Free download of Tai Chi Qigong - Easy Simple Exercises Devised by the Chinese by Boz Odusanya. Available in PDF, ePub and site. Read, write reviews. PDF version of Tai Chi Chuan the Secret Guide by raudone.info Apple Tai Chi and Qigong have left most of the secretive ancient ways and are now adapted for . Editorial Reviews. Language Notes. Text: English, Chinese. About the Author. Dr. Yang, Jwing-Ming, PhD, is a world-renowned author, scholar, and teacher of.
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PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. Both tai chi chuan and qigong are related and for centuries have been practiced together—each Essential. Today tai chi is practiced throughout the world, not by soldiers, but by people wanting a gentle physical workout combined with a mentally. PDF | Tai Chi and Qigong are forms of movement derived from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), gaining more and more popularity around.
This study revealed that Tai Chi could reduce balance impairments in patients with PD, with improved functional capacity and reduced falls. Tai Chi appears to be a safe and effective exercise for patients with mild-to-moderate PD.
However, the outcome is disappointing in severely injured patients. Exercise therapy for patients with TBI may improve the motor function and independence. Shapira and colleagues [ 72 ] reported the application of long-term Tai Chi training in 3 patients with severe TBI. After 2 to 4 years of training, all patients can walk without assistance, rarely fall, and feel more secure while walking.
One patient can lead independent daily activities and even return to car driving. The results showed that Tai Chi was associated with significant improvement on all Visual Analogue Mood Scales scores with decreases in sadness, confusion, anger, tension, and fear and with increases in energy and happiness.
Intervention participants attended a Tai Chi Qigong program for one hour per week, while control participants engaged in nonexercise-based social and leisure activities.
After the intervention, mood and self-esteem were improved in the Tai Chi group when compared with controls.
There were no significant differences in physical functioning between groups. Multiple Sclerosis Husted and colleagues [ 75 ] reported that 19 patients with multiple sclerosis participated in an 8-week Tai Chi program.
The results may be attributed to the effect of neuromuscular facilitation during Tai Chi practice. Studies have shown that patients with rheumatological diseases can benefit from Tai Chi exercise. Although Tai Chi is performed in a semisquat posture, joint pain can be prevented because most motions of Tai Chi are performed in a closed kinematic chain and in very slow speed [ 20 ].
However, patients with arthropathy should perform Tai Chi in high-squat posture to prevent excessive stress on lower extremities. In a recent review, Tai Chi may modulate complex factors and improve health outcomes in patients with rheumatologic conditions. Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis RA is a chronic, inflammatory, and systemic disease which affects the musculoskeletal system.
In addition, Tai Chi has significant benefits to lower extremity range of motion for patients with RA. Recently, two studies reported the benefits of Tai Chi for patients with RA.
The Tai Chi group had greater improvement in the disability index, the vitality subscale of the SF, and the depression index. Similar trends to improvement for disease activity, functional capacity and health-related quality of life were also observed. In another study [ 80 ], 15 patients with RA were instructed on Tai Chi exercise twice weekly for 12 weeks. The result showed that the Tai Chi group improved lower-limb muscle function at the end of the training and at 12 weeks of follow up.
Patients also experienced improved physical condition, confidence in moving, balance, and less pain during exercise and in daily life. Others experienced stress reduction, increased body awareness, and confidence in moving.
These studies indicated that Tai Chi was a feasible exercise modality for patients with RA. Ankylosing Spondylitis Ankylosing spondylitis AS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the axial skeleton with variable involvement of peripheral joints and nonarticular structures. In a recent study [ 81 ], Lee and colleagues assigned 40 patients with AS to Tai Chi or control group.
After training, the Tai Chi group showed significant improvement in disease activity and flexibility compared with the control group, and no adverse effects associated with the practice of Tai Chi were reported by the participants. Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic condition characterized by widespread pain, multiple tender points, nonrestorative sleep, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, complex somatic symptoms, and poor quality of life [ 82 ].
