Emotion in the Human Face: Guidelines for Research and an Integration of Findings reviews research findings about the link between the face and emotion and. correlated rating profiles of emotions in faces and voices were found which suggests a similarity in emotion .. 3 Children's Emotion Recognition in Human Voice and Face. raudone.info pdf. THE EXPRESSION OF EMOTION BY MEANS OF. THE HUMAN BODY the human face was. Charles LeBrun . content/uploads//07/Basic-Emotions. pdf.

Emotion In The Human Face Pdf

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Face detection and analysis More human-like human-computer, and human- SurpriseAnger. Sadness. Smiling face Frown face. Tongue out. Tired face. Adolphs / RECOGNIZING EMOTION FROM FACES. Recognizing Emotion From nisms in the adult human brain, investigations are also being extended to. PDF | The ability to read emotions from faces is a very important skill. Human beings around the world have similar brain structure and use.

Keep in mind that ignoring human needs is not a history we are doomed to repeat. Through our designs, we can see and connect with other human beings. So where do we start? Maslow illustrated his ideas in a pyramid he called the Hierarchy of Needs fig 1. E m ot i o n a l D e s i g n 5 Maslow stressed that the physiological needs at the base of this hierarchy must be met first.

The need to breathe, eat, sleep, and answer the call of nature trump all other needs in our life. From there, we need a sense of safety.

Next, we need a sense of belonging. We need to feel loved and intimately connected to other humans. This helps us get to the next level: a sense of self, a respect for others, and the confidence we need to excel in life. Once all other needs are met, we can fulfill our need to be creative, to solve problems, and to follow a moral code to serve others. We could certainly live contented lives meeting only the bottom three strata of the needs pyramid—physiological comfort, safety, and belonging.

Interface design is design for humans. It might look something like this fig 1. Remember when Apple released Ping? It was their attempt at building a social network around your iTunes music library. The interface must be reliable. If the web server drops out intermittently, or the service is otherwise unreliable, a user will leave.

An interface must be usable. It should be relatively easy to learn to perform basic tasks quickly, without a lot of relearning. Ever tried to book a flight online?

Historically, usability has been the zenith of interface design. Imagine if we used that stick to measure success in the auto industry. Many websites and applications are creating an even better experience.

What if an interface could help you complete a critical task and put a smile on your face? Well, that would be powerful indeed! We need a new yardstick to measure the success of our designs.

We can transcend usability to create truly extraordinary experiences. With a zeal for simplicity and spartan design, they create eminently functional, reliable, and usable web apps. With few major changes over the years, the interface is predictable, usable, and requires almost no relearning. The same is true of design thinking. Though the 37Signals design ethos guided us in the infancy of our medium, the landscape of the web and our relationship to it has changed.

We must bring web design back into the realm of delight. Not a good meal, I mean a mind-blowing, palate-challenging, fall-in-lovewith-food-again, great meal. What made it so memorable? Was it the taste and texture of the food? Was it the unexpected pairing of flavors? Was it the artful presentation, attentive wait staff, and ambiance? Chances are, many of these factors worked in concert to elicit an intense emotional response.

Now think about this. I doubt it if you did, you need to get out a little more. Certainly we all want to eat edible foods with nutritional value, but we also crave flavor.

Why do we settle for usable when we can make interfaces both usable and pleasurable? Like Basecamp, Wufoo serves a utilitarian purpose. Its users want to perform tasks quickly. Making databases and designing forms can be E m ot i o n a l D e s i g n 9 Fig 1.

But Wufoo makes it easy and, unlike most of its competitors, they make it fun. Wufoo keeps task flows simple and focused with uncluttered interfaces. Though the app offers powerful features, it strikes a healthy balance by not including obscure functionality that might confuse the majority of users while serving a niche audience.

It shines through in the copy. Please fill it out. Corner radii are generous, creating a cartoony feel. Their voice and perspective comes through in their designs. Wufoo is a piece of software, but it feels like a living, breathing human being. Kevin Hale, the user experience design lead and co-founder of Wufoo, considered the emotional state of Wufoo users when conceptualizing the design. The inspiration for our color palette came from our competitors.

