amilcar cabral. Download unity and struggle speeches and writings of amilcar cabral in. EPUB Format. Download zip of unity and struggle speeches and. Amílcar Lopes da Costa Cabral was a Guinea-Bissauan and Cape Verdean agricultural engineer, intellectual, poet, theoretician and. Popular Power and Revolutionary Struggle Nancy Bermeo, The Revolution in the Revolution: Worker No Access. Ronald H. Chilcote. Latin American.

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Article Information, PDF download for Amilcar Cabral and the Theory of the National Liberation Struggle · Open epub for Amilcar Cabral and the Theory of the. Unity and Struggle by Amilcar Cabral Amilcar Cabral. Publication date: PDF files. Download adobe Acrobat or click here to download the PDF file. 2 Amilcar Cabral (). Unity and Struggle. Heinemann, London. 9. of duty, and governance according to the values of the consti-. tution and.

Hence, carnival was turned into an instrument to mass-mobilize the population and to communicate agendas and slogans on behalf of the state and its ruling party.

Against this background, carnival eventually managed to spread all over the country, reaching new sections of the population, in both ethnic and geographical terms.

The takeover of the central carnival organization by the General Directorate of Culture in marked an important step toward the wider spread of carnival. Since the s the public administration generated new sources of income by issuing licenses to those who wish to take pictures of the carnival or set up sales stalls for drinks and food.

These people, mostly young men and women, continued to stay in contact with their rural kin and thereby transported the idea of the carnival to the countryside. In this way, carnival became popular in the countryside see also Barcelos et al.

Thus, the integrative transformation had already become visible at that time.

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Carnival has remained a festivity that promotes sociability and conviviality among people at the community level, irrespective of their ethnic affiliations and beyond the sphere of official contests. People of different origins, therefore, are able to retrieve their respective cultures through carnivalesque performances. Despite, or more correctly, because of these different meanings, carnival has managed to create a common identity among its participants as well as observers.

Lyon, ; Ostheimer, to explain this lack of national identity. Repeatedly, some scholars and other observers have reinforced the picture of an ethnically divided country unable to achieve national unity. In consequence, social conflicts in Guinea-Bissau have repeatedly been explained in terms of ethnic or religious conflicts. Berman, Moral ethnicity can be understood as a vertical moral-economic behavior pattern among politico-economic patrons and clients on an ethnic basis, whereas political tribalism refers to horizontal competitions between different ethnic patron-client networks Berman, , In this attempt, the network leaders are under pressure from their clients.

For example, Vigh has pointed out how clientelist networks in Guinea-Bissau generally depend on access to power and resources. This access is very important in a country which is marked by the possibility of comparatively rapid upward and downward mobility.

Hence, [If a] network is disempowered, as a result of elections, conflict, or war, the result is radical social change that affects the entire network. If they succeed, their attempts result in the political fiction of a unified ethnic group Brubaker, In Guinea-Bissau, for example, former state-president Kumba Yala has been repeatedly accused of manipulating and exploiting ethnic ties in order to garner votes and support.

This is because, as Temudo argues, politicians in Guinea-Bissau have so far failed to instrumentalize ethnicity, as part of their moral ethnic strategies, to such an extent as to result in political tribalism Temudo, This means that horizontal competitions of various extensive ethnic networks — which may cause third parties to believe that ethnic groups form a unified monolithic bloc — have not yet come into existence in Guinea-Bissau.

In other words, the mere existence of ethnic diversity does not automatically lead to violent conflicts.

Further, even though the majority of Balantas voted for Yala, it is unlikely that they voted unanimously for him. In the light of these challenges, many Bissau-Guinean informants, especially the disadvantaged ones, expressed their dissatisfaction with the state and its actions, while nostalgically recalling better times in the past.

In this section, I will examine how Bissau-Guineans continue to be committed to their nation despite their dissatisfaction with the state. The term describes a loose social space that is based on friendship, solidarity, and mutual cooperation.

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The parliaments of the poor are characterized not by political action but by routinized irony, which only emphasizes the political and social marginalization of the disadvantaged and excluded participants Vigh, Following my own experiences and observations, Bissau-Guineans use this social space, as do people elsewhere, to vent out their anger at the socioeconomic challenges, blaming the government for bad governance, incompetence, and corruption. At the same time, they portray themselves as defenseless, powerless, and helpless victims in the face of an ignorant, egoistic, and inscrutable state apparatus that has been eaten away by clientelism and personal interests.

In short, Bissau-Guineans tend to portray themselves as a solidarity community of victims. Scantamburlo, , thus depicting a mode of life in resignation, deprivation, and suffering Trajano Filho, Even citizens did not enjoy full civil liberties, political participation was restricted, and the political arena was dominated by state-controlled organizations.