Exercise showed some benefits in the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia.
An important study of Tai Chi on fibromyalgia was reported by Wang and colleagues [ 83 ]. In this trial, 66 patients with fibromyalgia were randomly assigned to a Tai Chi group or a group that attended wellness education and stretching program. Each session lasted for 60 minutes twice weekly for 12 weeks. The SF physical component scores and mental component scores were significantly improved compared with the control group. This study proved that patients with fibromyalgia benefited from Tai Chi training, with no adverse effects.
Jones and colleagues [ 84 ] conducted a randomized controlled trial and assigned patients with fibromyalgia to Tai Chi or education group. The Tai Chi participants practiced modified 8-form Yang-style Tai Chi 90 minutes twice weekly for over 12 weeks. After training, the Tai Chi group demonstrated significant improvements in FIQ scores, pain severity, pain interference, sleep, and self-efficacy for pain control compared with the education group.
Functional mobility variables including timed up-and-go, static balance, and dynamic balance were also improved in the Tai Chi group. Tai Chi appears to be a safe and acceptable exercise modality for patients with fibromyalgia. In a recent study, Romero-Zurita and colleagues [ 85 ] reported the effects of Tai Chi training in women with fibromyalgia. Thirty-two women with fibromyalgia attended Tai Chi intervention 3 sessions weekly for 28 weeks.
After training, patients improved in pain threshold, total number of tender points, and algometer score. Additionally, the Tai Chi group improved in the total score and six subscales of FIQ: stiffness, pain, fatigue, morning tiredness, anxiety, and depression.
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Finally, patients also showed improvement in six subscales in SF bodily pain, vitality, physical functioning, physical role, general health, and mental health. Tai Chi for Orthopedic Disease 7. The first randomized trial of Tai Chi and osteoarthritis was conducted by Hartman and colleagues [ 86 ]. In this study, 33 older patients with lower extremity OA were assigned to Tai Chi or control group.
Tai Chi training included two 1-hour Tai Chi classes per week for 12 weeks. After training, Tai Chi participants experienced significant improvements in self-efficacy for arthritis symptoms, total arthritis self-efficacy, level of tension, and satisfaction with general health status. Song and colleagues [ 87 ] randomly assigned 72 patients with OA to a Tai Chi group or a control group.
After training, the Tai Chi group perceived significantly less joint pain and stiffness and reported fewer perceived difficulties in physical functioning, while the control group showed no change or even deterioration in physical functioning.
The Tai Chi group also displayed significant improvement in balance and abdominal muscle strength. Patients were assigned to a Tai Chi or an attention control group.
Subjects in the attention control group attended six weeks of health lectures, followed by 12 weeks of no activity.
After six weeks of training, the Tai Chi group showed significant improvements in overall knee pain, maximum knee pain, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index WOMAC subscales of physical function and stiffness compared with the baseline. The Tai Chi group reported lower overall pain and better WOMAC physical function than the attention control group, but all improvements disappeared after detraining. The result implies that a short-term Tai Chi program is beneficial for patients with OA, but long-term practice is needed to maintain the therapeutic effect.
Fransen and colleagues [ 90 ] randomly assigned older persons with chronic hip or knee OA to hydrotherapy classes, Tai Chi classes, or a wait-list control group. After 12 weeks of training, both the hydrotherapy group and the Tai Chi group demonstrated improvements for pain, and physical function scores and achieved improvements in the Item Short From Health Survey SF physical component summary score.
This study revealed that Tai Chi and hydrotherapy can provide similar benefits to patients with chronic hip or knee OA. In a randomized controlled trial conducted by Wang and colleagues [ 91 ], 40 patients with OA were assigned to Tai Chi group or attention control group. The result showed that Tai Chi reduces pain and improves physical function, self-efficacy, depression and health-related quality of life for patients with knee OA.