In his mind, Kevin had an emotional portrait of the people he was designing for. A craftsman wields great technical skill, and shows us their hand in their work. Their work exudes a human quality we can see and feel. We could list the design elements that work in concert in Wufoo to construct a personality that users can relate to, but the sum is greater than its parts.

It turns out emotion and memory are closely linked. In his book Brain Rules, molecular biologist John Medina shares the science behind the relationship between emotion and memory: Emotionally charged events persist much longer in our memories and are recalled with greater accuracy than neutral memories.

How does this work in our brains? If the prefrontal cortex is the board chairman, the cingulate gyrus is its personal assistant. The assistant provides the chairman with certain filtering functions and assists in teleconferencing with other parts of the brain—especially the amygdala, which helps create and maintain emotions. The amygdala is chock-full of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and it uses dopamine the way an office assistant uses Post-It notes.

When the brain detects an emotionally charged event, the amygdala releases dopamine into the system. It is what every teacher, parent, and ad executive wants. Add us designers to that list too, Dr. Imagine eating a delicious four-pound log of bacon and not having the sense to eat another the following day. As babies, we build an emotional bond with our parents when we cry and our parents offer food, a fresh diaper, or a loving touch. A similar feedback loop happens in interface design.

Positive emotional stimuli can be disarming. It builds engagement with your users, which can make the design experience feel like a chat with a friend or a trusted confidant. Designing for emotion is good for business.

Betabrand has about thirty minutes of reading material plus a generous gallery of amateur action heros putting their togs to the test. Lindland actually describes Betabrand as an online magazine that happens to sell clothes. In the end, clothes are simply the artifacts of the amazing experience customers have on their site.

News of fun products and experiences travel far and wide online and at absolutely no cost. Oh, and they can lower the drag coefficient of your crotch by an amazing It creates empathy and helps your audience see a better version of themselves. Humans want to connect with real people. We forget that businesses are just collections of people—so why not let that shine through?

Emotional design turns casual users into fanatics ready to tell others about their positive experience. It also offers a trust safety net that encourages your audience to stay when things go awry. A customer in Portland learned of a Cordarounds sale 10 days after downloading a pair and wrote to ask for a discount. He told me companies like Nordstom offer such rebates, and I asked if a oneman online business should be held to the same standards of a multi-billion dollar biz with thousands of employees.

He tuned into the game with his wife, listened as the Trailblazers won, and earned himself a prized pair of Pink Panthers. To this very day, he remains one of our greatest, most loyal customers.

In addition to this, our greatest customer also became an investor in our company. E m ot i o n a l D e s i g n 15 The Pink Panther had a bad start with Betabrand, and Lindland could have done what most of use would have: tell the guy to go fish. But Lindland changed the tone by talking to the Panther like a friend. Certainly, emotional design has risks.

If emotional engagement compromises the functionality, reliability, or usability of an interface, the positive experience you wanted will mutate into a rant-inducing disaster for your users.

We all have distinct personalities, emotional baggage, and unique dispositions, so how can we design something that can appeal to such wide-ranging perspectives? Beneath disparate personalities and perspectives lie universal psychology principles common to all humans. These principles are invaluable tools in our quest to design for emotion. In The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animal, Charles Darwin observed The same state of mind is expressed throughout the world with remarkable uniformity; and this fact is in itself interesting as evidence of the close Designing for Humans 17 similarity in bodily structure and mental disposition of all the races of mankind.

What Darwin suggests is that we have a common emotional lexicon guiding us through life. Emotion is an essential survival tool. Though we develop verbal language as we mature, emotion is our native tongue from the moment we enter this world. It is the lingua franca of humanity.

As humans have evolved physically, so too have our brains, to naturally select the most advantageous instincts and behaviors that will keep our species alive. Parents love their babies.

On paper, it sounds pretty bad. Shortly before I began writing this book, I became a parent. Holy cow, is it hard work! All I see is pure beauty that is totally worth it. As the late evolutionary biologist Stephen Jay Gould explains in his essay A Biological Homage to Mickey Mouse, cartoonists have exploited this principle for decades, creating characters with large heads, small bodies, and enlarged eyes that endear them to us.

