PDF | On 1, , Fatah Zarei and others published First record of exotic Piaractus brachypomus Cuvier, (Characiformes. PDF | On Jun 1, , K. Roshni and others published Record of a Measurements of Piaractus brachypomus caught in Vembanad Lake. Piaractus brachypomus Ecological Risk Screening Summary. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service – Web Version – 8/21/ ) incorrectly.
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Keywords: Red bellied pacu, Characidae, Serrasalmidae, Piaractus brachypomus, Vellayani Freshwater Lake. 1. Introduction. There are so many reports of. Apprehensions and issues related to pacu Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier. ) farming in India. Atul K Singh*. Emeritus Scientist at ICAR-. Piaractus brachypomusCachama(Also: Pacu). Facebook. Twitter .. Collaborative Research Support Program Fifteenth Annual Technical Report" (On -line pdf).
Among the plants, fermented Spirodela polyrhiza showed the highest nutrient and energy digestibility. Lactic acid fermentation is a highly recommendable treatment when aquatic macrophytes should be include into diets for Cachama blanca. Entre as plantas estudadas, a Spirodela polyrhiza fermentada apresentou a maior digestibilidade dos nutrientes e energia.
The apparent digestibility coefficients ADCs provide valuable information for the formulation of nutritional and economically feasible diets. Particularly, diet and dietary compound digestibility are essential for exact determination of nutrient demands in fish metabolism. In addition, ensuring a high diet digestibility preserves the aquatic environment by avoiding the accumulation of indigestible ingredients.
For the siteian fish Piaractus brachypomus as for the majority of characids, the scarce information on nutritional demand existent refers mainly to ingredients which are frequently used in common commercial aquafeeds, namely fish meal, soybean or soybean-derived products and wheat products Quintero et al.
Red-Bellied Pacu Resources
Considering increased prices of aquafeeds, the identification of less expensive and locally available feed sources has become necessary to assure the proposed aquaculture development, particularly in rural areas. Aquatic macrophytes are one of the most abundant plant materials in the Neotropical floodplain systems and a natural feed source for some native fish species.
Although, they have been widely used as a nutrient source in diets for tropical freshwater fish, principally tilapia and carp Edwards ; Ray and Das ; Bairagi et al. In spite of the great nutritional potential of aquatic macrophytes, their utilization in native forms as fish feed remains low due to their relative high fibre and ash content as well as the presence of trypsin inhibitors, phytates, tannins and oxalates, among other antinutritional substances, which reduce their digestibility.
To enhance the nutritional value of plant materials for fish, simple methods for processing suitable for marginal areas have been investigated.
Thus, the fermentation process of aquatic macrophytes seems to be adequate, since it considerably reduces fibre content and antinutritional substances present in the plants Bairagiet al. The South American fish Cachama blanca or Pirapitinga common names in Colombia and Brazil, respectively Piaractus brachypomus Characidae , is an omnivorous fish with a predominantly herbivorousfeeding behaviour Silva Its natural diet consists principally of plant products and in a lower amount of fish and crustacean.
Moreover, it is the primary fish species in the Colombian national program of food safety and occupies the second place in the Colombian national aquaculture production Espinal et al. Considering that processed aquatic macrophytes may be a suitable source of plant protein for the small-scale characid production in Colombia, the present study was conducted to determine, dry matter, crude protein and gross energy digestibility of selected aquatic macrophytes Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna minor and Azolla filiculoides treated by sun drying and lactic acid fermentation methods for juveniles of Piaractus brachypomus.
Material and methods Sun Drying and Fermentation of Aquatic Plants The aquatic macrophytes used for experimental diets were harvested as wild or uncultivated plant material from water bodies in northern Colombia.
Plants were collected continuously during a period of 12 weeks. After taxonomical identification, the plant material was cleaned and divided in two parts. The first part was sundried until its dry weight was constant. The second part was fermented. In order to obtain the required DM content for silages, which is approximately g kg-1 for grass and forages DLG , the freshly harvested aquatic plants were mixed with wilted aquatic plants of the same sample.
Afterwards, these mixtures were fermented. The lactic acid silage fermentation process was carried out using a commercial silage lactic acid bacteria LAB inoculant as described by Cruz et al. Chromic oxide Cr2O3 at an inclusion level of 5 g kg-1 was used as external inert marker.
Diets were finely ground, mixed and pelleted to sizes of 4 mm.
Animals and Feeding Trial A total of juveniles of Piaractus brachypomus with a similar initial body weight of The experiment was conducted in a closed recirculation-system with constant aeration and a photoperiod of approximately 12 h of light. The water quality was monitored daily in the morning with respect to temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Prior to the experiment, the fish were fed with the reference diet twice daily and for a period of two weeks in order to accustom them to the experimental conditions.