In a recent randomized controlled study [ 92 ], 58 community-dwelling elderly patients with knee OA and cognitive impairment were assigned to a Tai Chi week program or a control group. After training, the Tai Chi group showed significant improvement in WOMAC pain, physical function, and stiffness score than the control group. The result showed that practicing Tai Chi was effective in reducing pain and stiffness in patients with knee OA and cognitive impairment.
Tai Chi is also beneficial to gait kinematics for the elderly with knee OA. Shen and colleagues [ 93 ] applied Tai Chi on 40 patients with knee OA.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disorder, and it is estimated that 44 million individuals in the United States over the age of 50 years have osteoporosis or low bone mass [ 94 ]. Exercise is an effective therapy to prevent or delay the development of osteoporosis. Qin and colleagues [ 95 ] reported that Tai Chi participants had significantly higher bone mineral density BMD than the controls in the lumbar spine, the proximal femur, and the ultradistal tibia.
The follow up measurements showed generalized bone loss in both groups, but the quantitative computed tomography revealed significantly reduced rate of bone loss in trabecular BMD of the ultradistal tibia and of the cortical BMD of the distal tibial diaphysis.
In a subsequent study, Chan and colleagues [ 96 ] randomly assigned healthy postmenopausal women to Tai Chi or sedentary control group.
The Tai Chi group practiced Tai Chi 45 minutes a day, 5 days a week for 12 months. At 12 months of training, BMD measurements revealed a general bone loss in both Tai Chi and control subjects at lumbar spine, proximal femur, and distal tibia, but with a slower rate in the Tai Chi group. A significant 2. In a recent trial, Wayne and colleagues [ 97 ] reported the application of Tai Chi in 86 postmenopausal osteopenic women aging 45—70 years. Women were assigned to either 9 months of Tai Chi training plus usual care or usual care alone.
Protocol analyses of femoral neck BMD changes were significantly different between Tai Chi and usual care-group. Changes in bone formation markers and physical domains of quality of life were more favorable in the Tai Chi group. Low-Back Pain Chronic low-back pain LBP is prevalent in the general population, and exercise therapy is among the effective interventions showing small-to-moderate effects for patients with LBP.
In a recent randomized trial [ 98 ], volunteers with chronic LBP were assigned either to a Tai Chi group or to a wait-list control group. The Tai Chi group participated in 18 training sessions 40 minutes per session over a week period , and the wait-list control group continued with usual healthcare.
After training, the Tai Chi group reduced bothersomeness of back symptoms by 1. Musculoskeletal Disorder Musculoskeletal disorder is a leading cause of work disability and productivity losses in industrialized nations. Tai Chi can be used as a simple, convenient workplace intervention that may promote musculoskeletal health without special equipment. A recent study applied Tai Chi to female computer users [ 99 ], and 52 subjects participated in a minute Tai Chi class per week for 12 weeks.
The results showed significant improvement in heart rate, waist circumference, and hand-grip strength. It implied that Tai Chi was effective in improving musculoskeletal fitness. In chronic muscular pain, such as tension headache, Tai Chi also shows some benefits. Abbott and colleagues [ ] randomly assigned 47 patients with tension headache to either a week Tai Chi program or a wait-list control group. The SF and headache status were obtained at baseline and at 5, 10, and 15 weeks during the intervention period.
Exercise training is the core component of cardiac rehabilitation CR for patients with coronary heart disease CHD. Tai Chi may be used in CR programs because its exercise intensity is low to moderate, and it can be easily implemented in communities.
In a recent study, Taylor-Piliae and colleagues [ ] reported a study that included 51 cardiac patients who participated in an outpatient CR program. After rehabilitation, subjects attending Tai Chi plus CR had better balance, perceived physical health, and Tai Chi self-efficacy compared with those attending CR only.
Cardiovascular Risk Factors 8. Hypertension Hypertension is the most prevalent form of CVD affecting approximately 1 billion patients worldwide. In the United States, about one in three adults has hypertension [ 62 ].
