Results 1 - 16 of MUQADDUS JUNG - URDU TRANSLATION OF HOLY WAR. by K ARMSTRONG and AHSAN BHATT. Currently unavailable. Read History Books in Urdu online Free تاریخ کی کتابیں - Large collection of History Books of Pakistan, India, World, Wars & Islam in Urdu, written by famous. کتاب و سنت ڈاٹ کام ویب سائٹ پر یہ تمام کتب موجود ہیںAuthentic Islamic books in Urdu, the largest online store. Scripture and Sunni com All.
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86 books based on votes: پیر کامل by Umera Ahmed, Raja Gidh / راجه گدھ by Bano Qudsia, Here is list of my favourite Urdu books written by Urdu writers. This book contains complete history and biography of Saddam Hussain the ex- president of Iraq in Urdu language. Learn the complete story of Shaheed Saddam. Explore Inam Ullah's board "Urdu History Books" on Pinterest. See more ideas about Book categories, Book format and File size.
Hence, modernity was very much a part of being a colonial subject of the British Empire in India. Rahman 26 These modern values were to be imbued in the textbooks as well. A corollary of this regard for naturalism was a fascin- ation with global geography and an exploration of its many wonders.
This was true not just for Urdu but for Hindi textbooks as well. Summarising the contents of a Hindi reader published in , Orsini comments "Simple natural and physical descriptions of nature, a poem in praise of education and a final one on God who is presented as a well-meaning creator without sectarian specifications, concluded the book" The Urdu textbooks for colonial Punjab during the twentieth century followed a similar pattern.
Iqbal, in collaboration with Hakim Ahmad Shuja , compiled four Urdu textbooks for the students from class five to eight. While at the time of publication of Tarikh-i- Hind in , Iqbal was a prominent Muslim poet and intellectual, by s and s he had been knighted, participated in the round table conference and been elected to the Punjab Legislative Council as well.
All his four textbooks carried the requisite ingredients described above. In the preface for the class six textbook, the compilers refer to the need of texts which, while maintaining a literary quality and content which held the interest of the students, should be reflective of the recent trends in the language which had opened it up to new developments in world literature and rational sciences.
In addition, Iqbal and Shuja vowed to cultivate love for the motherland madar-i- watan ki muhabbat , moral values and an ethical worldview which would make students bold rather than timid. The textbook for grade five starts with a poem by Altaf Husain Hali.
It also carries an essay by Hali on the "Blessings of the British Empire" in which he talks about the chaos and violence preceding the coming of the British and advancements made in industry, promotion of education and main- tenance of law and order because of their benevolent rule in India. In addition, there are chapters on such diverse figures as Queen Victoria and Helen Keller, and themes including good health and gluttony.
The textbook for class six has a more interesting mix of poetry and essays on such themes and personalities as Raja Harish Chandar, James Fergusson and Alexander the Great. For class seven and eight, compilers included "marsiyas" by Mir Anis and poems or essays on Ramchandra 'ji' and his exile. Written for class six it starts with this couplet: Hum Bharat Mata ki Sewa mai tan man dhan ko laga dain gay, Hum kaisay Jawan hain Bharat ke ye duniya ko dikhla dain gay. It talks about the religious plurality and philosophical and scientific achievements of India.
Iqbal did not choose his famous poem Saare jahan se acha Hindustan humara which has become a national song in independent India. But even this poem and others included by him for the textbook were published or reprinted at a time when Iqbal had become a strong critic of the Western idea of nationalism and was clearly developing conceptual alternatives within Islamic religious traditions. There were other prominent members of the Urdu literati who also wrote or compiled textbooks, although no one could quite compete with the towering stature of Iqbal.
One such example is a textbook written by Sayyid Mumtaz Ali, first published in It carries a specimen of "natural poetry" in the form of a poem on dawn and exemplifies the geographical imaginary of the period by including a chapter titled Bambai se London From Bombay to London. The textbook also tries to connect to the wider world with a chapter on the discovery of Australia Ali a.
One textbook, Urdu Middle Course, Hissa Chaharam Athween Jamat ke liyay, is an interesting example of how the various religious and historical traditions of Punjab were accommodated. It has various chapters on historical figures such as Aristotle, the Maha Kavi great poet Kalidas, and cities like Taxila and Constantinople.
The geographical landscape of its contents is extensive as well, with chapters on Nagpur, Rangoon, Gwalior, Bhopal and Lucknow along with "Negros of Nigeria" and the people of Japan.
