It documents MySQL through , as well as MySQL Cluster formats, including HTML and PDF formats, see the MySQL Documentation. MySQL features This manual describes features that are not included in every including HTML and PDF formats, see the MySQL Documentation Library. including HTML and PDF formats, see the MySQL Documentation Library. It documents MySQL through , as well as MySQL Cluster releases based on This manual describes features that are not included in every edition of.
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This is the Reference Manual for the MySQL Database System, version , Other formats also are available there, including HTML, PDF, and Windows CHM . MySQL Reference. Manual. Including MySQL Cluster NDB 6.X/7.X downloadable versions in variety of formats, including HTML, CHM, and PDF formats. It documents MySQL through beta. Due to a build Other formats also are available there, including HTML, PDF, and Windows.
When Privilege Changes Take Effect 5. Causes of Access-Denied Errors 5. User Names and Passwords 5. Adding User Accounts 5.
Removing User Accounts 5.
Setting Account Resource Limits 5. Assigning Account Passwords 5. Running Multiple Servers on Windows 5. Running Multiple Servers on Unix 5. Backup and Recovery Types 6. Database Backup Methods 6.
Backup Policy 6. Using Backups for Recovery 6. Backup Strategy Summary 6. Dumping Data in Delimited-Text Format with mysqldump 6. Reloading Delimited-Text Format Backups 6. Using myisamchk for Crash Recovery 6. Designing Applications for Portability 7.
Using Your Own Benchmarks 7. Estimating Query Performance 7.
Range Optimization 7. Index Merge Optimization 7. Condition Pushdown Optimization 7.
Nested-Loop Join Algorithms 7. Nested Join Optimization 7. Outer Join Simplification 7. How to Avoid Table Scans 7. Other Optimization Tips 7.
Internal Locking Methods 7. Table Locking Issues 7. Concurrent Inserts 7. External Locking 7.
Make Your Data as Small as Possible 7. Column Indexes 7. Multiple-Column Indexes 7. System Factors and Startup Parameter Tuning 7.
Tuning Server Parameters 7. Controlling Query Optimizer Performance 7. Examining Thread Information 7. Enabling Large Page Support 7.
Using Symbolic Links 8. Strings 8. Numbers 8. Date and Time Values 8. Hexadecimal Values 8. Boolean Values 8. Bit-Field Values 8. NULL Values 8.
Identifier Qualifiers 8. Identifier Case Sensitivity 8. Mapping of Identifiers to File Names 8. Function Name Parsing and Resolution 8. Reserved Words 8. User-Defined Variables 8. Comment Syntax 9.
Character Sets and Collations in General 9. Specifying Character Sets and Collations 9. Connection Character Sets and Collations 9.
Configuring the Character Set and Collation for Applications 9. Character Set for Error Messages 9. Collation Issues 9. String Repertoire 9. Operations Affected by Character Set Support 9. Unicode Support 9. UTF-8 for Metadata 9. Column Character Set Conversion 9. Setting the Error Message Language 9.
The Character Definition Arrays 9. String Collating Support 9. Multi-Byte Character Support 9. Collation Implementation Types 9. Choosing a Collation ID 9. Character Set Configuration 9. Staying Current with Time Zone Changes 9. Time Zone Leap Second Support 9.
Overview of Numeric Types Overview of Date and Time Types Overview of String Types Data Type Default Values Numeric Types Year Issues and Date Types The SET Type Data Type Storage Requirements Choosing the Right Type for a Column Operator and Function Reference Operator Precedence Type Conversion in Expression Evaluation Comparison Functions and Operators Logical Operators Control Flow Functions String Comparison Functions Regular Expressions Arithmetic Operators Mathematical Functions Date and Time Functions Natural Language Full-Text Searches Boolean Full-Text Searches Full-Text Searches with Query Expansion Full-Text Stopwords Full-Text Restrictions Cast Functions and Operators XML Functions Bit Functions Encryption and Compression Functions Information Functions Miscellaneous Functions Supported Spatial Data Formats Analyzing Spatial Information Optimizing Spatial Analysis Types of Numeric Values Expression Handling Rounding Behavior Precision Math Examples CALL Syntax DO Syntax Subquery Syntax Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit XA Transactions Account Management Statements Table Maintenance Statements Plugin and User-Defined Function Statements SET Syntax SHOW Syntax Other Administrative Statements Automatic Prepared Statement Repreparation Variables in Stored Programs Conditions and Handlers Cursors Flow Control Constructs HELP Syntax USE Syntax Comparing Transaction and Nontransaction Engines Other Storage Engines Setting the Storage Engine Pluggable Storage Engine Architecture The Common Database Server Layer Space Needed for Keys InnoDB Contact Information InnoDB Configuration InnoDB Multi-Versioning InnoDB Error Handling Restrictions on InnoDB Tables Installation Configuration Options Creating schemas and tables Transaction behavior Principles and Terminology Notes and Limitations Character sets and collations Error codes and trouble-shooting information CSV Limitations Optimizing Performance and Reliability Heartbeat Configuration Dealing with System Level Errors Common Issues with Virtualization Virtualization Resources Installing memcached Using memcached Getting memcached Statistics The Service Architecture Service Features Security Conventions Used in This Document User Roles Service Manager Installation Monitor Agent Installation Unattended Installation Post-Installation Considerations The Server Tree The Server Graphs and Critical Events The Heat Chart Global Settings User Preferences Manage Servers Managing Users Manage Notification Groups Logs The Product Information Screen Setting What's New Configuration Installing and Updating Advisors Scheduling Rules Editing Built-in Rules Creating Advisors and Rules Creating a Custom Data Collection Item The MySQL server software itself and the client libraries use dual-licensing distribution.
