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Additional information can be found on the VAM Services website or the VAM. Running Book. c. Drift. The drift is the guaranteed internal diameter of both pipe. BOOK 18February Introduction Congratulations on selecting pipe threaded with VAM connections. VAM connections were first developed in the early. The Hours of Louis XII was one of the greatest French illuminated manuscripts of the Renaissance. A prayer book, it was decorated by Jean Bourdichon for the.
After manufacture the pipe will state 'D' on the stencilling to show that the standard API drift was used, 'DA xxxx' will be stencilled to show that an alternate drift was used 24 th August 21 2 Pipe Preparation and Running Equipment 2 Pipe Preparation and Running Equipment with xxxx being the drift size.
DT42 is used on the stencil to indicate that a 42" long drift was used for casing sizes.
This is only applied when casing is used as tubing. There are 3 very common pipe sizes where alternate drifts are commonly used. These are listed below. If casing is used for tubing application then the drift used should be 42" long. Do not drift GRE lined pipe at the rig site as the drift mandrel may detach the flare at the pipe end. In the case of GRE lined pipe the supply chain from the company inserting the lining to the rig site must be robust.
The length written on the pipe and pup joints coming from the manufacturer is the overall length of the part. This is seldom accurate enough for an oil company so most manufactures try to be more accurate. It is vital that an 22 24 th August accurate measurement is made in case the manufactures length is not accurate enough or in case of recuts.
When running threaded connections the effective length is less as the box thread 'swallows' the pin thread. This is known as the make-up loss. The make-up loss is different for different sizes, weights and connections so it is important that this is known for each connection type.
The make-up loss must be subtracted from the overall length to give the effective length as shown on the picture below. It is best to look up the make-up loss in this book or by using the connection data sheet on the VAM Services website.
Do not measure the make-up loss using a metal rule as it may score the seal area. To measure the pipe length either a metal 'tally tape' or a laser can be used. In either case make sure that the datum point of each does not damage the pin seals.
When marking the tally length and number on CRA pipe use paints that do not contain halogens. Halogens cover the following elements: fluorine, F ; chlorine, Cl ; bromine, Br ; iodine, I ; and astatine At. This means Trichloroethylene which is sometimes found in paints or paint stick markers must be avoided.
Take care not to apply tally numbers or lengths over the original pipe markings as identification and traceability may be lost. If running is about to start then it may not be necessary to refit the box protector.
For special clearance or integral that could be damaged during transportation the box protector is required. There follows below a list then details of the minimum equipment that is required.
The reason for this is that if a connection has to be backed out the torque may be higher than make-up torque. The grips must be adjusted so that they hold the pipe firmly and not slip. Equally the pressure must not be too high or the pipe body can be damaged. For pipe sizes of 7" and below it is recommended to use a tong with integrated back-up jaws.
On larger sizes it is acceptable to use a tong with a snub line. The tong must have the facility to lower gradually as the threads are made-up. When positioned over the pipe the tong must hang horizontally and not as shown below. When using a tong with integral back-up, one set of jaws must be 'free floating' to compensate for any end kink or bend in the pipe or misalignment between the tong jaws.
There must be sufficient travel between the tong and 24 th August 25 2 Pipe Preparation and Running Equipment 2 Pipe Preparation and Running Equipment back-up to compensate for the make-up loss as the threads are engaged.
When positioned over the pipe the tong must hang horizontally with the tong and back-up tong being parallel. On some rigs the tong operation is done remotely. The tong may be mounted on an extending hydraulic arm or on a frame that is pushed over the pipe as required.
Frequently bought together
Pipe wrenches, rig tongs or spinning chain make-up are not permitted. In recent years companies have applied torque using a top drive make-up system.
This tool provides three functions. To reduce the chance of damage to the upper box connection or of debris being left on the torque shoulder an open end protector or handling plug is recommended to be fitted. It is also important that there is good alignment between the top drive makeup system and the rotary table as the pipe is fixed at both ends. If using a top drive make-up system in conjunction with a standard tong care must be taken to ensure that when running connections requiring a handling 26 24 th August plug that the plug does not unscrew as the pipe is made-up.
In all other cases the connection must be made-up to the correct torque value and the torque increase to this value must be within the correct parameters. In the past or with DINO VAM it was sufficient to use only a dial gauge to check this build up in torque and it was the skill of the tong operator to determined if the make-up was within parameters.
With new technology, more complex connections, and more demanding performances it is strongly recommended that the torque is plotted on a graph and that a record of this plot is kept. The graph can be produced on paper but is now more likely to be displayed on a computer screen. Different connections have a different graph profile and this is known as the signature of the connection. The machining tolerances of the connections, the thread compound and other factors can affect this signature.