The Postcolonial Continuities and Discontinuities There was a visible continuity in the content of Urdu textbooks, and to some degree in that of history textbooks, between the colonial and postcolonial periods. The title of the book carries a small Pakistani flag which is the only visible change to have taken place as the contents of the FORUM book remain the same. One of its couplet is: hamrah apnay bun mai mujhe Nath lay chalo, rekha tmharay charnon ki hon saath lay chalo.
Take me besides you to the jungle of your banishment O Lord protector I'm meant to follow your footsteps take me with you. Translation my own.
In the early s, the education department of the Punjab Govern- ment, in addition to school textbooks, commissioned the publication of books which carried historical tales.
The purpose of these books, as noted by one of the authors in the preface, was that children like to listen to stories. The stories written were to be such that they would inspire children with courage and the sentiment to help others, build their character and motivate them to serve the nation, religion, country and the humanity at large Tarikhi Kahaniyan a.
These books had stories about Moses, Umar b. Qasim, Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Iqbal among others. The chapter on Ram Chandar 'Ji' is about his bin bas or exile.
The content of such storybooks published by the newly constituted Textbook Board became explicitly Islamic in the s. Even when some early changes were made in the textbooks, they were mainly concerned with expunging material relating to non- Muslims.
Makhdumi as editor Aala Urdu There was some religious content in the form of hamd and marsiya poems. This too is included because it corresponds to the concept of 'natural FORUM poetry', rather than choosing from his more explicit poetry glorifying Islam, which became a norm for the later period. While a clear break with past practices begins in the s, some visible changes could be seen in the s as well.
It starts with a chapter on "Bismillah". It is about a seven-year-old boy called Khalid. There are no chapters on personalities and events of 'general' or 'global' interest. With a lesser degree, the same holds true for the idea of history and its teaching in the postcolonial period. Zaidi The first 18 chapters focus on the pre-Muslim period with an introductory chapter on the geogra- phy of India in its entirety, the people of India and the sources of Indian history.
One obvious reason for this continuity was that it was not imme- diately possible to change the content of textbooks. But the fact that the content changed little till the late s and only got a systematic ideological reorientation in the s clearly shows the transitive and evolutionary nature of the concepts and ideologies which were devel- oped to shape the contours of Muslim identity and Pakistani nationa- lism.
He saw the root cause of this deficiency in the education system which failed to articulate a vision of Islam compatible with the national needs of Pakistan. One of his earliest measures was, therefore, to setup a commission on national education in The main task of this com- mission was to stress "the need for a reorganisation and reorientation of the existing education system so as to evolve a national system which would better reflect our spiritual, moral, and cultural values" Report of the Commission 1.
The idea was to use Islamic ideology to develop citizens of the modern state. Only then the project of a modern Islamic citizenry could be realised through the medium of education. The commission did not simply envisage the ideal citizen and his making through education, but emphasised the need for an emotional, personal link with the country and the basis for which it stood. As the report said, a citizen must have a deep and abiding love for his country [ A flag hoisting ceremony was to take place at least once a month.
Similar activities were recommended for colle- ges on a weekly basis.
For primary and middle classes, the syllabus was to be prepared by the Directorate of Public Instruction; for secon- dary and higher secondary education, by the Intermediate Education Boards; and for polytechnic institutes by the Board of Technical Education. At times, the textbook board would appoint a committee of experts to write a particular textbook in accordance with the syllabus or ask for manuscripts through open bidding Ahmad In its deliberations, the committee pointed out the measures taken so far to achieve the stated goals.
While religious instruction had been made compulsory from class one to eight, it observed, proposals were floated for "promoting love of the country within the framework of Muslim nationalism" Ideology of Muslim Nationalism 6.
This required spelling out the concept of Muslim nationalism in clear terms. The syllabi of Social Studies for classes one to ten were thoroughly overhauled with special emphasis on Islamic ideology and a message of Muslim nationalism.
Similar developments were reported by the textbook committee of East Pakistan. There was to be a section on citizenship as well, with discussions relating to the concept of citizenship, the obligations of a citizen, the concept of democracy and the welfare state; student participation in charitable and welfare societies of the school, such as Boy Scouts, Girl Guides, Junior Red Cross Society, was to be encouraged ibid.
The most drastic disconnect with the past could be seen in Urdu textbooks produced since the late s. There were no more privately published textbooks. All textbooks were still compiled by a panel of eminent writers but their content had become overtly Islamic.