They are offered under GPL version 2  , or a proprietary license. Support can be obtained from the official manual. They differ in the scope of services and in price. Additionally, a number of third party organisations exist to provide support and services, including MariaDB and Percona.
MySQL has received positive reviews, and reviewers noticed it "performs extremely well in the average case" and that the "developer interfaces are there, and the documentation not to mention feedback in the real world via Web sites and the like is very, very good".
It was initially created for personal usage from mSQL based on the low-level language ISAM , which the creators considered too slow and inflexible.
Work on version 6 stopped after the Sun Microsystems acquisition. The decision was made to jump to version 8 as the next major version number. S District Court in Boston for "breach of contract, tortious interference with third party contracts and relationships and unfair competition". After the acquisition, an Oracle press release mentioned that the contracts that make the company's software available to MySQL AB would be due for renewal and presumably renegotiation some time in Sun's board of directors unanimously approved the deal.
It was also approved by Sun's shareholders, and by the U.
MySQL Reference Manual
At the same time, some Free Software opinion leaders including Pamela Jones of Groklaw , Jan Wildeboer and Carlo Piana , who also acted as co-counsel in the merger regulation procedure advocated for the unconditional approval of the merger. MySQL is offered under two different editions: When using some storage engines other than the default of InnoDB, MySQL does not comply with the full SQL standard for some of the implemented functionality, including foreign key references.
Up until MySQL 5. MySQL can be built and installed manually from source code, but it is more commonly installed from a binary package unless special customizations are required. On most Linux distributions , the package management system can download and install MySQL with minimal effort, though further configuration is often required to adjust security and optimization settings.
Though MySQL began as a low-end alternative to more powerful proprietary databases, it has gradually evolved to support higher-scale needs as well. It is still most commonly used in small to medium scale single-server deployments, either as a component in a LAMP -based web application or as a standalone database server. Much of MySQL's appeal originates in its relative simplicity and ease of use, which is enabled by an ecosystem of open source tools such as phpMyAdmin.
In the medium range, MySQL can be scaled by deploying it on more powerful hardware, such as a multi-processor server with gigabytes of memory. There are, however, limits to how far performance can scale on a single server 'scaling up' , so on larger scales, multi-server MySQL 'scaling out' deployments are required to provide improved performance and reliability.
A typical high-end configuration can include a powerful master database which handles data write operations and is replicated to multiple slaves that handle all read operations. Further improvements in performance can be achieved by caching the results from database queries in memory using memcached , or breaking down a database into smaller chunks called shards which can be spread across a number of distributed server clusters.
It supports backing up from all storage engines. They are based on Group Replication, open source tools.
MariaDB offers a similar offer in terms of products . Some common deployment models for MySQL on the cloud are:. A graphical user interface GUI is a type of interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices or programs through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
GUIs are easier to learn than command-line interfaces CLIs , which require commands to be typed on the keyboard. Third-party proprietary and free graphical administration applications or "front ends" are available that integrate with MySQL and enable users to work with database structure and data visually.
Some well-known front ends are:. A command-line interface is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user issues commands to the program by typing in successive lines of text command lines.
MySQL ships with many command line tools, from which the main interface is the mysql client. MySQL Utilities is a set of utilities designed to perform common maintenance and administrative tasks. Percona Toolkit was originally developed as Maatkit, but as of late , Maatkit is no longer developed. Other drivers exists for languages like Python  or Node. A variety of MySQL forks exist, including the following. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Old version. Older version, still supported.
Latest version. Latest preview version. Future release. Main article: Cloud database. Computing portal Free and open-source software portal. Retrieved 2 February Project Summary".