Designers also use this principle, called the baby-face bias, to their advantage. Can you think of any websites that use a cute mascot to create connections with their audience? Designing for Humans 19 There are boatloads of them. The takeaway here is not to make your website cuter. In fact, human nature is reflected in every aspect of design.

As we gaze at the world, we discover ourselves looking back. We are accidental narcissists seeking that which we know best—ourselves. This instinct is guided by our primordial desire for emotional connection with others. We are hardwired to seek emotion in human faces. Sometimes we perceive human presence through abstract things such as proportion.

Pythagoras and the ancient Greeks realized this when they discovered the golden ratio, a mathematical division of proportions found repeatedly in nature, including the human form. Though our minds may not be conscious that the golden ratio is present in architecture such as the Parthenon or in a design like the iPod, our subconscious immediately sees a pattern of beauty that we know is also present in our own bodies.

Web designers have picked up on this concept too. When Doug Bowman and his design team at Twitter redesigned their site, the golden ratio defined the structure of the layout fig 2. Our definition of beauty originates in our own image. The human mind is exceptionally skilled at scanning objects and information to discover meaning in abstract forms.

We can find traces of ourselves in most anything we see, and we like that. Our ability to find signal and discern patterns in so much noise is a very important trait we use to navigate life, and as you might expect, this ability to recognize patterns greatly affects the way we design.

Beyond our ability to express emotion, we also share the instinct to search for patterns. The human mind is a beautifully engineered difference engine. Our brains constantly scan for patterns in our environment to form insights and keep us from harm.

We call that break in pattern contrast. It helps us decide where we should sit in a classroom is one seat more advantageous than another?

We use contrast to answer one fundamental question: Is it good for me or bad for me? When all individuals are high contrast, none stand out. Humans use visual contrast similarly. Habitual speeders like me stick close to other cars to avoid the notice of police. Speeding alone makes you an easy mark for lurking cops. Police issue speeding tickets to create cognitive contrast in our minds. They hope that the penalties we incur will deter us from repeating mistakes.

I can humbly attest that their technique works. Contrast is also a powerful design tool. Websites like Tumblr fig 2. The site simply introduces the product and calls the user to act. The high visual contrast in negative space against the large, central form makes it easy to understand what this site is about and what action Tumblr expects. Page simplicity also helps potential customers to perform a basic cost-benefit analysis, a regular activity that our brains engage in after contrast scanning.

The short time needed to fill Designing for Humans 23 out the form is a low cost to pay for the potentially large benefit of the service, making conversion highly likely.

As you increase the number of high contrast elements on a page, you proportionally increase the time needed to perform a task, learn a system, and remember pathways. Adding stuff pushes the human brain to its limits. Have you ever been to a party where everyone is yelling to speak to the person next to them? As the volume increases, everyone must speak louder to be heard, but that makes it even harder to have a conversation.

Design works in the same way. It states that the time it takes to make a decision increases with the number of alternatives. Tumblr is on to something with its dead simple home page. Tumblr recognizes that attention is a finite commodity.

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Every time we add content to an interface, it makes it harder for humans to identify patterns and contrasting elements. The result is more unpredictable user behavior, and lower information retention. When your brand clearly contrasts with others, your audience will easily identify it and remember it.

Web designer Ricardo Mestra gets the power of contrast. The rich textures, unrefined edges, and layers of flat shapes make it feel more like elegant paper craft than a website. The purple monster that darts from behind a tree and the humorous copy create an emotional imprint on his audience, making his portfolio unforgettable.

Great design that uses cognitive and visual contrast not only makes you stand out, it can also influence the way people use your interface. Both use color, type, scale, whitespace, and layout deftly. Both are unmistakably well designed. Design is too often wrongly taken for the indulgent frosting on a functional interface. Would this person show up to a job interview in their pajamas because people only care about what they can do and not how they look?

