Editorial Reviews. raudone.info Review. An engrossing history of the scientific discoveries, Dark Sun: The Making Of The Hydrogen Bomb Reprint Edition, site Edition. by. Here, for the first time, in a brilliant, panoramic portrait by the Pulitzer Prize- winning author of The Making of the Atomic Bomb, is the definitive. download the eBook Dark Sun, The Making Of The Hydrogen Bomb by Richard Rhodes online from Australia's leading online eBook store. Download eBooks from.
|Language:||English, Portuguese, Dutch|
|Genre:||Fiction & Literature|
|ePub File Size:||25.55 MB|
|PDF File Size:||16.19 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration needed]|
Dark sun: the making of the hydrogen bomb. site eBook Tells the story of the making of the H-bomb and reveals how it created a nuclear stalemate that. Read "Dark Sun The Making Of The Hydrogen Bomb" by Richard Rhodes available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get $5 off your first download. Here. Leggi «Dark Sun The Making Of The Hydrogen Bomb» di Richard Rhodes con Rakuten Kobo. Here, for the first time, in a brilliant, panoramic portrait by the.
And the later in this window of time that primordial black holes formed, the more massive they would be. Depending on when exactly they formed, primordial black holes could have masses as low as ounces grams , or , times less than a paperclip, up to about , times greater than the Sun. The idea of such tiny black holes intrigued astrophysicist Stephen Hawking, who explored their quantum mechanical properties.
That work led to his discovery that black holes can evaporate over time. And while Hawking ultimately realized a large black hole would evaporate away in more time than the universe has been around so far, small black holes could have indeed evaporated away or currently be doing so, depending on their mass. And depending on their mass which, remember, depends on when they formed , any primordial black holes left today could neatly explain some of the outstanding problems in astronomy.
Galaxies including the Milky way left and Andromeda have large halos of dark matter gray extending far past their visible stars and dust. Although it makes up about 30 percent of our universe, astronomers remain stumped as to what exactly dark matter is.
Primordial black holes could be the answer — or, at least, part of it. One way to spot MACHOs is by looking for events called microlensing, which occur when a massive object say, a black hole passes in front of a more distant object, like a star or galaxy.
With the end of the cold war tensions eased for a w In his sequel to the Making of the Atomic Bomb. With the end of the cold war tensions eased for a while but have not gone away and have even increased in recent years.
We still face the prospect of annihilation and proliferation only compounds and complexifies our situation.
Definitely still a very relevant book I am sorry to say. It contains a wealth of scientific descriptions, such as a discussion of the physics of thermonuclear TN devices and their construction e. This book is in a way more interesting to read than Rhodes' earlier book, containing a detailed description of the spying which produced the Soviet atomic bomb. The Roosevelt government had actually granted Lend-Lease to Russia after Hitler had invaded that country, and before the United States entered the war.
Lend-Lease the shipment of war material without prior payment by the receiving nation, with promise to pay somewhere in the post-war future had been devised by Franklin Roosevelt as a means of helping Great Britain to survive after the war started in The interesting thing about this arrangement was that the Soviets were using this conduit of weapons and materials as a means of carrying out an espionage program in the United States. I had not realized until I read this book how much the Russians were taking advantage of this situation.
Huge quantities of industrial information and even strategic metals passed under the lax noses of U. This espionage system became the vehicle for Soviet spies and secret agents to make contact with scientists working on atomic bomb development in the United States and England, most notably at the Los Alamos atomic laboratory in New Mexico. Joseph Stalin had ordered the start of atomic bomb development in his country in early Physicist Igor Kurchatov was placed in charge of the scientific program, which was patterned after the American program since it was able to use tested and tried methods stolen from Los Alamos.
