Ins and Outs of Prepositions - Jean Yates - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Practical exercises for learners in order to. The Preposition Book: Practice toward Mastering English Prepositions. use prepositions teach english esl students along the book preposition learn helpful practice spanish confusing language usage worksheets. It offers sixty some-odd prepositions, arranged alphabetically, with. Next >. Page i. The Ins and Outs of Prepositions by Jean Yates. 1 / A-PDF CHM TO PDF DEMO: download from raudone.info to remove the watermark.
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PDF created with pdfFactory trial version raudone.info . The Ins and Outs of Prepositions is designed to take the mystery out of prepositions for those . Ins and Outs of prepositions, The book. Read 6 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Though written primarily for students of English a. The Ins and Outs of Prepositions. Document Part One: The Prepositions . PDF] Ins And Outs Of Prepositions, The: A Guidebook For ESL.
I wish I could make you understand that I'm not interested in selling my car. Their bad behavior caused a lot of complaints in the community. This all happened very quickly. We need a babysitter to take care of the baby this Saturday. With four small children, she is faced with a lot of stress. My friend arrived first, and was ahead of me in line. You are in a hurry; please go ahead of me.
E Ahead of can mean more advanced than. Because he was absent for two weeks, the other students in his class are ahead of him.
Ins and Outs of prepositions, The: A Guidebook for ESL Students
Typical verbs before along: jog, run, stroll, walk f Along with means together. Typical verbs used before along with: hum, play, run, sing, walk, work E Expressions all along adverb -the whole past time They have been enemies all along. Typical verbs before among: argue, celebrate, debate, discuss something, fight, play, share something, talk 8 Among can mean to the individuals in a group. Typical verbs before among: distribute, hand out, pass out 0 Among can mean included in a group.
Your friends are among the survivors. E Among can indicate many of a group. Latin dancing is popular among the college students. Verbs commonly used before around: drive, fly, race, ride, run, skip, travel, walk Nouns commonly used after around: block, building, house, room, track, world f Around adverb indicates movement in a circular direction in place. Typical verbs used before around: spin, turn, whirl Expressions: 1. E Around means enclosing. Verbs commonly used with this pattern: draw, fasten, put, tie, wrap 0 All around means in all areas of.
There is crime all around this city. C All around can mean on all sides of. People were screaming all around me. The bank is around the corner.
Their farm is just around the bend. Expressions: 1. I'll see you at around three o'clock. Verbs often used before around: drive, flit, go, jump, look, march, move, play, run, search, shop, snoop, walk, wander 0 Around can mean do nothing. Verbs used before around: drag, fool, goof, hang, lie, lurk, mope, sit! Expression give someone the runaround-avoid taking action by giving long explanations When I tried to return my broken air conditioner, the store manager gave me the runaround.
Phrasal verbs get around intransitive -often visit a lot of places and meet a lot of people He seems to know everybody; he really gets around. Typical verbs: choose, elect, nominate, pick, select, use 8 Expression as for me-regarding me They all went to the movies; as for me, I stayed home.
Use ahead of, along, among, around, and as to complete the exercises in this section. In some cases, there is more than one possible answer.
Fill in each blank with the most appropriate of these prepositions. Her husband volunteers a soccer coach. Her partner whirled her the dance floor.
Her son was the finalists in the competition. My mom always sings with the radio when she's in the car. The package will be prettier if you put a ribbon 8. There are people who need help all They broke into the line, and now they are us. They selected me their representative. We've been driving the neighborhood looking for a place to park. Match each preposition in the left column with its definition s in the right column. Her son works very hard to succeed. I hope you will finally make an effort to clean up your room.
It would be great if everybody could live together without fighting. Most of us were having fun. Regarding your brother, he just sat there by himself. Okay, do it! She is always with that tall, skinny fellow. He likes to sit in her apartment at the window facing the park. Nouns commonly used with this pattern: counter, desk, table, window f At indicates a place of attendance.
