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1 the sun universe by freedman, geller, and kaufmann basic solar data universe freedman and kaufmann 9th edition pdf full ebook. EDITION BING. raudone.info universe freedman and kaufmann pdf. A supercluster is a large group of smaller galaxy clusters or galaxy. edition pdf, universe the solar system freedman mobi, universe the solar freedman kaufmann universe 9th edition download pdf structor user.
Geller and Roger Freedman strikes the right balance between scientific rigor and student comprehension and excitement.
Available as the full 27 chapter text or split into Stars and Galaxies and The Show More Universe by Robert M. Available as the full 27 chapter text or split into Stars and Galaxies and The Solar System, Universe provides all the detail you need to prepare students for engaging with the astronomical ideas and theories, while also inviting students in through stunning visuals and relatable narratives.
Show Less Gatefold Images Foldout images at the beginning of each unit present stunning astronomical images in full detail and color Guest Essays Present a personal perspective on the most up-to-date science and provide students with practice reading popular science news Cosmic Connections Full page illustrations help students connect with and understand particularly challenging astronomical concepts Concept Check and Caution!
Astronomy and the Universe 2. Knowing the Heavens 3. Eclipses and the Motion of the Moon 4. Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets 5. The Nature of Light 7. No notes for slide. Solutions manual for universe 10th edition by freedman ibsn 1. The changes in the appearance of the sky that accompany changes in observer location on the Earth, as well as changes that occur with the passage of time, are described.
The physical explanations of these changes are provided in the context of the spherical shape of the Earth and its motions in space. The origins of naked-eye astronomy are discussed.
Box Celestial Coordinates The coordinates of the equatorial coordinate system, right ascension and declination, enable astronomers to denote precise locations on the celestial sphere.
Box Sidereal time While sidereal time is extremely useful in astronomy, mean solar time is still the best method of timekeeping for most earthbound purposes. Few students understand that modern astronomy is a branch of physics. It is relatively easy to involve students in a test of the predicting powers of astrology. This might involve very general horoscopes published in the paper or more detailed predictions generated by computer programs.
Such an approach might achieve a more lasting impression than a lecture citing results of specific studies.
Astrology does not allow for the very real phenomenon of precession. Students may suggest that the gravitational forces between the planets and you influence your life. To demolish this idea, you could calculate the force of a planet and compare it with the force of the Earth i. Teaching Hints and Strategies This chapter covers much of what students associate with astronomy.
It provides opportunities for a number of both short and long range observing projects that might be completed on one night or may extend over a few or several weeks or even the entire course. Because many students have very poor spatial reasoning skills, such projects can be very useful and are generally well received by the students. Students may not have noticed the variation of the sunrise and sunset points Section during the year because the change is slow.
An easy way to record the changes is to take photographs of the eastern and western horizons and post enlargements in the classroom.
Occasionally have students observe where the Sun also the Moon, planets, and bright stars rises and sets and mark these points on the photograph. Many archaeological sites of interest to archaeoastronomers show alignments with the solstice sunrise or sunset positions or the rising of stars.
Universe And Kaufmann 9th Edition File
Students may be unaware of the existence of such sites in the United States. See the Guest Essay in Chapter 3. The Chaco Canyon Sun Dagger provides a good example of controversy and differing interpretations of data in science. Students could research the various interpretations of this site.
The nature of constellations is discussed Section Students invariably confuse constellations and star clusters, so stress the differences.
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Stars in a cluster have common distances, ages, and chemical composition, while stars in a constellation are not necessarily spatially related. An introduction to astronomical nomenclature can transform some of the mystery experienced by students when they read popular astronomy articles into a feeling of familiarity.
It is helpful to relate the constellations to geographic regions such as countries and states to develop an appreciation for their value in locating celestial objects: Constellation boundaries are similar to county lines or state boundaries.
A planetarium presentation can be very helpful here, if one is available. Students should be encouraged to go out at night and observe diurnal motion Section The 4. A brief discussion of the system provides a natural lead-in to the celestial sphere and celestial coordinates. Rotation can be defined as motion of a body around an axis passing through the body, while revolution is the motion around an axis or point not passing through the body.
It is usually said that the Earth rotates in 24 hours. Be sure that students know that this is relative to the Sun. Students are amused by the fact that all directions are due south if one is standing at the North Pole.
Ask if anyone has used a Global Positioning System receiver. Consumer GPS units for outdoor recreational use will give the coordinates of a location to within 3 meters. Because the celestial sphere Section is an apparent spherical surface, a similar system can be used in the sky. The causes of seasons Section are misunderstood by a very large number of students.
The effects of the varying altitude of the Sun at noon can be demonstrated by using a flashlight held at different angles to a wall. The variation in the length of day is well-known to everyone. However, many students look at elliptical orbits and conclude that seasons are caused by the varying distance of the Earth from the Sun. Be sure to point out that the Earth is closest to the Sun in January and farthest away in July. Also point out that the northern and southern hemispheres have opposite seasons.
Note that the traditional names of the equinoxes and solstices are for northern hemisphere observers. A description of the astronomical origins of tropics and circles can be valuable in the context of causes of seasons. You might also discuss the cultural importance of the date of zenith transit of the Sun for the pre-Columbian civilizations in the western hemisphere at latitudes between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.
The discussion of celestial coordinates Box notes that right ascension is measured in hours. Explain that this convention was established because the Earth is like a giant clock. The diurnal motion of heavenly objects is due to the rotation of the Earth. Just as a watch tells us the position of the Sun in the sky, astronomers think of the celestial sphere as a clock that is keeping sidereal time.