The secret materials were obtained in the United States through agents of the intelligence apparatus established by Lavrenti Beria, the head of Stalin's Secret Police. There were several Los Alamos workers selling secrets to the Soviets, but chief among them was Klaus Fuchs, a German emigre scientist working for the British at Los Alamos. Fuchs had knowledge of all atomic development secret processes and sent everything he knew to Beria's operatives.
There is no uranium in these waters. He believed it to be unduly conservative. Despite the expectation that uranium would have to be enriched, he wanted to move directly to building a nuclear reactor.
At the Fifth All-Union Conference on Nuclear Physics in Moscow in late November, he analyzed fission studies published throughout the world to demonstrate that a controlled chain reaction was possible and listed the equipment and materials he would need.
In any case, as Frisch commented later, the cost of a plant for separating U "would be insignificant compared with the cost of the war. The workshop took place at the Communist Academy on Volkhonka Street, in a large hall with an amphitheater overcrowded by numerous participants. In the course of the presentation the excitement of the audience kept growing and by the end of it the general feeling was that we were on the eve of a great event. When Kurchatov finished his talk, and, together with the chairman of the meeting, Khlopin, went to the adjacent room from the rostrum, Ioffe, Semenov, [A.
Meanwhile, the discussion over Kurchatov's talk was continued in the hall The break was delayed. Instead of the ordinary five or ten minutes between talks, the chairman, Khlopin, didn't return even in twenty minutes A noisy discussion was taking place [in the adjacent room]. The Great Terror had taught its survivors wary circumspection.
To download time, Stalin had concluded a nonaggression pact with Hitler, but the Soviet Union was gearing up for the war with Germany that Stalin understood was coming; in May he would tell his inner circle, "The conflict is inevitable, perhaps in May next year. Nor had Khariton and Zeldovich's calculations encouraged optimism in an older generation still suspicious of the new physics.
Surprisingly, even Ioffe was skeptical. He was not a nuclear physicist, and after the discovery of fission he had taken a long view of its potential, predicting that "if the mastering of rocket technology is a matter of the next fifty years, then the utilization of nuclear energy is a matter of the next century.
Golovin: A quarter of an hour later, Khlopin returned to the rostrum and declared that he had come to the conclusion that it was too early to ask the government for large grants since the war was going on in Europe and the money was needed for other purposes.
He said that it was necessary to work a year more and then make the decision whether there would be some grounds to involve the government The audience was disappointed. The development of a capacity to build atomic bombs required a massive commitment of government funds, funds that would have to be diverted from the conventional prosecution of the war.
If atomic bombs could be built in time they would be decisive, in which case no belligerent could afford not to pursue them. But making that judgment depended critically on how much scientists trusted their governments and how much governments trusted their scientists.
Trust would not be a defining issue later, after the secret, the one and only secret -- that the weapon worked -- became known. This first time around, however, it was crucial, as the Russian physicist Victor Adamsky emphasizes in a discussion of why Nazi Germany never developed an atomic bomb: The tension [between scientists and their governments] stemmed from the fact that there existed no a priori certainty of the possibility of creating an atomic bomb, and merely for clarification of the matter it was necessary to get through an interim stage: to create a device the nuclear reactor in order to perform a controlled chain reaction instead of the explosive kind.
But the implementation of this stage requires tremendous expenses, incomparable to any of those previously spared for the benefit of scientific research. And it was necessary to tell this straight to your government, making it clear that the expenses may turn out to be in vain -- an atomic bomb may not result Scientists and their governments developed confidence and mutual understanding in England and the United States, Adamsky concludes, but not in Germany.
At the end of , such confidence and mutual understanding had not yet developed in the USSR. The overwhelming German surprise attack along the entire western border of the Soviet Union at dawn on June 22, , one month after Stalin's prediction that a shooting war would not begin for another year, mooted the issue of how large an effort should be devoted to what Soviet physicists called the "uranium problem.