The poems of Iqbal included in this textbook are Fatima b. But this was simply a temporary deviation, as ideological indoctrination was re-introduced in the s. The curri- culum committee for Urdu in clearly specified the aims and objectives of the curriculum to be understanding and following the teachings of Prophet Muhammad, the Companions, the Ahl-i-Bait and eminent spiritual religious personalities and to love the Islamic world, respect the revered figures, books and places of worship of other religions and to be aware of the virtues fazilat of Jihad Nisab-i-Urdu A special textbook was prepared for this level by the joint effort of the Federal Ministry of Education, the Uni- versity Grants Commission and Allama Iqbal Open University among other institutions.
Safdar Mehmood among others. It skipped the entire period of pre-Muslim history and the physical geography of the subcontinent. This has since become the standard pattern for all the textbooks for Pakistan studies for matriculation, intermediate and undergraduate studies. The historical legacy of the pre-Muslim period was disowned and the physical geography of the entire region became irrelevant.
Pakistan was no longer to seek its historical roots and traditions in South Asia but in the wider Muslim world. The 'exotic' was not the far flung tribes of Africa or the South Pole but the 'familiar' geography of the Muslim world and its rivers.
Conclusion The vernacular textbooks during the colonial period were not devoid of an ideological agenda.
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The notion of fact-based history was intended for the pre-colonial part of Indian history. The same approach was not used for the colo- nial period of Indian history, which clearly reflected a positive bias in favour of British rule and its various civilisational contributions.
It was not, in other words, a critical understanding but particular ideologised schemata of the Indian past which were promoted through vernacular textbooks. That such an idea about the past was fiercely contested can be seen in other narratives about the past in multiple forms ranging from scholarly works on history to historical fiction and poetry.
So while Iqbal had to operate within the disciplinary regime of the colonial state in contributing to a textbook on history, his literary works and political- philosophical writings suggested a totally different outlook.
The osten- sible notion of religious neutrality is also eroded in the case of Urdu textbooks of colonial Punjab, when we consider the fact that religion or religious inspired moral lessons were added for the moral progress of colonial subjects.
Rather than necessarily adding to pluralistic coexis- tence, this exacerbated the demand for separate schooling systems for different religious communities. The idea of imperial cosmopolitanism was thinly veiled under geography lessons on different continents and their races, while the concepts about literature were expressed in the form of natural poetry in Urdu textbooks.
The ideologisation of textbooks can as such be seen as a point of continuity between the colonial and postcolonial periods in terms of policy, albeit with an emphasis on a different set of values. But this link with the colonial antecedent also shows the impact of political exigencies in shaping the content of textbooks and the possibilities which exist in reshaping them.
This is clearly drawn out in the case of both history and Urdu textbooks. Similarly, the themes, poets and their particular verses selec- ted for Urdu textbooks are more reflective of the shifting nature of the political agenda being followed than a development in the literary tradition of the language itself. It is then not the content of textbooks as such but the textbook culture itself, which includes both its pedago- gical limitations and ideological burden, that needs to be re-imagined in order for a more meaningful transition from colonial subject hood to postcolonial citizenry.
To Jack Clift I am grateful for his careful reading of the text and suggesting various improvements in it. See: Topdar Diamond These are from different years and not always the recommended text for the same class. Aap mai Arab ke Qabila Quresh mai shehr Macca mai paida howay. Lahore: Gulab Chand Kapur and Sons, , pp. See Nayyar , pp. It was still being taught in postcolonial Pakistan while carrying a distinct imprint of colonial emphasis on naturism.
It starts with a chapter on Sun. See: Rosser , Lahore: Mehakma Talim. Adab paray. Lahore: Punjab Textbook Board. There are more than reported judgments to his name.
He also advocated for an independent Muslim state. Iqbal as a Barrister-at-Law Iqbal ceased practising law in and was granted a pension by the Nawab of Bhopal. In his final years, he frequently visited the Dargah of famous Sufi Ali Hujwiri in Lahore for spiritual guidance. After suffering for months from his illness, Iqbal died in Lahore on 21 April A night view of the tomb Legacy[ edit ] Iqbal is commemorated widely in Pakistan, where he is regarded as the ideological founder of the state.
His Tarana-e-Hind is a song that is widely used in India as a patriotic song speaking of communal harmony. His birthday is annually commemorated in Pakistan as Iqbal Day. Allama Iqbal Stamps Society was established for the promotion of Iqbaliyat in philately and in other hobbies.