The signature is produced by displaying torque on the vertical axis and turns on the horizontal axis.
Both axis must have a linear scale. Only the last 2 to 3 turns require to be shown as the torque increases to the final make-up. Often turns are substituted by time on the horizontal axis but this does not give such a true signature and is not recommended. To measure torque a load cell is required. The load cell can be either, hydraulic and connected to a dial gauge, or it can be electronic and connected to a computer.
As the gauge and computer displays torque and not load the value is multiplied by the arm length to give a value of torque. To confirm the accuracy of the load cell it can be compared to that of a second load cell with known calibration on a snub line.
The equipment must be calibrated at a sufficient frequency across its working range. The turns counter must be capable of recording a minimum of positions per turn. In all cases the company supplying the make-up equipment must be able to 24 th August 27 2 Pipe Preparation and Running Equipment 2 Pipe Preparation and Running Equipment supply a calibration certificate to the user.
This certificate must show that the equipment has been calibrated to National Standards within the previous 6 months.
If using a computer to display torque verses turns the make-up graph produced should have the following features. The screen resolution must be at least x pixels. This is sometimes known as shadowing. By doing this any unusual profiles can be easily identified and questioned. To do this the make-up graphs must have the shoulder point or the final torque plotted on the same datum line on the turns axis.
Shadow graphs with final torque as the datum 28 24 th August Shadow graphs with shoulder torque as the datum with minimum and maximum delta turns shown An alternative idea is to plot an average graph for the job and display high and low lines. Any graphs out with the high and low lines will be highlighted as different and be cause for alarm. It is also recommended to have a speed verses turns display either on the make-up graph or as a separate graph.
It is not acceptable for computer software to report a make-up as acceptable without validation by a competent person. This is normally done by dragging the pipe from the box end along a catwalk and up an inclined slope called the Vee door.
The pipe can be lifted to the vertical position by attaching a single joint elevator behind the coupling or a handling plug for integral connections and using a tugger line 24 th August 29 2 Pipe Preparation and Running Equipment 2 Pipe Preparation and Running Equipment to pull the pipe up. The single joint elevators must fit neatly round the pipe and have a safety pin to ensure they do not accidently unlatch. It is always necessary to use a pin protector and depending on how much impact there is with the Vee door a box protector may also be required.
If running integral connections with increased pipe OD dimensions then special single joint elevators are required to allow for the larger diameter at the connection. Alternative methods exist to pick up the pipe including 'pick-up and lay down machines' which replace catwalks and raise the pipe on a conveyor system where it can be latched directly by the main elevators. Another method is a pipe handling system which consists of a grab arm which takes the pipe from the catwalk and lifts it to the vertical position before swinging it into the drill floor and to the stabbing position.
It is normally possible to handle the pipe without protectors as long as the connections are not damaged by this handling method. The jaws must be clean and sharp.
Slip type elevators are recommended for integral connections, special clearance couplings, special bevel couplings and fatigue enhanced connections. If using side door elevators for integral strings then lifting subs are required. The amount of load that can be lifted on the coupling face for all threaded and coupled connections using side door elevators is limited.
The reason for this is that the cross sectional area of the coupling face is normally much less than the critical cross sectional area of the connection. If the string weight will exceed this value then the pipe must be gripped on the pipe body and not the coupling face. To do this slip type elevators are required.
Remember if the coupling has a special clearance or a bevel this value will be much less so make sure to look up the coupling face cross section for the correct coupling design option. They can be manually inserted or operated remotely. They can be mounted on the rotary table or flush with the drill floor.
Slips work best when the string weight is high. For the first few joints it may be necessary to compliment the slips by inserting a safety clamp round the pipe. This will reduce the chance of the string falling into the well if the slips fail.
Slips must be designed with jaws that wrap around as much of the pipe body as possible. For chromium steels the jaws must be non ferrous and low marking.
On carbon steels the jaw marks must be less than indicated below. A pit depth gauge is required to measure the depth of jaw mark.
After this point the connections will never be seen so great care must be taken to ensure that no damage occurs during stabbing. The best method to protect against stabbing damage is to use a stabbing guide. This is a plastic guide which is fitted over the box connection in the rotary table. As the pin is inserted into the box the guide will ensure it is central and prevent damage to the connections.
Victoria and Albert Museum
The stabbing guide must be correctly designed for the connection. Some tongs have a stabbing guide which is built in to the tong. It is always best to do this by hand so the operator can have a feel to ensure that no cross threading has taken place. This counterbalance is called a single joint load compensator and is highly recommended for steel grades that are susceptible to galling such as chromium steels.