Once the magnitude of the disaster sank in, says Stalin biographer and General of the Soviet Army Dmitri Volkogonov, the dictator "simply lost control of himself and went into deep psychological shock. Between 28 and 30 June, according to eyewitnesses, Stalin was so depressed and shaken that he ceased to be a leader. On 29 June, as he was leaving the defense commissariat with Molotov, [Kliment] Voroshilov, [Andrei] Zhdanov and Beria, he burst out loudly, 'Lenin left us a great inheritance and we, his heirs, have fucked it all up!
He looked up and said, 'What have you come for? Volkogonov chronicles the debacle: Soviet losses were colossal. Something like thirty divisions had been virtually wiped out, while seventy had lost more than half of their numbers; nearly 3, planes had been destroyed, together with more than half the fuel and ammunition dumps Of course, the Germans too had paid a price, namely about , officers and men, more than aircraft and several hundred tanks The [Red] army was fighting.
It was retreating, but it was fighting. Stalin finally rallied the Soviet people on July 3. Molotov and Mikoyan had written the speech and they almost had to drag Stalin to the microphone.
The Soviet writer Konstantin Simonov, a front-line correspondent throughout the war, recalled the momentous occasion in his postwar novel The Living and the Dead: Stalin spoke in a toneless, slow voice, with a strong Georgian accent. Once or twice, during his speech, you could hear a glass click as he drank water. His voice was low and soft, and might have seemed perfectly calm, but for his heavy, tired breathing, and that water he kept drinking during the speech Stalin did not describe the situation as tragic; such a word would have been hard to imagine as coming from him; but the things of which he spoke -- opolcheniye [i.
The truth he told was a bitter truth, but at last it was uttered, and people now at least knew where they stood I am speaking to you, my friends! Stalin had never spoken like this before. The liquidation of 'internal enemies' was, in sober fact, the only part of the war effort that worked quickly and efficiently in the first terrible phase of the struggle.
It was a purge in the rear in accordance with an elaborate advance plan, as ordered by Stalin himself The magnitude of the terror inside Russia cannot be overstated.
It amounted to a war within the war.
Thus Lavrenti Beria came into his own. Born in the Sukhumi district of Georgia in , he had worked his way to power first as police chief and then party chief of Georgia and the Transcaucasus where he had personally organized the terrible purges and now at the center in Moscow. The Yugoslavian diplomat Milovan Djilas met Beria in the course of the war: a short man, Djilas says, "somewhat plump, greenish pale, and with soft damp hands," with a "square-cut mouth and bulging eyes behind his pince-nez" and an expression of "a certain self-satisfaction and irony mingled with a clerk's obsequiousness and solicitude.
He was nevertheless an exceptional administrator.
He could work for a week without sleep. I often asked myself -- as others assuredly did in their secret hearts -- why Stalin had decided to take this step. I could find only one plausible answer. It was that he lacked faith in the patriotism and national honor of the Russian people and was therefore compelled to rely primarily on the whip.
Beria was his whip. Moskalenko, who told a group of senior military officers in that he heard it from Beria himself, Stalin colluded with Beria and Molotov in late July to offer a surrender, "agreeing to hand over to Hitler the Soviet Baltic republics, Moldavia, a large part of the Ukraine and Belorussia. They tried to make contact with Hitler through the Bulgarian ambassador. No Russian czar had ever done such a thing.
It is interesting that the Bulgarian ambassador was of a higher caliber than these leaders and told them that Hitler would never beat the Russians and that Stalin shouldn't worry about it. The scientists crated up their movable equipment and shipped it on tracks crowded with troop trains to the other side of the Urals, out of range of German bombers.
Fiztekh went to Kazan, four hundred kilometers east of Moscow on the Volga. Whole factories moved east, reports Sergei Kaftanov, minister of higher education and deputy for science and technology to the State Defense Committee: How long would it take today to move a big industrial enterprise to a new site?