Tai Chi Chuan the Secret Guide
Hypertension is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.
Regular exercise and lifestyle change are the core of current recommendations for prevention and treatment of hypertension. Systemic review of randomized clinical trials indicated that aerobic exercise significantly reduced BP, and the reduction appears to be more pronounced in hypertensive subjects [ , ].
Previous studies have shown that 6- to week Tai Chi training programs might decrease systolic and diastolic BP at rest or after exercise, and hypertensive patients exhibit the most favorable improvement [ — ].
In a recent systemic review, Yeh and colleagues [ ] analyzed 26 studies and found positive effect of Tai Chi on blood pressure. For patients with acute myocardial infarction AMI , both Tai Chi and aerobic exercise were associated with significant reductions in systolic BP, but diastolic BP was decreased in the Tai Chi group only.
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus is a fast growing risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Estimated Previous studies have shown that exercise has benefits for those who have diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance [ — ].
Several studies have shown the benefits of Tai Chi for diabetic patients. In a pilot study for 12 patients with diabetes, Wang [ ] reported that an 8-week Tai Chi program could decrease blood glucose. Additionally, high- and low-affinity insulin receptor numbers and low-affinity insulin receptor-binding capacity were increased. For obese diabetic patients, Chen and colleagues reported that 12 weeks of Chen Tai Chi training induced significant improvement in body mass index, triglyceride TG , and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C [ ].
In addition, serum malondialdehyde oxidative stress indicator and C-reactive protein inflammation indicator decreased significantly. In diabetic patients complicated with peripheral neuropathy, Ahn and Song reported that Tai Chi training one hour twice per week for 12 weeks improved glucose control, balance, neuropathic symptoms, and some dimensions of quality of life [ ].
A recent study reported that a week Tai Chi program for diabetic patients obtained significant benefits in quality of life [ ].
After training, the Tai Chi group revealed significant improvements in the SF subscales of physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain, and vitality. Dyslipidemia Dyslipidemia, or abnormalities in blood lipid and lipoprotein, is a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease. In the United States, The prevalence of dyslipidemia increases with age and westernized lifestyle, but regular exercise may ameliorate the trend toward abnormal blood lipid profile.
A meta-analysis of 31 randomized controlled trials with exercise training reported a significant decrease in total cholesterol TC , low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C , and triglyceride, and an increase in HDL-C [ ]. Tsai and colleagues [ ] randomly assigned 88 patients to Tai Chi or sedentary control group. This may be attributed to differences in baseline lipid concentrations, training amount and intensity, changes in body composition, or the adjunctive interventions such as diet or lipid-lowering agents.
In a recent study, Lan and colleagues [ ] assigned 70 dyslipidemic patients to a month Yang Tai Chi training group or the usual-care group. After training, the Tai Chi group showed a significant decrease of In addition, the Tai Chi group also showed a significant decrease in fasting insulin and a decrease in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance HOMA index, which is suggestive of improved insulin resistance Figure 4.
Figure 4: Changes of peak and cardiovascular risk factors after 1 year of training in patients with dyslipidemia Tai Chi group versus usual-care group. Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute myocardial infarction is the most common cause of mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease, but exercise can significantly reduce the mortality rate in patients with AMI.
A recent Cochrane review [ ] involved in 47 studies randomizing 10, patients with AMI to exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation or usual care.
Channer and colleagues [ ] randomized patients with AMI to Tai Chi, aerobic exercise, or nonexercise support group. The Tai Chi and the aerobic exercise group participated in an 8-week training program, attended twice weekly for three weeks, and then once weekly for five weeks. After 12 months of training, the Tai Chi group showed significant improvements of oxygen uptake at the peak exercise and the ventilatory threshold.