Designing for Humans Fig 2. As Donald Norman, a pioneer in usability and humancomputer interaction, points out in his book Emotional Design, beautiful design creates a positive emotional response in the brain, which actually improves our cognitive abilities. Attractive things make people feel good, which in turn makes them think more creatively. How does that make something easier to use?

Simple, by making it easier for people to find solutions to the problems they encounter. Norman is describing the aesthetic-usability effect. Attractive things actually work better. Many brands employ this principle, but none more so than Apple. Their clean, elegant design makes their products and software easy to use. Apple bakes the aesthetic-usability effect into everything they make, and it keeps their customers coming back.

But Apple fanaticism connects directly to their mastery of emotional design. Apple designers considered the context in which this light would most often be seen—in a dark office, a bedroom, or a living room where the status light is one of the only light sources.

It mimics the natural breathing rate of a human at rest: twelve to twenty breaths per minute. It inspires a mood. Apple could have simply designed the indicator to stay on during sleep state, and it would have achieved its goal.

Emotion in the Human Face

Instead, their solution communicates and soothes, encouraging humans to see themselves in the product they use. A quick look at evolutionary psychology showed us that much of how we see our world is predisposed at birth, a function of thousands of years of adapting to our environment and finding the best solutions for survival.

The baby-face bias is one such example. Contrast also originates in our need to survive, but today we can use it to shape user behavior and make our brand stand out.

We learned that the human mind has limitations. And, we discovered that aesthetics is more than just window dressing—it influences usability, as the aesthetic-usability principle illustrates. This is who we are.

We are born with firmware that guides us, and emotion is at the core of that code. Emotion is a fundamental part of who we are as humans, and it plays a foundational role in effective design. While the human use of emotion to communicate and our reactions to certain situations are universal, designing for emotion still requires nuance and careful consideration.

The personalities that sit atop our cognitive firmware make us much more unpredictable. We call it personality. Through our personalities, we express the entire gamut of human emotion. Personality is the mysterious force that attracts us to certain people and repels us from others. Because personality greatly influences our decision-making process, it can be a powerful tool in design. HCI specialists understand psychology, usability, interaction design, programming concepts, and basic visual design principles.

Sound familiar?

Names shape our perceptions, and cue us into the ideas that fit within a category. To achieve this goal, we must consider how we interact with one another in real life. Maybe you met them while taking a walk, while at an event, or maybe a friend introduced you, and the ensuing conversation was engaging, interesting, and maybe even fun.

What was it about that person that made your conversation so exhilarating? It was their personality that drew you to them, that guided the discussion and left you feeling excited.

Your personalities intersected in shared jokes, tone of voice, and the cadence of the conversation. This dropped your guard and made you trust this new person. Personalities foster friendships and serve as the platform for emotional connections. Hold on to that memory, and carry it through this book.

Revisit it when you start a new design project. Products are people, too. Once again, history can inform our work today. It turns out that designers have been experimenting with personality to craft a more human experience for centuries.

When Johannes Gutenberg—goldsmith and father of the printing press—experimented with movable type in the mid-fifteenth century, the human hand inspired him. Before the printing press, scribes—usually monks—painstakingly penned each page of religious manuscripts by hand with quill and ink. Transcribing a bible was a sacred duty, as the scribe was thought to be channeling a divine message. So when Gutenberg designed and cast the original typefaces he used to print hundreds of bibles, the letterforms mimicked the calligraphic style of scribes.

We can see the trend of distinctly human design in the twentieth century, when mass production permeated nearly every industry. The Volkswagen Beetle, released in and produced until , is the best selling design in automotive history. Its distinctly human design contributed to its success fig 3. The round headlights denote eyes while its scoopshaped hood smiles at us, personifying the baby-face bias.

These ads convey a personality experience and help consumers compare the differing relationships they could have with their computer.

1st Edition

User experience designers interview their audience, then create personas—a dossier on an archetypal user who represents a larger group. Think of personas as the artifacts of user research. They help a web design team remain aware of their target audience and stay focused on their needs. The persona example shown in fig 3. Through this document we learn about her demographics, her interests, her expertise in various subjects, and what influences her decisions on subjects germane to the project—we start to understand who Julia is.