Two years? Three years? During the war it took only months for plants that had been moved a thousand kilometers to start up again. The regular order of construction is: walls -- roof -- machines. We were doing it this way: machines -- roof -- walls. War pressed us for quick solutions. Quick solutions meant solutions, including scientific solutions, that contributed immediately to the defense of the beleaguered country.
Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb
In the late summer of , Kurchatov and Alexandrov set up a laboratory together in the Crimean port of Sevastopol, on the Black Sea, organized a test site for demagnetizing ships to protect them against magnetic mines and trained Navy crews in the lifesaving technology until September, when the Germans began bombing Streletskaya Bay.
Alexandrov went north then to work with the Northern Fleet; Kurchatov stayed on in Sevastopol demagnetizing submarines. Boris Pasternak compacted the mood that terrible autumn into a shudder of dread: Do you remember that dryness in your throat When rattling their naked power of evil They were barging ahead and bellowing And autumn was advancing in steps of calamity?
In October there was panic in Moscow.
The Germans had advanced to within a hundred kilometers of the city and it seemed they might succeed in seizing it. A young Red Army cipher clerk stationed in training nearby, Igor Gouzenko, had been given a pass into Moscow on October 16 and witnessed the debacle. No one seemed to know where they were fleeing.
Everyone was just fleeing. Most astounding of all was the strange silence hanging over the scene. Only the stamp of hurrying feet created an undertone of frantic rhythm. I went with a few others to the [university] Party committee office, where we found the Party secretary at his desk; when we asked whether there was anything useful we could do, he stared at us wildly and blurted out: 'It's every man for himself!
All citizens of the City of Moscow, whose presence is not needed, are hereby ordered to leave the city. The enemy is at the gates. Stalin stayed. The counterattack outside Moscow, the first major Soviet offensive, began early in December and saved the city. The comic 'Winter Fritz,' wrapped up in women's shawls and feather boas stolen from the local population, and with icicles hanging from his red nose, made his first appearance in Russian folklore.
He was a stubborn man; he suspected that other nations, including the fascist enemy, were working on a uranium bomb; he believed passionately that his country should develop such a weapon first. He said as much in a letter to the State Defense Committee in November, but the letter went unanswered.
Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb
That month German bombs and artillery barrages finally drove the Soviet Navy from the Sevastopol harbor. Kurchatov left ruined Sevastopol then, evacuating first by boat to Poti, south of Sukhumi on the eastern shore of the Black Sea, then beginning the long journey by train to Kazan, seven hundred kilometers east of Moscow, to resume work at the temporary Fiztekh installation there.
On his way, the Soviet physicist spent a night on a below-zero station platform and caught cold. Suzanne Rosenberg, a daughter of Canadian Communists who had returned to the Soviet Union to support the Revolution, describes a similar railroad ordeal evacuating Moscow during the October panic: So crammed with evacuees was the train that we spent the first twenty-four hours standing on the wind-swept platform between the carriages.
Later we took brief turns sitting down on the benches inside. Our journey lasted nineteen days: normally it took forty-six or fifty hours. We learned to sleep standing up, like horses, to do without water and with little food for whole days.Possibility of a TN weapon discussed at length at Los Alamos summer Physicist Igor Kurchatov was placed in charge of the scientific program, which was patterned after the American program since it was able to use tested and tried methods stolen from Los Alamos.
This first time around, however, it was crucial, as the Russian physicist Victor Adamsky emphasizes in a discussion of why Nazi Germany never developed an atomic bomb: The tension [between scientists and their governments] stemmed from the fact that there existed no a priori certainty of the possibility of creating an atomic bomb, and merely for clarification of the matter it was necessary to get through an interim stage: to create a device the nuclear reactor in order to perform a controlled chain reaction instead of the explosive kind.
Richard and Stanley lived at Drumm for the remainder of their adolescence. Alarmed by the growing mood of fascism he found in Germany on his return passage, Khariton at twenty-four organized an explosives laboratory in the new Institute of Physical Chemistry, a Fiztekh spinoff.