Javaid Manzil was Iqbal's last residence. Efforts and influences[ edit ] Further information: Pakistan Movement As Iqbal was interested in the national affairs since his youth and he had got considerable recognition after his return in from England by Punjabi elite, he was closely associated with Mian Muhammad Shafi. He was a critic of the mainstream Indian National Congress , which he regarded as dominated by Hindus , and was disappointed with the League when during the s, it was absorbed in factional divides between the pro-British group led by Sir Muhammad Shafi and the centrist group led by Jinnah.
Iqbal third , Syed Zafarul Hasan sixth at Aligarh Muslim University In November , with the encouragement of friends and supporters, Iqbal contested the election for a seat in the Punjab Legislative Assembly from the Muslim district of Lahore, and defeated his opponent by a margin of 3, votes. Discontent with factional leaders like Muhammad Shafi and Fazl-ur-Rahman, Iqbal came to believe that only Jinnah was a political leader capable of preserving unity and fulfilling the League's objectives of Muslim political empowerment.
Building a strong, personal correspondence with Jinnah, Iqbal was an influential force in convincing Jinnah to end his self-imposed exile in London, return to India and take charge of the League. Iqbal firmly believed that Jinnah was the only leader capable of drawing Indian Muslims to the League and maintaining party unity before the British and the Congress: I know you are a busy man but I do hope you won't mind my writing to you often, as you are the only Muslim in India today to whom the community has right to look up for safe guidance through the storm which is coming to North-West India and, perhaps, to the whole of India.
Some historians postulate that Jinnah always remained hopeful for an agreement with the Congress and never fully desired the partition of India. Iqbal elucidated to Jinnah his vision of a separate Muslim state in a letter sent on 21 June A separate federation of Muslim Provinces, reformed on the lines I have suggested above, is the only course by which we can secure a peaceful India and save Muslims from the domination of Non-Muslims.
Why should not the Muslims of North-West India and Bengal be considered as nations entitled to self-determination just as other nations in India and outside India are. Nevertheless, Iqbal worked constantly to encourage Muslim leaders and masses to support Jinnah and the League. Speaking about the political future of Muslims in India, Iqbal said: There is only one way out. Muslims should strengthen Jinnah's hands. They should join the Muslim League.
Indian question, as is now being solved, can be countered by our united front against both the Hindus and the English. Without it, our demands are not going to be accepted. Thank God, you didn't miss Deewan e Ghalib at least! However, we must give credit to the author that he has made us re-count the master pieces of Urdu literature.
My list will start from a book of Manto and end with a book of Manto. In between there would only be Manto. A good list of urdu books but how can be it considered complete without the great prose work of Wasif Ali Wasif. Khalifa I salute you for mentioning Shafiq sahib's name here dear sir.. I am his 'biggest' fan on earth: Dear reader, online ads enable us to deliver the journalism you value.
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Twitter Share. Kulliyat-i-Insha Allah Khan Insha: Aab-i-hayat Kala pani: Sanam khana-i-ishq: A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi and English: Platts Umrao jaan ada: Urdu grammar by Moulvi Abdul Haq. Kulliyat-i-Zafar Ali Khan: Noor-ul-lughaat Prem Chand ke afsaane: Manto ke afsaane: Majmooa Hasan Askari: Pitras ke mazameen: Pitras ke mazameen Mazaameen-i-Saleem Ahmed: Encyclopaedia Pakistanica: Bajang aamad: Urdu ki aakhri kitab: Aag ka darya: Khuda ki basti: Dunya gol hai: Safar dar safar: Urdu shaeri ka mizaaj: Wazir Agha Kulliyat-e-Aziz Hamid Madani: Khama bagosh ke qalam se: Aam lisaniyaat: Ma fiz-zameer: Falsafe ke bunyadi masail: Aanandi by Ghulam Abbas Urdu imla: Yadon ki baraat: Nuskha haae vafa: Faiz Ahmed Faiz.
Kulliyat-i-Josh Maleehabadi: Kulliyat-i-Majeed Amjad: Any novel by Ibn-i-Safi: Read more. Two accused escape from SC after bail pleas dismissed. On DawnNews. Comments 58 Closed Popular Newest Oldest. Mar 16, Recommend 0. Ibn-i-safi Aamir Riaz. Umera Ahmed novels like peer e kamil and amrabail should have been included.Report of the Commission on National Education.
Umera Ahmed. Masood Haider. Rashid: collected poetical works. Her sister was the mother of director and music composer Khwaja Khurshid Anwar.
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