Kerala is the state with the lowest positive population growth rate in India (%) and has a A study of the geographical factor in relation to Kerala history. history of raudone.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. history of kerala. Megalithic culture · Maritime contacts · Sangam period · Tamilakam · Cheras · Ays · Ezhil Malai Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 February
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Ay dynasty belonged to the Yadava race. ▫. Paliyam Copper Plate( AD) of Vikramaditya. Varaguna mentions about the Ay rulers. Kerala History. raudone.infope: application/pdf raudone.info: raudone.infofication: History raudone.info: History Of Kerala Vol I. raudone.info Kerala, since the dawn of history to the day remained an integral part of the Indian subcontinent. It is one of the smallest states of the Indian union and comprises.
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A Survey of Kerala History
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Historical records regarding the origin of the Samoothiri of Kozhikode is obscure. However, its generally agreed that the Samoothiri were originally the rulers of Eralnadu region of the Later Chera Kingdom and were known as the Eradis. Eralnadu province was situated in the northern parts of present-day Malappuram district and was landlocked by the Valluvanad and Polanadu in the west.
Legends such as The Origin of Kerala tell the establishment of a local ruling family at Nediyiruppu , near present-day Kondotty by two young brothers belonging to the Eradi clan. The brothers, Manikkan and Vikraman were the most trusted generals in the army of the Cheras. Narayanan , a Kerala-based historian, in his book, Calicut: The City of Truth states that the Eradi was a favourite of the last Later Chera king and granted him, as a mark of favor, a small tract of land on the sea-coast in addition to his hereditary possessions Eralnadu province.
Samoothiri allied with Muslim Arab and Chinese merchants and used most of the wealth from Kozhikode to develop his military power. They became the most powerful king in the Malayalam speaking regions during the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Kozhikode conquered large parts of central Kerala, which was under the control of the king of Kingdom of Kochi.
He was forced to shift his capital c. AD further south. In the 15th century, Kochi was reduced in to a vassal state of Kozhikode. After Vasco Da Gama 's arrival in Kappad Kozhikode in , the Portuguese began to dominate eastern shipping, and the spice-trade in particular. The Samoothiri Maharaja of Kozhikode permitted the Portuguese to trade with his subjects. Their trade in Kozhikode prospered with the establishment of a factory and fort in his territory. However, Portuguese attacks on Arab properties in his jurisdiction provoked the Samoothiri and finally led to conflict.
The Portuguese took advantage of the rivalry between the Samoothiri and Rajah of Kochi —they allied with Kochi and when Francisco de Almeida was appointed Viceroy of Portuguese India in , he established his headquarters at Kochi. During his reign, the Portuguese managed to dominate relations with Kochi and established a number of fortresses along the Malabar Coast. The Portuguese Cemetery, Kollam after the invasion of Dutch , it became Dutch Cemetery of Tangasseri in Kollam city was constructed in around as part of the Portuguese invasion in the city.
Buckingham Canal a small canal between Tangasseri Lighthouse and the cemetery is situated very close to the Portuguese Cemetery.
Thomas Fort and Portuguese Cemetery still exist at Tangasseri. The weakened Portuguese were ousted by the Dutch East India Company , who took advantage of continuing conflicts between Kozhikode and Kochi to gain control of the trade. The Dutch Malabar in turn were weakened by their constant battles with Marthanda Varma of the Travancore Royal Family , and were defeated at the Battle of Colachel in , resulting in the complete eclipse of Dutch power in Malabar.
The Treaty of Mavelikkara was signed by the Dutch and Travancore in , according to which the Dutch were compelled to detach from all political involvements in the region. In the meantime, Marthanda Varma annexed many smaller northern kingdoms through military conquests, resulting in the rise of Travancore to a position of preeminence in Kerala. Hyder Ali and his successor, Tipu Sultan , came into conflict with the British, leading to the four Anglo-Mysore wars fought across southern India in the latter half of the 18th century.
The British concluded treaties of subsidiary alliance with the rulers of Cochin and Travancore , and these became princely states of British India , maintaining local autonomy in return for a fixed annual tribute to the British.
He is popularly known as Kerala Simham Lion of Kerala. Organised expressions of discontent with British rule were not uncommon in Kerala. This resulted in protests against the British by Muslims of the Indian sub-continent known as the Khilafat Movement , which was supported by Mahatma Gandhi in order to draw the Muslims into the mainstream national independence movement. In , the Khilafat Movement in Malabar culminated in widespread riots against the British government and Hindu population in what is now known as the Moplah rebellion.
Kerala also witnessed several social reforms movements directed at the eradication of social evils such as untouchability among the Hindus, pioneered by reformists like Srinarayana guru and Chattambiswami among others. The non-violent and largely peaceful Vaikom Satyagraha of was instrumental in securing entry to the public roads adjacent to the Vaikom temple for people belonging to untouchable castes.