At the peak exercise, the Tai Chi group showed Furthermore, the Tai Chi group increased Congestive Heart Failure Congestive heart failure CHF is characterized by the inability of the heart to deliver sufficient oxygenated blood to tissue. CHF results in abnormalities in skeletal muscle metabolism, neurohormonal responses, vascular and pulmonary functions. In , heart failure was the underlying cause in 56, of those deaths in the United States [ 62 ].
Exercise training improves functional capacity and symptoms in patients with CHF, and the increase in exercise tolerance may be attributed to increased skeletal muscle oxidative enzymes and mitochondrial density. Previous studies have shown that low-intensity Tai Chi training benefited patients with CHF [ — ].
In a study by Barrow and colleagues [ ], 52 patients with CHF were randomized to Tai Chi or standard medical care group. The Tai Chi group practiced Tai Chi twice a week for 16 weeks.
After training, the Tai Chi group did not show significant increase in exercise tolerance, but they had improvement in symptom scores of heart failure and depression scores compared with the control group. Yeh and colleagues [ , ] also reported that a week Tai Chi training in patients with CHF improved quality of life, sleep quality, and 6-minute walking distance and decreased serum B-type natriuretic peptide BNP.
BNP is produced by ventricular cardiomyocytes and is correlated with left ventricular dysfunction. In a recent study, Yeh and colleagues [ ] randomized patients with systolic heart failure into a Tai Chi group or a control group.
Tai Chi participants practiced 5 basic simplified Yang Tai Chi movements twice weekly, while the control group participated in an education program. After 12 weeks of training, the Tai Chi group displayed greater improvements in quality of life, exercise self-efficacy, and mood.
For patients with CHF, low-intensity exercise such as simplified Tai Chi may increase the acceptance. Interval training protocol by using selected Tai Chi movements is suitable for patients with very low endurance. Tai Chi can combine endurance exercise to improve functional capacity.
Caminiti and colleagues [ ] enrolled 60 patients with CHF and randomized them into a combined training group performing Tai Chi plus endurance training, and an endurance training group. After 12 weeks of training, 6-minute walking distance increased in both groups, but the combined training group showed more improvement than the endurance training group.
Systolic BP and BNP decreased in the combined training group compared with the endurance training group.
Additionally, the combined training group had a greater improvement in physical perception and peak torque of knee extensor compared with the endurance training group. The left ventricle ejection fraction is found to be preserved in about half of all cases of heart failure. Patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction HFPEF appear to be older and are more likely to be females, have a history of hypertension, and have less coronary artery diseases [ ]. Change in was similar between groups, but 6-minute walking distance increased more in the Tai Chi group.
Both groups had improved Minnesota Living With Heart Failure scores and self-efficacy, but the Tai Chi group showed a decrease in depression scores in contrast to an increase in the aerobic exercise group.
In patients with HFPEF, the Tai Chi group displayed similar improvement as the aerobic exercise group despite a lower aerobic training workload. Patients with COPD are at risk for low levels of physical activity, leading to increased morbidity and mortality [ ]. The effectiveness of exercise training in people with COPD is well established. However, alternative methods of training such as Tai Chi have not been widely evaluated.
Patients in the TCQ group participated in a TCQ program, including two minute sessions each week for 3 months; patients in the exercise group practiced breathing exercise combined with walking. After training, the TCQ group showed greater improvements in the symptom and activity domains.
In addition, the forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the first second, walking distance, and exacerbation rate were improved in the TCQ group [ ]. In a pilot study conducted by Yeh and colleagues [ ], 10 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD were randomized to 12 weeks of Tai Chi plus usual care or usual care alone.
After training, there was significant improvement in Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire score in the Tai Chi group compared with the usual-care group. There were nonsignificant trends toward improvement in 6-minute walk distance, depression scale, and shortness of breath score.