Black Duck Software. Expression Handling Rounding Behavior Precision Math Examples SQL Statement Syntax Data Definition Statements Data Manipulation Statements CALL Syntax DO Syntax Subquery Syntax Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit XA Transactions Database Administration Statements Account Management Statements Table Maintenance Statements Plugin and User-Defined Function Statements SET Syntax SHOW Syntax Other Administrative Statements Replication Statements Automatic Prepared Statement Repreparation Variables in Stored Programs Conditions and Handlers Cursors Flow Control Constructs HELP Syntax USE Syntax Storage Engines Comparing Transaction and Nontransaction Engines Other Storage Engines Setting the Storage Engine Pluggable Storage Engine Architecture The Common Database Server Layer Space Needed for Keys InnoDB Contact Information Configuring InnoDB InnoDB Multi-Versioning InnoDB Error Handling Restrictions on InnoDB Tables Installation Configuration Options Creating schemas and tables Transaction behavior Principles and Terminology Notes and Limitations Character sets and collations Error codes and trouble-shooting information CSV Limitations High Availability and Scalability Optimizing Performance and Reliability Using Linux HA Heartbeat Heartbeat Configuration Dealing with System Level Errors MySQL and Virtualization Common Issues with Virtualization Virtualization Resources Using ZFS Replication Using MySQL with memcached Installing memcached Using memcached Getting memcached Statistics MySQL Proxy Overview of the Service The Service Architecture Service Features Security Conventions Used in This Document Installation and Upgrades User Roles Service Manager Installation Monitor Agent Installation Unattended Installation Post-Installation Considerations The Server Tree The Server Graphs and Critical Events The Heat Chart The Settings Page Global Settings User Preferences Manage Servers Managing Users Manage Notification Groups Logs The Product Information Screen The What's New Page Setting What's New Configuration The Advisors Page Installing and Updating Advisors Scheduling Rules Editing Built-in Rules Creating Advisors and Rules Creating a Custom Data Collection Item Disabling and Unscheduling Rules Advisor Blackout Periods The Events Page Closing an Event Notification of Events The Graphs Page Displaying Graphs Setting an Interval Setting a Time Span The Query Analyzer Page Enabling Query Analyzer Getting Detailed Query Information Using Graphs to Identify Queries Filtering Query Analyzer Data Using Query Analyzer Data Troubleshooting Query Analyzer Query Analyzer Settings The Replication Page Replication Page Details Supported Browsers Installation Requirements Configuring Tomcat Parameters Migrating 1.
Replication Replication Configuration How to Set Up Replication Replication Formats Replication and Binary Logging Options and Variables Common Replication Administration Tasks Replication Implementation Replication Implementation Details Replication Relay and Status Files Replication Solutions Using Replication for Backups Using Replication for Scale-Out Replicating Different Databases to Different Slaves Improving Replication Performance Switching Masters During Failover Replication Notes and Tips Replication Features and Issues Upgrading a Replication Setup Replication FAQ Troubleshooting Replication How to Report Replication Bugs or Problems Quick Reference: Abbreviations and Symbols Assumptions and General Requirements Multi-Master and Circular Replication X and 7.
Release Series Changelogs: Partitioning Partitioning Types LIST Partitioning HASH Partitioning KEY Partitioning Subpartitioning Partition Management Maintenance of Partitions Obtaining Information About Partitions Partition Pruning Restrictions and Limitations on Partitioning Partitioning Limitations Relating to Storage Engines Partitioning Limitations Relating to Functions Stored Programs and Views Defining Stored Programs Using Stored Routines Procedures and Functions Stored Routine Syntax Stored Routine Metadata Using Triggers Trigger Syntax Trigger Metadata Using the Event Scheduler Event Scheduler Overview Event Scheduler Configuration Event Syntax Event Metadata Event Scheduler Status Using Views View Syntax View Processing Algorithms Updatable and Insertable Views View Metadata Access Control for Stored Programs and Views Binary Logging of Stored Programs Connectors and APIs Usage Examples Getting Started: Connecting to MySQL References Known Bugs Contact Compiling Programs with libmysqld Options with the Embedded Server Embedded Server Examples Licensing the Embedded Server Controlling Automatic Reconnection Behavior Building Client Programs MySQL Enabling Both mysql and mysqli in PHP Extending MySQL MySQL Internals MySQL Threads Plugin API Characteristics Plugin API Components Types of Plugins Plugin Data Structures and Functions Writing Plugins Features of the User-Defined Function Interface Adding a New User-Defined Function Adding a New Native Function Writing a Procedure Licenses for Third-Party Components A.
Ant-Contrib License A. Apache Commons Collections License A. Apache Commons Digester License A.
Download Percona Server for MySQL 5.1
Apache Commons Lang License A. Apache Commons Logging License A. Apache Commons Pool License A. Apache Commons Validator License A. Apache License Version 2.
Apache log4j License A. Apache log4j Version 1. Apache Tomcat License A. ASM License A. Boost Library License A. LPeg Library License A. OpenSSL v0. Richard A.
Spring Framework License A. General B.
Storage Engines B. Stored Procedures and Functions B. Triggers B.Overview of Numeric Types High Availability and Scalability It supports backing up from all storage engines. Functions and Operators. Table Properties Menu Item The SET Type Explain Query Tab for a Query Document generated on: Index Merge Optimization 7.