A single joint load compensator is also useful when pulling pipe or running in stands as again it reduces the chance of galling. In many cases single joint load compensators are not used simply because they take time to rig up. They are well worth the effort. Thread protectors are designed to suit specific diameters and thread types and in some cases pipe weights.
Protectors have a value and should not be treated as waste when they are removed from the pipe. Thread protectors can be reused many times as long as they pass performance tests. In many countries there will be a supply chain for returning thread protectors to the pipe manufacturer or for recycling them. Take care when removing thread protectors to pair them together and place them in a compactor bag or container for return.
If pulling pipe remember to order thread protectors. If running pipe keep the protectors on board until the string is in the well and tested in case it has to be pulled. Remember to keep some protectors for returning contingency pipe.
Always apply some thread compound or storage grease to returned pipe in case there is a delay in the restocking. Always use the correct thread protector for the job. NEVER fit the wrong protector as it may fall off the pipe onto a supply ship or on the public roads. If the correct protectors are not available it is best to fit none and live with the consequences of a damaged connection rather than the consequences or a protector falling and injuring someone! Some protectors can be used with several different connections.
Protector interchangeable rules can be found on the VAM Services website - library section. Thread protectors must be tightened fully with a wrench.
Take care not to cross thread the protectors as this makes them very difficult to remove and may result in the connection below having to be re-cut. Quick release pin end thread protectors are useful for short term use to handle the pipe from the rack to the drill floor. Some designs are better than others. A common design is the inflatable thread protector which works well as long as the air does not escape.
They are normally just designed for connections with a thread taper. Never use thread protectors with a locking arm as shown below as this can cause pin seal damage. They can be open ended or closed end. Protectors that are open end will normally permit a drift mandrel to pass. Closed end protectors normally give better resistance against corrosion.
Metallic slings are used for carbon steels and nylon slings or plastic wrapped metal slings must be used for chromium steels. Slings must be double wrapped round the pipe and each sling must have the capacity to lift the entire load in case one breaks.
See section on handling for more details. Nowadays most rigs do not use a stabbing operator and instead have a remotely operated stabbing arm or the main elevators to hold the pipe centrally. A stabbing arm is normally attached to the derrick and retracts when the pipe is made-up. It is important to ensure that the arm is central as any eccentricity will prevent good make-up.
This should be used in conjunction with a single joint load compensator for heavy pipes. Alternatively a chain tong may be used as long as the pipe body is protected with rubber or similar to prevent ferrous contact.
These are screwed by hand then chain tong into the box connection to simulate a square face with which to lift the pipe. They must be made up so there is no gap at the box face. It is important that these are manufactured in accordance with VAM specifications. They can also be used to protect the box connection from damage caused by elevators or fill up tools or for setting manual slip type elevators. Normally three sets of tools are taken to the rig site.
Some connection types have different designs across the weight range so the tools must be matched to the weight of the pipe as well as the diameter. Care must be taken when fitting these as they can be heavy. Always apply storage grease and a thread protector to these tools when not in use. It is recommended to paint a white stripe on the tools so that they can be seen to be rotating as the pipe rotates.
The box connection on integral connections can be quite thin. The protectors should be fitted until the pipe is ready to run. Take care when inserting and removing the lifting tools to ensure that no damage is done to either the connection or the tool.
Check the threads of the lifting tools before and after each use for damage as they can be used many hundred times during the running of one string. These values are a factor of material strength. The lifting sub is designed for using side door elevators with chromium of CRA pipe to ensure there is no ferrous contact.
The lifting plug long and short tool length are designed for side door elevators where contact with the pipe is permitted.
The short one is the lighter. The handling plug is designed to be as light as possible so that it can be easily handled but is for lifting just one stand of max. VAM designed lifting tools have low interference threads and no contact on the metal-to-metal seal surfaces. They can be made-up using a chain tong until there is no gap between lifting tool face and the end of the pipe as 36 24 th August shown in the table. The purpose of storage compound is to prevent the connections corroding after they leave the factory.
Seldom are storage compounds suitable as running compounds so they must be removed and the connections cleaned prior to application of a thread running compound for make-up.
API 5A3 is the standard for thread compound performance however only some compounds that comply with this standard are suitable for VAM connections. All compounds conforming to API 5A2 are acceptable.
They are harmful for the environment and can cause skin problems. Ensure that barrier cream is applied to hands and wrists and wear gloves. For this reason some metal free running compounds have been tested and approved for VAM connections.