They create all of their personas this way, which is handy. Not only does this help them create better design solutions, it keeps them focused on real people who will use the things they make. As we saw in the hierarchy of needs in Chapter 1, we know all users need our designs to be functional, reliable, and usable. By understanding our audience, we can better address their needs. This information also helps us address the top layer in that hierarchy—pleasure—by clueing us in to the design personality most likely to create an emotional connection.

We know who they are, but who are we? Earlier in the chapter I mentioned that products can be people too. Why, yes—yes it should. Is it serious, buttoned up, all business, yet trustworthy and capable? Is it a wise-cracking buddy that makes even mundane tasks fun?

Personality can manifest itself in an interface through visual design, copy, and interactions. A design persona describes how to channel personality in each of these areas and helps P er s o n a l i t y 35 the web team to construct a unified and consistent result.

What makes your brand personality unique? Personality image: This is an actual image of a person that embodies the traits you wish to include in your brand. This makes the personality less abstract. Pick a famous person, or a person with whom your team is familiar. If your brand has a mascot or representative that already embodies the personality, use that instead.

Brand traits: List five to seven traits that best describe your brand along with a trait that you want to avoid. Multilinear Image Analysis uses tensor concept and is introduced to work with different lighting conditions and other distractions. It uses multilinear algebra [20]. Color Subspace Linear Discriminant Analysis also uses tensor concept but can work with color space.

A 3-D color tensor is used to produce color LDA subspace which improves the efficiency of recognition [21]. Gabor Filer Bank is another technique that gives greater performance in terms of recognition rate than other methods [22].

But this method has a major limitation that the maximum bandwidth is limited. PROBLEMS As we know that we can recognize human emotions using facial expressions without any effort or delay but reliable facial expression recognition by computer interface is still a challenge. An ideal emotion detection system should recognize expressions regardless of gender, age, and any ethnicity.

Such a system should also be invariant to different distraction like glasses, different hair styles, mustache, facial hairs and different lightening conditions. It should also be able to construct a whole face if there are some missing parts of the face due to these distractions.

It should also perform good facial expression analysis regardless of large changes in viewing condition and rigid movement [23]. Achieving optimal feature extraction and classification is a key challenge in this field because we have a huge variability in the input data [24]. For better recognition rates most current facial expressions recognition methods require some work to control imaging conditions like position and orientation of the face with respect to the camera as it can result in wide variability of image views.

More research work is needed for transformation-invariant expression recognition. Basically these systems involve face recognition, feature extraction and categorization. Various techniques can be used for better recognition rate. Techniques with higher recognition rate have greater performance. These approaches provide a practical solution to the problem of facial expression recognition and can work well in constrained environment. Emotion detection using facial expression is a universal issue and causes difficulties due to uncertain physical and psychological characteristics of emotions that are linked to the traits of each person individually.

Therefore, research in this field will remain under continuous study for many years to come because many problems have to be solved in order to create an ideal user interface and improved recognition of complex emotional states is required. Donato, M. Bartlett, J. Hager, P. Ekman, T. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. IEEE Int. Workshop Robot and Human Communication, pp. Essa, A. Kanade, J. Cohn, Y. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers Inc.

Chavan, M. Jadhav, J. Mashruwala, A. Nehete, Pooja A. Sirovich and M. Optical Soc. Belhumeur, J. Hespanha, and D. Draper, K. Baek, M. Yang, D. Zhang, A.

Frangi, and J. Torres, J. Reutter, and L. Thomas, C. Kambhamettu and S. Vasilescu and D. Int Conf. Pattern Recognit.We web designers find ourselves in a similar situation. View on ScienceDirect. Imaging conditions like lighting and viewpoint should not be varied for better performance.

Pick a famous person, or a person with whom your team is familiar. The present study investigated individual differences in emotion perception and its relationship to facial muscle responses - recorded with electromyogram EMG - in response to emotional facial expressions.

Informal, but not sloppy. Nehete, Pooja A. Cohn, Y.

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