While the regime changed after independence, political authoritarianism continued. The PAIGC, which formed the state, continued to control both society and the economy through repressive means, while maintaining a centralized state structure and imposing dogmatic indoctrination on Bissau-Guineans.

Although political liberalization allowed for the introduction of multiparty democracy in the early s, politics has continued to bear an authoritarian tenor, marked by the continuing violation of human rights and democratic procedures.

Authoritarian experiences in the political arena have often been compounded by a patriarchal socialization in extended families. In other words, generations of Bissau-Guineans have become accustomed to complying with patriarchal social and political values and norms.

As my observations and conversations with informants suggest, citizens feel unprotected and exposed to hostile attacks — first and foremost from the state. While the late s and early s were characterized by a general shortage of basic consumer goods, as my informants remembered, Bissau-Guineans have been faced with limited employment opportunities, reduced earning power, lack of infrastructure, and omnipresent corrupt practices for numerous years.

The sense of powerlessness and dependence has apparently been aggravated by projects and payments from the international development co-operation. In particular, the time immediately after the military conflict was marked by a sharp decrease in international commitment and financial support, which severely impacted the socio-economic and rentier foundations of many Bissau-Guineans. As a consequence of these experiences and developments, people suffer not only physically and materially but also mentally due to structures that, the people believe, they are powerless to influence.

The feeling of collective victimization has a long tradition in Guinea-Bissau. During the liberation struggle, the PAIGC portrayed the Bissau-Guinean nation-to-be as a suffering collectivity that was contained, exploited, and oppressed by Portuguese colonialism. On the one hand, a mechanism that vaguely resembles balanced antagonism — first analyzed by Fortes and Evans-Pritchard — provides for the construction and maintenance of a social boundary, attempting to unite the nation across ethnic and religious boundaries and positioning it against a generalized, collective other.

On the other hand, the exploitation of the feeling of distress tries to ensure that the nation is portrayed as a collectivized victim suffering from socio-economic crises and hardships.

As mentioned above, Bissau-Guinean politicians and civil servants are perceived by citizens mostly as antipodes of the nation. Since the citizens hold them responsible for political authoritarianism, economic mismanagement, and social grievances, they do not believe that these political players are serving the interests of the nation.

The othering of state representatives under political authoritarianism and an overwhelming sense of socio-economic deprivation form the backbone of the subaltern discourse of collective victimization in contemporary Guinea-Bissau.

The integrative effects of the military conflict 52The external dimension of the social phenomenon that resembles balanced antagonism was manifested during the military conflict. This conflict is a prime example of how a heterogeneous population can close ranks together in the face of alien intruders who are collectively perceived as enemies of the nation — despite an ethnic dimension attributed to it by some scholars e. Vigh, ; cf. Induta, ; Rudebeck, ; Zeverino, broke out on June 7, Senegalese and Guinean army troops entered Guinea-Bissau.

What followed was a military conflict that predominantly affected the capital of Bissau until peace was officially restored on May 11, On the one hand, the Vieira faction insisted on the constitutionality of the government and depended on existing agreements of mutual military assistance that were signed with both Senegal and Guinea.

These self-representations indicate the respective logics of action employed by the warring parties.

Unity & Struggle: Speeches and Writings of Amilcar Cabral

This occurred because the foreign troops were largely considered to be invaders, and were therefore treated as a threat to independent nationhood. Widespread popular outrage and misery were triggered by heavy bombardments of residential quarters and a hospital — for which the Senegalese army was reportedly responsible — and the fact that Bissauans had to obtain permission from the commandant of the Senegalese troops, not from the Bissau-Guinean authorities, to leave the capital.

As early as in the nineteenth century, France had attempted to acquire political and economic influence in Guinea-Bissau, which was only nominally controlled by Portugal. While French traders dominated Bissau-Guinean commerce until the early twentieth century Bowman, , France had clashed with Portugal over the control of the Casamance, the Rio Nunez and Rio Cacine in the late nineteenth century Roche, , ; Bowman, , ; Esteves, These historical developments have left their mark on the contemporary Bissau-Guinean national consciousness.

Widespread oral narratives among Bissau-Guineans keep circulating that both Senegal and Guinea were planning to divide their reputedly rich neighbor Guinea-Bissau between themselves.

The vast majority of Bissau-Guineans would have supported the following statement: [T]he war in Guinea-Bissau has been a war of a president and his foreign allies against the majority of the political parties, against parliament, against the Bishop and all prominent actors of civil society, as a matter of fact, against the people of Guinea-Bissau Drift, In addition, those Bissau residents who succeeded in fleeing as refugees from the combat operations in the war zone met with a high level of solidarity from their fellow citizens in the countryside.

Bissau-Guinean solidarity across religious and ethnic boundaries was even intensified by the fact that the international community was helplessly watching the unfolding of events. For example, the World Food Programme was unable to deliver any staple food to Bissau during the first six months of the civil war Trajano Filho, Left high and dry by foreign countries and their aid, Bissau-Guineans must have felt like victims yet again.