They offer some more protection to the environment and some are approved for use in countries where there is strict 24 th August 37 2 Lubricants and thread compounds 2 Lubricants and thread compounds environmental legislation. The full list of approved thread compounds can be found in a table on the VAM Services website www.
If the end user wishes to use another type of running compound then they do so at their own risk. If any expiry date is marked on the container check that it has not expired.
It is recommended to use a new container of thread compound for each job. If excess thread compound has been left from a previous job and it has been stored properly then it is acceptable to use this. Always stir the running compound prior to use. Ensure that the compound is free of foreign particles. Never use a thread compound which has been contaminated liquids, solids particles, etc. This may have a negative effect on the anti-galling performance of the thread compound.
Never dilute the compound with oil, diesel or water and this may effect the friction factor of the compound which could lead to the connection being overtorqued or undertorqued. If this happens carefully clean the mud from the connection and take preventative action to stop reoccurrence.
Remove all other compounds from the rig floor to prevent confusion. Do not use drill pipe compounds for tubing and casing and vice-versa. If the pipe has been prepared for running Rig Ready at a location other than the rig site it is essential that the compound applied to the connection is known as well as the duration that the thread compound has been on the pipe.
If there is a robust supply chain between the company preparing the pipe and the rig site it may not be required to further inspect the pipe. It is still best practice to perform a final check of the connections immediately prior to stabbing. In cold climates the running compound may have to be warmed slightly to make application easier.
Thread compounds are all required to be regularly mixed during use. Never use barite or a wire brush to clean connections as damage can occur. Never use diesel or helifuel to clean the connection as this will leave a film that may cause make-up problems or affect the performance. Water contamination of the thread compound can cause a change in its friction properties which may in turn affect make-up.
For this reason the connections and brushes must be kept as dry as possible and the compound must not become contaminated with water. If it is raining then rag wipe the connections before application of compound to remove the excess water and keep the bucket of thread compound in a dry location on the drill floor. If the compound becomes contaminated with water it must be replaced with a new bucket.
The same rules apply when running compound is applied to connections prior to shipping to the rig. A flat brush can be used to apply the thread compound to the pin end and a 'moustache' type brush can be used for the box end. Motorised applicators can also be used to apply the thread compound to the box connections. Evenly apply the correct quantity of compound to all the thread, seal and shoulder areas. The compound must reach the bottom of the thread.
To put these values in perspective use a plastic cup, like the type found on a drill floor, and knowing its volume calculate how many make-ups can be achieved with a full cup. Cups are typically 12 fluid ounces or ml. Always check first. If the cup is emptied before completing the specified 24 th August 39 2 Lubricants and thread compounds 2 Lubricants and thread compounds number of make-ups then too much is being used and it will extrude from the connection during make-up.
The converse is true if too little is used. The pictures below show good application of thread compound. Too little Too much Just right Pin Just right Box It is essential to ensure that there is no contamination of the threads and seal areas with mud or drilling fluid prior to stabbing the connections.
Mud can contain small particles which may tear the connection seals. If drilling fluid is on the connections it must be removed and fresh thread compound applied. In order to prevent this from happening in the first place the reason for the contamination must be found and actions taken to prevent reoccurrence.
If no action can be taken then the responsible person must be informed that proceeding with contaminated threads and seals may affect the integrity of the connection. VAM connections are not qualified with mud on the threads so to run pipe in this way is an unknown risk.
The thread compound must be stirred at regular intervals during use. This is especially true of compounds containing heavy metals and biodegradable compounds. After use ensure that the lid is placed firmly back on the container of the thread compound. The container must be placed back in a suitable store, 40 24 th August and labelled properly, ready for the next job.
The friction factor of the thread compound may have an effect on make-up as the threads engage. The friction factor has no or little effect during seal and shoulder engagement.
This is required if the shoe will be drilled out using a torque greater than the make up torque. If thread locking compounds are used the following guidelines must be applied. Thread locking compounds normally come with instructions that are written for API type connections and do not apply to shouldering type VAM connections. The instructions usually refer to a friction factor and recommend that the torque be multiplied by the friction factor.
When using thread locking compounds there will be a significant increase in torque required reaching the shoulder point. This may mean that the final torque is above maximum torque for the connection. This will avoid contamination of the thread lock compound with standard thread compound.
It is an antigalling compound. It is not necessary for use this on VAM connections. This section includes stabbing, make-up, checking the make-up graph and if necessary backing out and also horizontal make-up.