We aren't allowed to watch television when we are at dinner. She is at a meeting. Nouns commonly used with this pattern: breakfast, brunch, celebration, concert, conference, dance, debate, dinner, forum, function, funeral, game, lecture, luncheon, meeting, movies, parade, party, play, program, reading, reunion, show, wedding 6 At can indicate in the direction of; toward.
They went home at midnight. We always eat lunch at noon. Expressions with this meaning: at first- when something started At first we thought this hike would be easy. We shudder at the thought of moving again. He is excited at the prospect of going to South America. He has been at it for four hours.
Expression: keep at it- not stop working He wanted to go home, but he kept at it until the work was finished. C At can indicate a condition. Nouns used after at: attention, ease, peace, rest, risk, war Expression: sick at heart-sad We were sick at heart when the dog died. Verbs commonly used before at: cheer, grumble, guess, hint, hoot, laugh, rebel, rejoice, snort, tremble E At indicates a degree of skill.
Typical adjectives used before at: bad, excellent, good, great, lousy, skilled, terrible Expression: be an old hand at-be very experienced with Our professor is an old hand at government operations. I wish we could download mangoes at that price.
Her husband tries to download everything at a discount. Pattern 2: indicating a unit of measurement They are selling apples 69C a lb. He was still singing at the age of eighty. We can't see very well at this distance. The plane was flying at three thousand feet. Expressions: at a distance- from far away I saw the new baby at a distance, and he looked beautiful.
At twenty-five miles an hour on the freeway, she should get a ticket. Exception: When speed is expressed in numbers after a verb, at is omitted. That driver is going eighty miles an hour. He drove sixty miles an hour the whole way home. G At can indicate the highest possible degree in value.
At least she comes to work every day. You should be here by five o'clock at the latest. Superlatives commonly used with this pattern: best, least, most, worst the earliest, the latest 4D Expressions be at an advantage-be in a better-than-average position He is at an advantage because his family has influence.
Phrasal verb pick at something nonseparable -agitate with one's fingernails The child picked at the scab on his knee. The children went back to the museum to see the new exhibit.
Typical verbs: bring, carry, drive, pull, push, take f Back from indicates return to a starting place from a different place. We can't leave until your mother gets back from her trip. Typical verbs before back from: be, come, drive, fly, get, move, run, walk 8 Back indicates a return of something. I took the dress back to the store because it didn't fit.
Typical verbs: call, bring, pay, put, take 0 Phrasal verbs get back intransitive -move out of the way We wanted to see the action, but they made us get back. We must leave before four o'clock. She is so ambitious that she puts her job before her family. Q Before can mean facing. The handsome singer had many adoring fans before him. The bride smiled as she thought of the happiness before her.
I was told to appear before the judge. The trash can is behind the chair. My friend sits behind me in class.
Miss Thompson's class is studying lesson three; the other classes are studying lesson four. Miss Thompson's class is behind the other classes. C Behind can mean left in the past. He is rich now; all his financial problems are behind him.
Those candidates have a lot of money behind them. There must be a greedy person behind this scheme. Typical nouns after behind: a person or people idea, plan, plot, project, scheme 0 Expressions behind the scenes-not seen The lawyer knew all the facts about the case; he had a lot of help behind the scenes.
Your body temperature is ninety-seven degrees; it is below normal, which is ninety-eight point six.
In our company the supervisors are below the directors. Our offices are on the fourth floor; theirs are below ours, on the third floor. There is a picnic ground just below the bridge. That was really below the belt. Use the prepositions at, back, back to, back from, before, behind, and below to complete the exercises in this section.
Fill in each blank with the most appropriate of these prepostions. Are you good math? I have to study hard so I won't be the other students. My son is baseball practice right now. She will be very surprised this good news. The actor puts his career the interests of his family. The doctor says I'm okay and that I can go work. Careful — you're messing my hair. This particular variety flowers in July.