Zeverino, but also may have reinforced the persisting impression among citizens that foreign countries continued to pose a threat to Bissau-Guinean independence and nationhood. Conclusion 59In this article I have shown that national integration in Guinea-Bissau appears to be quite strong — despite high degrees of ethnic diversity and a state frequently described as weak and failed. By employing Kriol as a means of interethnic communication and manjuandadis and carnival as a means of political mass-mobilization, the postcolonial state made these features popular throughout the country and across ethnic and religious boundaries.

unity and struggle speeches and writings of amilcar cabral

Their expansion was facilitated by the fact that these creole representations were shared by various ethnic subcategories under a creole umbrella. One reason for this is that national integration and interethnic co-operation are very pronounced in Bissau-Guinean society. The state is most severely criticized by the masses of disadvantaged people who regard themselves as victims of their state. By contrast, their identification with the nation is very pronounced. This feeling unites Bissau-Guineans across ethnic and religious boundaries.

On the basis of a unity-in-diversity or tree-as-nation model that portrayed the Bissau-Guinean nation as an umbrella encompassing various ethnic groups, the PAIGC had actively encouraged national cohesion ever since the beginning of the struggle for liberation. These developments were initiated by the postcolonial state in its attempt to construct a nation after the formation of an independent state. Thus, the construction of an independent nation- and statehood in Guinea-Bissau — as in many other African countries — differed from European models such as Germany, Italy, and Poland, where nation-building had preceded state-building.

Crioulo grammar made simple. US Peace Corps. Anderson, Benedict Imagined communities. Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism.

London, Verso. Barcelos, Manuel Rambout et al. Binkley orgs. Playful performers. Barrington, Lowell W. Barth, Frederik The social organization of culture difference.

Berman, Bruce Citizens and public officials in Africa. Bowman, Joye L. Conflict, interaction, and change in Guinea Bissau.

Fulbe expansion and its impact, Brubaker, Rogers There is usually no question of waiting-time for new editions. Right now there is no transportation to the eBook shop. Typically the books at an eBook shop can be downloaded immediately, sometimes for free, sometimes to get a fee.

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In our studies, we conceptualize cultural essentialist beliefs in terms of perceived potential for cultural change and adaptation attributed to an outgroup i. The race turn has also been instrumental in the development of cultural movements like Black Arts and Harlem Renaissance. Thus, the relationship between cultural studies and social theory is itself complex, shifting, and variable.

N2 - Internationalisation of higher education in the UK affects the educational experiences of students as well as those who teach them. He argued that essentialist thinking is one among several cognitive models that people may bring to bear when making sense of human variations In Copenhagen, visual culture is a combination of American art history and English cultural studies, with a nearabsence of French influences.

This commitment led Cabral to endorse an anti-essentialist, historicized conception of culture, and this in turn led him to conceive of cultural liberation in terms of and Israeli case studies illustrate that children develop selective essentialist beliefs about socially important categories, and that these beliefs are impacted by educational context, the differences between them emphasize the importance of historical, cultural, and political context in As the distinguished editors of this multi-disciplinary anthology and the majority of its contributors are writers of critical theory, cultural studies, philosophy and comparative religion, the decision to give substantial space ten of the twenty-five chapters to anthropologists and ethnographic writers should be noted at the outset as commendable, in and of itself.

Mikko Tuhkanen. Therefore, essentialist beliefs do not provide content about specific groups, but provide a deeper explanation and unifying theme underlying all stereotypes. Yet, both essentialist and normative tendencies can be shown to have a challenging, useful side as well, and so essentialist and normative elements cannot be avoided in the study of Pentecostalism.

Thus, psychological essentialism is not simply biological. Essentialism is related to the cultural literacy movement, which advocates the teaching of a core set of knowledge common to and assumed to be possessed by members of a culture or society.

The analysis proceeds largely in relation to sociological dimensions of legal pluralism, thereby complementing the predominantly legal theory discussed earlier. Patriarchy: Feminists argue that social history is marked by a significant gender hierarchy by which males have dominated females. The constructionist approach, affiliated with thinkers such as Michel Foucault, Louis Althusser, Jacques Derrida and Judith Butler, holds that the subject is the product of cultural and social discourse fields, and in being so the subject is the result of ideology and power struggles which shape and operate him.

Hall argues that this definition can and does inspire feminist, anti-colonial and anti-racist art and activism, but cannot help us comprehend the trauma of colonialism. Instead, essentialism is seen as one 'mode of construal' akin to mentalistic, mechanical or teleological construal.