Make-up is the process of applying rotation to the connections until they reach the required torque. The J. Paul Getty Museum. A prayer book, it was decorated in tempera and gold on parchment by Jean Bourdichon — for the French ruler Louis XII reigned — at a time when his court was a principal centre of European art and culture. He probably produced this prayer book to celebrate Louis' coronation in Its dramatic miniatures are startling in their scale and originality, and the full-page scenes have painted frames, like those of oil paintings.
The figures loom large on the page, and are situated close to the front of the scene. Paul Getty Museum, would have been the first illustration in the Hours. This page shows the recently crowned king wearing parade armour. His portrait reflects an official likeness, probably originated by Bourdichon.
By the end of the 17th century, the book's original body of around 36 large miniatures was removed and its text broken up.
Miniatures and text fragments found their way into various collections, including those of Samuel Pepys, George II and William Beckford. By the late 19th century several were in the British Museum. Sixteen imposing miniatures, nearly half the original suite of images, have been discovered to date.
The Old Testament Book of Samuel relates how King David spied the beautiful Bathsheba bathing, committed adultery with her, and sent her husband to his death.
Bourdichon portrayed her as a self-conscious temptress displaying her charms, which accord with the highest standards of feminine beauty current in the fifteenth century. This scene illustrated the Penitential Psalms, traditionally attributed to King David.
Here, Bourdichon exquisitely differentiates three sources of light: This embodies St. Bridget of Sweden's vision of Christ's 'ineffable light and splendour…totally annihilating the material light'. This scene opened Terce, the fourth service of the Hours of the Virgin.
The first text in a book of hours is the calendar, which lists feasts of the church year. This one is richly illuminated, with activities appropriate to the season.
In the winter month of February, a richly dressed gentleman warms himself at a fire. Bourdichon's fascination with the effects of light is apparent in the red glow of the flames reflecting off the man's gown.
The astrological sign of Pisces appears above. Seasonal agricultural activities were traditional indicators of the character of each month. In June, a peasant carries a scythe for haymaking. Against the heat, he is lightly dressed, with a broad-brimmed hat and a cask of water. At the top, the name of the month is decorated with flourishes, and the feast days are written in alternating yellow and blue.
The major feast of Saint Barnabus is in red now discoloured brown: The astrological sign of Cancer appears above.
This is apparent in the imposing astrological figure of Virgo at the upper right, richly modelled in gold against the blue of the heavens. She stands before sheaves of wheat: In the lower scene, a peasant winnows the wheat, to separate the grain from the chaff. His face was later damaged, and partly repainted. In medieval France, September was the month for harvesting grapes.
These were traditionally crushed underfoot in a large vat - as is illustrated here - and the wine left to ferment in barrels. Above, a graceful astrological figure of Libra, holding her emblem of the scales, is delicately but dramatically illuminated from the left, against a star-filled night sky. From a private collection, courtesy of Sam Fogg, London. Books of Hours first appeared in the 13th century, and have been characterised as the medieval 'best seller'.
The considerable number which survive, especially from the 15th and early 16th centuries, indicate their popularity with well-to-do, literate patrons.
They were traditionally hand-written and decorated, on vellum, but some printed editions were later published. A Book of Hours is essentially a collection of Christian prayers for recitation at different times or 'hours' of the day. These were written in Latin, the language of the medieval church, and were a simplified version of the eight periods of prayer observed by monks and nuns, from Matins in the morning to Compline at night. However, these prayer books were intended for individual use by lay people.
Books of Hours vary to a degree in content and order, and may include special prayers tailored to the individual requirements of their owners.
Many have little or no decoration, but by the early 15th century the fashion had developed for luxurious volumes, superbly written and lavishly decorated with miniature paintings.
Those made for members of the French royal family include some of the largest and most spectacular ever made.When the make-up is finished and the signature is accepted, disengage the power tong.
131 VAM Book Blue
The tong may be mounted on an extending hydraulic arm or on a frame that is pushed over the pipe as required. On larger sizes it is acceptable to use a tong with a snub line. Bourdichon was highly regarded by Charles VIII, who appointed him as valet de chambre, and provided dowries for his daughters. Before the conflict was over with, Takiza spun thrash around and ended up knocking Thrash out.
They may be described as chemically stable, non-yellowing, acid-free or removable using solvents or water. The sleeves should be checked after each load, and if they are worn they must be replaced. If the tong has an integral set of back-up jaws then the tong should be placed with the backup jaws below the coupling and the rotating jaws above the coupling. These are listed below. Never use diesel or helifuel to clean the connection as this will leave a film that may cause make-up problems or affect the performance.