In , Sree Chithira Thirunal Balaramavarma, the ruler of Travancore , issued the Temple Entry Proclamation , declaring the temples of his kingdom open to all Hindu worshipers, irrespective of caste.
The two independent kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin joined the Union of India after India gained independence in The Madras Presidency was reorganised to form Madras State in It initiated pioneering land reforms , aiming to lowering of rural poverty in Kerala. But these reforms were largely non effective to mark a greater change in the society as these changes were not effected to a large extend.
Lakhs of farms were owned by large establishments, companies and estate owners. They were not affected by this move and this was considered as a treachery as these companies and estates were formed by and during the British rule. Two things were the real reason for the reduction of poverty in Kerala one was the policy for wide scale education and second was the overseas migration for labour to Middle east and other countries.
It refused to nationalise the large estates but did provide reforms to protect manual labourers and farm workers, and invited capitalists to set up industry.
The Christians, the land owning communities of Nairs and Namputhiris and the Congress Party protested, with demonstrations numbering in the tens and hundreds of thousands of people. The government controlled the police, which made , arrests often the same people arrested time and again , and used lathi charges to beat back the demonstrators, killing twenty. The opposition called on Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to seize control of the state government.
Nehru was reluctant but when his daughter Indira Gandhi , the national head of the Congress Party, joined in, he finally did so. New elections in cost the Communists most of their seats and Congress resumed control. Later in Kerala elected a series of leftist coalition governments; the most stable was that led by Achutha Menon from to From to , Kunnikkal Narayanan led a Naxalite movement in Kerala.
The theoretical difference in the communist party, i.
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Some are come to the democratic way and some to the extreme, anarchic way. The violence alienated public opinion. The political alliance have strongly stabilised in such a manner that, with rare exceptions, most of the coalition partners stick their loyalty to the alliance. As a result, to this, ever since , the power has been clearly alternating between these two fronts without any change.
Politics in Kerala is characterised by continually shifting alliances, party mergers and splits, factionalism within the coalitions and within political parties, and numerous splinter groups. Modern politics in Kerala is dominated by two political fronts: These two parties have alternating in power since Most of the major political parties in Kerala, except for Bharatiya Janata Party BJP , belong to one or the other of these two alliances, often shifting allegiances a number of time.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Other topics. Geography Economy Architecture Forts. Dravidian civilization South Indian culture Dravidian architecture Dravidian studies. South India Dravida South Asia. Main article: See also: History of Quilon. Saptakakshi Munnani and United Front Kerala. The Hindu. Chennai, India. Smith; A. Williams Jackson 30 November History of India, in Nine Volumes: Cosimo, Inc.
Retrieved 1 August The Hindu Retrieved on Retrieved Pax Indica: India and the World of the Twenty-first Century.
Penguin Books India. Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 3 October Sreedhara Menon Cultural Heritage of Kerala. D C Books. The Travancore State Manual. Travancore Government Press. Singh 1 January Currents in Indian History, Art, and Archaeology. Retrieved 6 October The Indian Encyclopaedia. Cosmo Publications. Retrieved 10 October Franke; Year: A Survey Of Kerala History. DC Books. What's in the name" PDF. Retrieved 7 August Kusuman Mittal Publications. Retrieved 30 May The First Spring: The Golden Age of India.
History Of The Tamils: From the Earliest Times to A. Asian Educational Services. Retrieved 29 December The Eight Anthologies.
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Archived from the original PDF on 20 February Retrieved 23 September History of ancient geography — Google Books. Retrieved 30 July Krishna Reddy. Indian History. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. Retrieved 5 October Allan, T. Wolseley Haig, H. Dodwell The Cambridge Shorter History of India.
Cambridge University Press. CS1 maint: Multiple names: History And Civics 6. Pearson Education India. Political History of Modern Kerala.
The Serpent of Paradise: The Story of an Indian Pilgrimage. Routledge and Kegan Paul. Travels Madraspublication. Eerdmans Publishing - , Page Oxford University Press. The Indian Christians of St Thomas. Saints, Goddesses and Kings. The Jews of China. Who Are the Jews of India? University of California Press.
history of Kerala.pdf
Miller Hindu-Christian Dialogue: Perspectives and Encounters. Motilal Banarsidass Publications. Balachandran Nayar In quest of Kerala. Accent Publications. Retrieved 8 August The Geography of India: Arabs and Phoenicians were also successful in establishing their prominence in the Kerala trade during this early period. Vasco-da-Gama reached Kerala in a ship called St. Menon of Cochin State. Muziris, Tyndis, Barace and Nelcynda were the famous sea ports in ancient Kerala.
The treaty of which was negotiated by Velu Thampi Dalawa resulted in the loss of the political freedom of Travancore.