The goals of gay and lesbian studies programs are as varied as the programs themselves. The philosophical tenet that objects and classes of objects have essential and not merely accidental characteristics. In this theory, there are certain universal, innate, biologically- or psychologically-based features of gender different from sex that are at the root of observed differences in the behavior of men and women.

Remarkably however, the work of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe so far seems to have been neglected most of the time [1], while I am convinced that it is particularly relevant for research on the formation of cultural identity.

Cultural Landscapes is an open-access, online academic journal of cultural studies based in the Cultural Studies Program at Columbia College Chicago. Cultural appropriation is often mentioned but undertheorized in critical rhetorical and media studies.

Our bridge is 3 meters wide and 10 meters long. Basic Essentialist Philosophy: All students must be taught essential and basic knowledge for example, American Essentialism emphasizes Western European and American history, literature, etc.

See also E. Once we get rid of the misconceived anti-essentialism, we can achieve a more balanced and productive relationship between reception studies and textual criticism. Rogers School of Communication, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ Cultural appropriation is often mentioned but undertheorized in critical rhetorical and media studies.

AU - Zhou, Xiaowei. Feminist theory is necessarily implicated in a series of complex negotiations between a number of tense and antagonistic forces that are often unrecognised and unelaborated. Essentialist beliefs about social groups are examined as In view of the lack of research on essentialist beliefs about sexual orientation and the discrepancies between existing studies, it is important to clarify the structure and attitudinal implications of these beliefs.

Here is a short article I wrote reflecting on the women's movement's challenges to biological essentialism first published to the Occupy Times of London website here. In this philosophical school of thought, the aim is to instill students with the "essentials" of academic knowledge, enacting a back-to-basics approach. Intercultural and Cross-Cultural Communication Research: Some Reflections about Culture and Qualitative Methods This article attempts to offer a response, from a general perspective, to the question of how culture reveals itself in the application of qualitative research methods in intercultural communication.

This conceptual commitment to sameness makes Bersani anomalous in contemporary cultural studies. Occasionally, some pundit will chastise the Democratic Party for not focusing on its future after some elements of its base especially the white working class in Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Michigan decamped to Trump in Cultural Essentialism and Cultural Anxiety.

In my traditionalist or essentialist view, knowledge is discovered, repressed, suppressed, and recovered through history and experience.

Of course, law reform is ultimately an empirical Studies have found that ethnic essentialism can amplify the perceived difference between different groups because stronger essentialist beliefs can lead to better performance in differentiating ethnic memberships.

It questions the conventional notion of a stable and secure cultural identity, challenges the common conception of bilingualism and biculturalism, analyses An interdisciplinary, non-essentialist format based on social and political theories, critical cultural studies, critical educational studies, gender studies, and globalization studies.

These are the sources and citations used to research Essentialism vs Non Essentialism. Focus is placed on the theory, method, and application of the study process es rather than on the "what" of the object s of study. Current research offers encouraging support for the links between essentialist beliefs and antigay prejudice, for the mixed The Power of Culture 3 In both examples social, economic and political factors may be identified and be advanced to explain the crises.

Essentialist beliefs capture the extent to which members of a category are seen as alike. AU - Fay, Richard. Elizabeth Grosz.

Much previous research has employed a strong essentialist approach, a model of disciplines which exaggerates the homogeneity of specific disciplinary features and accords disciplines generative powers which they rarely possess.

Feminism's challenge to biological essentialism The debate over sex differences has a considerable history in the Western world. Cultural Studies 2 3 : — The essentialist understanding that has long been dominant in the medical literature views culture as a set of This outdated concept can promote assumptions about how relationships "should" work that is rooted in essentialist notions of gendered behavior.

In this case little, if any, explanatory weight is given to psychological, sociological or cultural explanations. Instead, anti-essentialist conceptions of identity within cultural studies stress the decentered subject: the self as made up of multiple and changeable identities. This paper concludes by encouraging further research, possibly within Critical Management Studies CMS along with qualitative research methods, to enhance the non-essentialist model of culture within organizational studies.After independence, when the Portuguese officials left the country, their positions in public administration were taken over by Bissau-Guinean bureaucrats who had previously been in subordinate positions.

Oxford, Oxford University Press. Ebooks and eBook visitors provide substantial benefits over traditional reading. The need for astuteness, clan unity and the value of cooperative efforts, among other sociological attributes are embedded in this story Abraham , Although political liberalization allowed for the introduction of multiparty democracy in the early s, politics has continued to bear an authoritarian tenor, marked by the continuing violation of human rights and democratic procedures.

In pursuit of wealth for the purpose of ostentatious expenditure, long-held African values such as deference for elders, solidarity between age groups, character and integrity have been swapped for intense competition, corruption, and wide-scale embezzlement.

Galli, Rosemary E. Sexual Difference and the Problem of Essentialism. This consists of a big number of ebooks bundled together that are not really easily available at one solitary place.

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