Afterwards, seven experimental diets one reference diet and six test diets were randomly assigned to triplicate experimental groups. Fish were manually fed the experimental diets once daily to apparent satiety.
Stocked fish of each experimental tank were transferred to the cylindrical-conical tanks after feeding. Faeces collection was done according to a specific schedule. The samples were collected at 60 min intervals over a period of 12 h per day during two wks. Chemical Analysis The nutrient composition of the sundried and fermented material, as well as the diets and the faecal samples collected from each tank were determined in triplicates and performed following the AOAC procedures.
The ADCs for the nutrients and energy of the reference and test diets were calculated using the formula described by Nose , as follows: ADCs of the test ingredients were calculated based on the digestibility of the reference diet and test diets using the formula suggested by Bureau et al. Digestible protein DP and digestible energy DE were calculated using the data corresponding to protein and energy digestibility, crude protein CP and gross energy GE content of test ingredients.
Statistical Analysis In order to assess the separate and combined effect of the plant material three species and treatment sundried and fermentation on the dry matter, protein and energy digestibility in Cachama blanca a 3 x 2 factorial analysis of variances ANOVA was conducted. The means and standard error of means SEM for dry matter, protein and energy digestibility as a function of the two factors are presented in Table 1. All statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS version 19 software package.
Results The water quality parameters presented during the experimental period were within optimal requirements for Piaractus brachypomus, reported by Vasquez-Torres : temperature All diets were satisfactorily consumed, indicating that no palatability problem was encountered with any of the treatments during the experiment. The proximate composition of the test ingredients, reference diet and test diets Table 1.
Likewise, among test diets those containing fermented plants showed the lowest crude fibre and ash content, whereas protein and lipids contents were slightly higher compared to diets containing sundried macrophytes. The dietary gross energy was not different in the test diets. Martelo, J. Lorenzen, M. Crossa, D. Habitat associations of exploited fish species in lower site-floodplain system. Freshwater Biology, Nascimento, A. Maria, N.
Pessoa, A. Out-of-season sperm cryopreserved in different media of the siteian freshwater fish pirapitinga Piaractus brachypomus. Nelson, J. Fishes of the World, Fourth Edition.
Nirchio, M. Fenocchio, A. Swarca, J.
Perez, A. Granado, A. Estrada, E. Cytogenetic characterization of hybrids offspring between Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, and Piaractus brachypomus Cuvier, from Caicara del Orinoco, Venezuela.
Palacios, M. Dabrowski, M. Abiado, K. Lee, C. Effect of diets formulated with native Peruvian plants on growth and feeding efficiency of red pacu Piaractus brachypomus juveniles.
Ramirez-Duarte, W. Rondon-Barragan, P. Reinert, T. Sustainability of harvested pacu Colossoma macropomum populations in the northeastern Bolivian site.
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Ross, S. The Inland Fishes of Mississippi. Sakamoto, K. Kaori, T. Blood chemistry values of juvenile red pacu Piaractus brachypomus. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, Schleser, D.
Piranhas: A Complete Owner's Manual. Smith, R. Alarm signals in fishes. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 2: Thatcher, V. Surface morphology of some amphistomes Trematoda of siteian fishes and the description of a new genus and species.
Acta siteica, Sperm motility and velocities were tested for normal distribution using the The present study evaluated physiochemical parame- univariate procedure. The brachypomus. Results ripe. The subjective analysis of sperm motility using a light Table 1. Thus, the data obtained for motility eval- data on motility as well as curvilinear, linear and average uated by the CASA were used to describe and discuss the path sperm velocities, among other characteristics.
Motility of fresh sperm collected outside the spawn- An interaction between extenders and CPA was ing season and observed after activation with 0. Pirapitinga semen pH was 9. Motile which is a bit more alkaline in comparison to that described spermatozoa in glucose-methylglycol also yielded the in previous studies where pH values ranged from 7. Fresneda et al. For analyses of these indicators of sperm microscope and an objective evaluation using the CASA.
By using a well-trained technician and a A. Fertilization trials easily and with enough precision to be a useful evaluation, should be carried out with cryopreserved pirapitinga sperm as we have demonstrated in the present study.
Methylglycol also known as 2- mined. II Effects of ions Both DMSO and methylglycol were tested in com- and osmolality: a review. Cell Biol.
Enhanced post-thaw sperm motility 9— Koch, J. Diluidores has been observed for pacu P. Lahnsteiner, F. Brycon nattereri Oliveira et al. Theriogenology used in combination with methylglycol, and for dourado 54, — Extenders Miliorini, and piapara L.
In , —Faeces collection was done according to a specific schedule. The lower ADCprotein of sundried plants may be related to their high fibre content, which ranged closely to g kg-1, whereas in fermented plants the fibre content ranged between Rinchard, J. Entre as plantas estudadas, a Spirodela polyrhiza fermentada apresentou a maior digestibilidade dos nutrientes e energia.