I tiptoed over to the window.
A vein pulsed in his temple. OALD In 5a tiptoeN becomes tiptoeV, which means to move on tiptoes, and in 5b pulseV carries the meaning of moving in a pulsing way. In 6a sunV means to warm or tan by means of the sun, and signalV in 6b means to make a signal in order to indicate the direction of movement: 6 a.
We lay sunning ourselves on the deck. The cyclist signalled and turned right. They're weekending in Paris. They summered at a beach resort. The fruit is washed, sorted and bagged at the farm. OALD 84 b. We bedded our guests down in the study. In both sentences 9a and 9b the nouns denoting the place where the action takes place function as verbs. The meaning of schoolV is to learn at school and the meaning of gardenV is to work in the garden: 9 a.
She was schooled in London. MED b. I was gardening when you phoned. Double metonymy In some cases of noun-to-verb conversion it is possible to distinguish double metonymy. Kosecki has claimed that double metonymies are strictly related to the process motivating the creation of meaning in conversion. The directions of overlapping metonymical mappings in this example have been presented in Figure 2: Figure 2. Metonymical mappings underlying the use of the conversion fishN to fishV in the sentence The boys were fishing for trout.
Metonymical mappings underlying the conversion motorN to motorV in the sentence We motored down the Oxford for the day. Metaphorical extensions in noun-to-verb conversion The creation of meaning in verbified nouns can also be ascribed to the process of metaphorization Twardzisz , Dirven , Balteiro , Martsa The mapping always involves the source domain which is partially projected onto the target domain.
Ins and Outs Preposition
What is important, metaphorical extension does not exclude the metonymical mapping, but rather the opposite: metonymy functions within the converted verbs together with metaphor, producing complex patterns of conceptualization.
Goossens calls the phenomenon of the interaction between metaphor and metonymy metaphtonymy : However, Barcelona distinguishes between two general patterns of the interaction between metaphor and metonymy: the interaction at the conceptual level and purely textual co-instantiations of metaphor and metonymy in the same linguistic expression, when both phenomena can in fact function separately.
The metaphor-metonymy interaction can follow one of the two patterns: it can be either metonymical conceptual motivation of metaphor, or metaphorical conceptual motivation of metonymy Ibid. The former can be said to correspond to what Goossens : has called metaphor from metonymy or metaphor within metonymy, when the experiential basis for metaphor is metonymy; the latter is in line with metonymy within metaphor, when metonymy functioning in the target domain is embedded into a metaphor.
Metaphtonymy at the textual level As it has been shown in section 3, the conceptual mapping underlying the meaning of converted verbs can be ascribed to metonymy, or sometimes double metonymy.
Metonymical mappings can exist in nouns converted into verbs independently, or they can function in those verbs within ontological metaphors. Thus, the meaning of fatherV is to create the plan of improving the roads. No such metaphor can be identified in 2b , where the object of the action is constituted by human beings over 20 children : 12 He fathered the plan of improving the state of local roads.
He nursed troops at the general hospital in Riyadh. She was nursing her hurt pride. Now, nurseV acquires the meaning of taking care of the hurt pride in a fashion similar to a nurse taking care of her patients. Again, no such metaphorical extensions can be observed in example 13a , in which the agent works as a nurse, and the object of the action troops is constituted by human beings.
However, it is possible to find the same metonymies within metaphorical extensions, as shown in examples 14a and 14b : 14 a.
The Hong Kong dollar was yoked to the American dollar for many years. She stopped and fished for her door key. Dirven has claimed that in certain verbified nouns, such as fishV, the metaphorical extension of meaning is related to the change of the syntactical features of the verb, for instance, the requirement of a preposition, as in 14b. However, as it has been shown in example 10 , in the case of double metonymy in fishV, it is possible to find examples followed by a prepositional phrase and not being subject to metaphorical extension.