Remind students that celestial coordinates are slowly changing due to precession and thus are exactly true for only one instant in time. Provide examples of the epochs indicated on star charts, star catalogs, or Starry Night to reinforce this point. For example, Starry Night uses Julian Day Archaeoastronomers use precession to date ancient structures and artifacts.
The Web site of the Center for Archaeoastronomy at the University of Maryland provides useful information: Precession Section can be illustrated using a simple toy top in the classroom.
When the top is spinning upright, the tendency of the axis to point in a fixed direction can be seen. When the top begins to fall over due to the gravitational force of the Earth exerting a torque on the top, the resulting precession can be attributed to the compromise the top makes between falling over and not falling over.
The necessity of rotation for precession is easy to show and the precise nature of the motion is obvious. Point out that the rate of spin is greater than the rate of precession for both the top and the Earth.
It is instructive to discuss summer and winter constellations, how they are defined, and how they will appear in 13, years. Programs like Starry Night make an adjustment for pre-Gregorian calendar dates, giving those dates in the Julian calendar when necessary. Astronomers can use WWV broadcasts to set clocks to the correct time. Many watches, clocks, and electronic weather stations receive WWVB and automatically set the date and time.
Similar information is available from the U.
Naval Observatory Web site. If you have access to a GPS receiver, take your class outside and show them the time on the receiver—this is the most accurate time available to the ordinary person. The practical applications of sidereal time Box by astronomers should be stressed. You might discuss the problems that were encountered, for example, by the telescope operators of the International Ultraviolet Explorer who worked shifts determined by sidereal time rather than solar time.
If your college has an observatory, it probably has a hour sidereal clock. Stress that the Gregorian calendar modifications were done in an attempt to preserve the synchronization of the calendar to the seasons Section It is said that when Pope Gregory XIII eliminated 10 days from the calendar, there were riots because the people felt that their lives were being shortened by those 10 days. Ask students to imagine that they live at the extreme edge of a time zone, such as in the far northwestern corner of North Dakota, an area on Central Time.
It is so far west that sunrise and sunset are about 50 minutes later, Central Time, compared to a city in northeastern Minnesota near Lake Superior.
If you have students from widely separated areas in the same time zone, ask them to find the sunrise and sunset times for their hometown using the USNO Web site or computer software. Several apps are available for smart phones that accurately give sunrise and sunset for a given location. Review Questions 1. These structures, petroglyphs a carving or etching in stone , and pictographs a painting or staining on stone are plentiful in the southwest United States, Mesoamerica, South America, and Egypt.
The structures frequently are aligned with points on the celestial sphere or horizon. Petroglyphs and pictographs often depict astronomical events or concepts. Constellations are useful to astronomers because they define small regions of the sky and indicate rough locations. The 88 constellations cover the entire sky, so there is no star that is not part of a constellation.
The constellation of Orion contains more stars than those connected by the blue lines shown in Figure b.
Universe freedman 9th edition pdf
The brightest stars connected that way correspond to what the ancients imagined. It would be like connecting cities of more than , people with lines on a state map and then claiming that those were the only cities in the state. The celestial sphere is a large radius, imaginary sphere centered on the Earth.
It is a useful concept today because the sky looks as if it were the inside surface of a large hollow sphere. Since the celestial sphere is imaginary, such a traveler would never reach it and certainly could not land on an imaginary surface.
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It might, however, make for a fascinating science fiction plot. The celestial equator is the great circle on the celestial sphere that is midway between the celestial poles. If you were at one of the poles, the celestial pole would be at your zenith. The zenith is directly overhead. If you were standing at the equator, the celestial equator would pass through your zenith.
If you were at the South Pole Station, the south celestial pole would be at your zenith. If you see the north celestial pole at your zenith, watch out for polar bears! A person in Antarctica cannot use the Big Dipper to locate the north direction because at that location the Big Dipper is always below the horizon.
You would see the north celestial pole on the northern horizon from anywhere along the equator. There is no place on Earth where you would see the north celestial pole on the western horizon. At the North Pole, all the stars are circumpolar.
From the equator, all the stars rise and set. Look at Figure Depending on which side of the Sun the Earth is in its orbit, the hemisphere whose pole is tilted toward the Sun is experiencing summer and vice versa.
The ecliptic is the path of the Sun through the constellations. The Sun appears to move along the ecliptic approximately one degree per day. From that location the Sun is never more than This occurs on about June 21, when the sun makes a complete circle in the sky.
The vernal equinox occurs when the Sun appears to cross the celestial equator heading north. The autumnal equinox occurs when the Sun appears to cross the celestial equator heading south. The summer and winter solstices occur when the Sun is The vernal equinox rises at a point due east on the horizon and sets at a point due west.
This means the Sun rises due east and sets due west at the equinoxes.
The daily path of the Sun moves north and south with the seasons because the celestial equator is tilted relative to the ecliptic.The ecliptic is the path of the Sun through the constellations.
Stress that the Gregorian calendar modifications were done in an attempt to preserve the synchronization of the calendar to the seasons Section Accretion disks, Alfred T. Discovering the Universe is the bestselling.
Depending on which side of the Sun the Earth is in its orbit, the hemisphere whose pole is tilted toward the Sun is experiencing summer and vice versa. For example, Starry Night uses Julian Day The changes in the appearance of the sky that accompany changes in observer location on the Earth, as well as changes that occur with the passage of time, are described.
Ask if anyone has used a Global Positioning System receiver. Bug Nebula NGC You might discuss the problems that were encountered, for example, by the telescope operators of the International Ultraviolet Explorer who worked shifts determined by sidereal time rather than solar time.
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