waste that drives policymaking and jurisprudence in Europe Lepawsky Chapter 3.
The usual explanation for e-waste flows out of Europe is waste dumping. That is, materials that would otherwise have to be managed at considerable expense to comply with waste management regulations in Europe are said, instead, to be exported for disposal outside of Europe in countries with weak regulation and enforcement.
While the dumping storyline has risen to the status of conventional wisdom, it runs into several problems that have not been satisfactorily resolved by those offering it as an explanation of where electronics discarded in Europe sometimes arrive. First, it is especially unlikely that European exporters would report data that, under certain conditions, would expose them to charges of illegal trade.
Electronic Waste Recycling
Under the Basel Convention trade in hazardous waste must follow a prior informed consent process in which a recipient country agrees to take the waste prior to an actual shipment taking place.
Without such consent, the trade violates the Convention. If European countries exported to non-Annex VII destinations without prior informed consent or without the presence of bilateral trade agreements that meet a threshold of environmentally sound management described in the Basel Convention, then those exports would violate the Convention even though Annex VII is not legally in force yet because it remains unratified. So, if exporting countries were trying to hide trade flows that violate the Basel Convention or European rules, they are not doing a particularly good job of it as data for these exports show up in the Eurostat database.
For waste dumping to be the primary driver of these export flows, a cost savings substantial enough to justify both the cost of shipping and the risks of illegal exports would have to be realized.
However, a recent study specifically examining illicit e-waste exports out of Europe found that neither compliance cost avoidance nor the value that could be recouped from materials via recycling could account for the cost difference between proper compliance and shipping to export markets in Africa. The study found compliance costs to be below both material value of the equipment and the cost of export of that equipment.
What could account for the difference is the reuse value of equipment discarded in Europe when sent to African markets either for direct reuse or after repair or refurbishment Huisman et al.
Discarded, but reusable electronic equipment can fetch prices in export markets twenty times higher than their value as scrap materials Lepawsky, Goldstein, and Schulz Yet, recent attempts to surreptitiously track exports of discarded electronics from Europe and the US which find devices going to countries in Africa fail to account for the very substantial differences in prices realized in destination markets for equipment that arrives for scrap purposes verses equipment arriving for reuse purposes as well as exibiting other serious methodological shortcomings, see Lepawsky , China has, for decades, been a major importer of scrap materials for industrial production in the country.
The materials that were sent were components removed from discarded equipment such as compressors, radiators, and electric motors.
These components were classified as non-hazardous based on definitions in the Basel Convention, specifically under what is technically referred to as Category B of Annex IX of the Convention Eurostat b. B covers a variety of scrap metals such as iron, steel, copper, nickel, and aluminum among others Basel Secretariat , The United States Geological Survey minerals yearbook for Pakistan lists 24 smelters in the country producing aluminum from secondary i.
Production data are only provided for thirteen of those twenty-four smelters. However, those thirteen smelters have a total annual capacity of over 17, tons—a figure almost seventeen times larger than the total tonnage of imports received by Pakistan from European sources.
Table of contents
Both the Philippines and UAE receive modest exports from Europe, tons and ninety-six tons respectively. However, Aboura Metals, a UAE based secondary metals processor claims to handle , tons of secondary non-ferrous metals annually Aboura Metals n. The city-state is a shipping cross-roads and hosts nine internationally certified electronics recycling operations, including a facility owned and operated by Australia based SIMS metal group, a major scrap metal processor with over million Euros in sales revenue from electronics recycling in SIMS claims to have processed , tons of discarded electronics at 28 of its facilities dedicated to these operations in Paben ; Sims Metal Management a, b.
If that tonnage were evenly divided across all those facilities, then the single SIMS facility in Singapore could account for over 76 percent of all e-waste exported from Europe to the city-state in the six years of data available from Eurostat.
With an additional eight certified facilities located in the country the remaining 24 percent of European exports to Singapore can easily be accounted for by the capacity of those other facilities. Looking Upstream Concerns about e-waste are usually expressed in terms of what happens to consumer or household devices at the end of their service life.
The total mass of WEEE collected from households jumped from just over , tons across Europe in to over 3. Figure 4. WEEE collected from households in Europe. These figures may seem to reinforce the idea that household generation of WEEE is a large and growing problem.
However, often left out of concerns expressed about e-waste are the wastes arising from the manufacturing of electronics. Yet, in terms of tonnage, toxicity, heterogeneity, or harms manufacturing wastes far exceed those arising from households Figure 5. Eurostat data show that in terms of tonnage of waste arising from the manufacturing of computers and other electronic products in Europe exceeds, by an order of magnitude, household WEEE arising in any given year for which data are available.
Manufacturing wastes exceeded Since then manufacturing wastes have declined by approximately 30 percent to Even with this decline, however, wastes arising in manufacturing are more than 4. E-FAQs Is "e-waste" clearly defined?
The term "e-waste" is loosely applied to consumer and business electronic equipment that is near or at the end of its useful life. There is no clear definition for e-waste; for instance whether or not items like microwave ovens and other similar "appliances" should be grouped into the category has not been established. Is "e-waste" considered hazardous?
Certain components of some electronic products contain materials that render them hazardous, depending on their condition and density.
For instance, California law currently views nonfunctioning CRTs cathode ray tubes from televisions and monitors as hazardous. What should I do with my electronic discards? The mantra of "Reduce, Reuse, Recycle" applies here.
E-waste has been identified as the fastest growing waste stream in the world at present. Rapid socio-economic development and technological advancement are the main drivers of this trend. The hazardous chemical components of e-waste have potential adverse impacts on ecosystems and human health if not managed properly.
This represents an imminent challenge to achieving sustainable development goals. Although technologically developed countries are the main source of e-product production and e-waste generation, the generated volume has also been increasing in developing countries and those in transition due to transport and transfer from e-waste source countries.
Consequently, developing countries are in a vulnerable situation due to their lack of inventory data, waste management policies and advanced technology for environmentally sound management.
This study aims to demonstrate that the present global e-waste scenarios and health hazards could prolong the achievement of sustainable development targets.Exposure is caused by proximity to hazardous waste sites and factories and workers in the metal refining industry. Figure 4. Abe, B. Environmental Impacts despite signiicant recycling, e-waste is liable for t Cu an- nually released to the environment .
This framing has the consequence of focusing action almost entirely on end-of-pipe approaches, such as recycling electronics collected from households, while leaving reduction of waste arising from the industrial production of electronics largely out of the picture.
Tin and lead contamination of surface and groundwater. Morf, J.
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