The meaning of the same verb can be motivated by vegetalization, and yet can preserve the same metonymy, as shown in 15 , in which the metonymy functions within the metaphor TALENT IS A PLANT, and thus the verb acquires the meaning of becoming successful and well developed like a plant producing flowers: 15 His musical talent flowered in his twenties.
The flowers stem from the leaf axils. Many of her problems stem from her family. MED The meaning of stemV in 16b is that the problems grow out from or are caused by the family, in a similar way as flowers grow out from the leaf axils in 16a.
Twardzisz In the above sentence, drillV means to teach using some tasks as if they were a drill. The same metonymy can operate within drillV by itself, as shown in example 1a. A similar pattern of conceptualization can be observed in examples 18a and 18b : 18 a. She hammered the nail into the wall. A stream of blue movies hammered fancy ideas into his head.
Metaphtonymy at the conceptual level In addition to the cases of metaphtonymy at the textual level it is possible to find examples of metaphorically extended verbified nouns in which the metonymical mapping interacting with a given metaphor does not occur autonomously, without the metaphorical extension. In a similar way to metaphtonymies functioning at the textual level, the ones on the conceptual level in noun-to-verb conversion can include such kinds of ontological metaphors as personification, animalizations, vegetalizations, and reifications.
Personification can be illustrated by the following sentence: 19 The mayor will head the procession through the town centre. However, it can be said that in this case the object is humanized rather than personified, as suggested by Krzeszowski who differentiates between personification and humanization, which he perceives as two separate conceptual processes.
While in personification the object is conceived of as a human being and a character participating in some action as one of dramatis personae, in humanization no such entailment is present, thus the process is perceived more as a kind of anthropomorphization. Nevertheless, it needs to be mentioned that it is possible to find other examples of the use of headN converted to headV, in which the only conceptual mapping will be metonymy, for instance: 20 Jones headed the ball straight into the net.
Therefore, now headV acquires the meaning to hit with the head. For instance: 21 a. We used to ape the teacher's southern accent. OALD 49 b. Photographers dogged the princess all her adult life. MED In 21a apeN functions as apeV with the meaning to imitate someone in a fashion typical of apes, and in a similar vein in 21b dogN becomes dogV, carrying the meaning of following someone in an annoying way in a fashion typical of a dog.
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It is impossible to find such examples of those converted verbs in which the metonymy functions without the underlying metaphor. However, one may say: 22 a. The chimpanzee used to ape the teacher's accent. Puppies dogged the princess all her adult life.
Thus, the verbified form apeV means now to imitate someone in a fashion typical of people, and dogV means to follow someone in an annoying way in a fashion typical of people. Such sentences are probably found in texts or utterances whose authors intend to be humorous. In vegetalizations the source domain for the metaphorical mappings is constituted by the domain PLANT. Study the examples below: 23 a. After work he just vegs out — just sits there and says nothing.
Her cheeks were rosing on her pale skin. What is important, the metonymies underlying the meaning of vegV and roseV cannot exist in those converted verbs without any metaphorical extension, for instance with reference to plants as subjects, as they describe certain ways of behaviour typical of human beings.
The examples below illustrate this problem: 24 a. The carrots veg out. The begonia rosed. In the same way as in the animalizations presented in 22a and 22b , both sentences 24a and 24b seem to be possible, provided that the plant in the position of the subject is personified, which may occur, for instance, in the case of allegory.
Metaphtonymy at the conceptual level based on the metaphorical mapping from the source domain of OBJECTS can be illustrated by the following sentence: 25 The music of the time mirrored the feeling of optimism in the country. Thus, mirrorV acquires the meaning of reflecting the feelings as if in the mirror.
It seems unlikely that one can find the converted verb used metonymically without the metaphorical extension added to it.Please enter manually: She can't find her dog, and she is very upset.
New York City: Welcome back. There was no cheating. We aren't allowed to watch television when we are at dinner. Nouns often used after above: The handsome singer had many adoring fans before him. She wanted to hurt her roommate, in revenge.
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