Forty-two participants were randomly allocated to Tai Chi or usual-care control group. Compared with the control, Tai Chi significantly increased endurance shuttle walk time, reduced medial-lateral body sway in semitandem stand, and increased total score on the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire. Tai Chi for Cancer Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Exercise therapy is a safe adjunct therapy that can mitigate common treatment-related side effects among cancer patients [ ].
Additionally, exercise has beneficial effects on certain domains of health-related quality of life QOL including physical functioning, role functioning, social functioning, and fatigue [ ]. Tai Chi has been reported to be beneficial for physical, emotional, and neuropsychological functions in patients with breast cancer [ — ], lung cancer [ ], and gastric cancer [ ]. In a recent randomized trial, 21 breast cancer survivors were assigned to Tai Chi or standard support therapy controls , and patients in the exercise group practiced Tai Chi three times per week and 60 minutes per session for 12 weeks [ ].
After training, the Tai Chi group improved in total QOL, physical functioning, physical role limitations, social functioning, and general mental health. Tai Chi may improve QOL by regulating inflammatory responses and other biomarkers associated with side effects from cancer and its treatments.
By contrast, a recent meta-analysis did not show convincing evidence that Tai Chi is effective for supportive breast cancer care [ ]. Most Tai Chi studies are focused on QOL of breast cancer survivors; however, the positive results must be interpreted cautiously because most trials suffered from methodological flaws such as a small-sample size and inadequate study design.
Further research involving large number of participants is required to determine optimal effects of Tai Chi exercise for cancer patients. Future Research of Tai Chi The training effect of an exercise program depends on its exercise mode, intensity, frequency, and duration. Although previous studies have shown that Tai Chi has potential benefits, most of the studies have limitations in study design, such as 1 a small-sample size, 2 nonrandomized trials, 3 lack of training intensity measurement, and 4 significant differences in training protocols.
In future research, a randomized controlled trial with standardized training protocol should be utilized according to the principles of exercise prescription. Tai Chi participants usually need 12 weeks of training to familiarize the movements. During the familiarization phase, the exercise intensity and amount of training are inconsistent.
Therefore, a suitable training program should take at least 6 months of training. Additionally, heart rate monitoring in selected individuals is recommended to determine the exercise intensity of Tai Chi, and the suitable duration of training is 40 to 60 minutes including warm-up and cool-down.
Conclusion Tai Chi is a Chinese traditional conditioning exercise that integrated breathing exercise into body movements. This literature paper reveals that Tai Chi has benefits in health promotion and has potential role as an alternative therapy in neurological, rheumatological, orthopedic, and cardiopulmonary diseases.
There are several reasons to recommend Tai Chi as an exercise program for healthy people and patients with chronic diseases.
First, Tai Chi does not need special facility or expensive equipment, and it can be practiced anytime and anywhere. Second, Tai Chi is effective in enhancing aerobic capacity, muscular strength, and balance and in improving cardiovascular risk factors. Third, Tai Chi is a low-cost, low- technology exercise, and it can be easily implemented in the community. It is concluded that Tai Chi is effective in promoting health, and it can be prescribed as an alternative exercise program for patients with certain chronic diseases.
Lan, S. Chen, J. Ko, A. Dugas, M. Ergon, J. Sollerman, A. Bagdasaryan, C.
Silent Spring by Rachel Carson
Barbarino, J. Belicki, E. Bellm, N. Blagorodnova, K. De, R.
Dekany, S. Frederick, A. Gal-Yam, D. Goldstein, V. Golkhou, M. Graham, M. Kasliwal, M. Kowalski, S.Exercise training is the core component of cardiac rehabilitation CR for patients with coronary heart disease CHD. Women were assigned to either 9 months of Tai Chi training plus usual care or usual care alone. Patients with dizziness and balance disorders may get benefits from Tai Chi training. Tai Chi can improve balance, kinesthetic sense, and strength, and hence it may be prescribed as a sensorimotor agility program for patients with PD.
It is also reported that a week Tai Chi program could reduce mood disturbance and improve general mood in women [ 56 ].
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