Electrical Symbols and Standards Design of Simple Electrical Circuits-Light and Fan Circuits Electrical Design Estimating and Costing (pdf). ELECTRICAL DESIGN Estimating and Costing K.B. RAINA ○ S.K. BHATTACHARYA - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. ELECTRICAL. To ask other readers questions about Electrical Design ; Estimating And Costing, please sign up. Recent Questions. can i get a pdf file of this book? i need it.
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Download Eee-Viii-electrical Design,Estimation and Costing [10ee81]-Notes. Electrical Design Estimating And Costing. Download: Electrical Design Estimating And raudone.info Similar searches: Electrical Design. Estimating And Costing. Electrical Design Estimating And Costing. by K B Raina S K Bhattacharya. Book condition: New. Book Description. New Age International (p).
Conductor for final sub-circuit of fan and light wiring shall have a nominal cross sectional area not less than 1 Sq. The cross sectional area for power wiring shall be not less than 2. The minimum cross sectional area of conductors of flexible cord shall be 0.
Earthing of residential Installation Earthing or grounding means connecting all parts of the apparatus other than live part to the general mass of earth by wire of negligible resistance. This ensures that all parts of the equipment other than live part shall be at earth potential ie, zero potential so that the operator shall be at earth potential at all the time, thus will avoid shock to the operator.
The neutral of the supply system is also solidly earthed to ensure its potential equal to zero. Earthing shall generally be carried out in accordance with the requirement of Indian Electricity Rule , particularly IE Rules 32, 51, 61, 62, 67, 69, 88 2 and In the case of high and extra high voltage the neutral point shall be earthed by not less than two separate and distinct connections.
Electrical Design Estimating and Costing
Each earth system shall be so devised that the testing of individual earth electrode is possible. The building blocks are based on three levels of abstraction; buildings blocks in the highest level are composed from building blocks in lower levels. Each building block has an asso- ciated cost obtained from a concepts catalogue with unit prices. The system was developed for CFE Electricity Federal Commission which is the main utility for generation and distribution of electricity in Mexico.
Using different levels of abstraction allow human designers the flexibility to devise a substation design using different levels of complexity and plasticity. For instance, if it is needed to change radically the design of a new substation an engineer can use basic elements from lower levels of abstraction transformers, high-voltage circuit- breakers, lightning rods, structures, foundations, ducts banks, etc.
Also, if a new de- sign of a substation is required quickly, the designer may use modules, which is a group of elements in superior levels of abstraction line bay, transformer bay, control room, edge wall, etc.
Once the configuration of a substation has been completed, G.
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Bebis et al. Human designer bases new designs on information and data from developed projects such as: topographical data, old CAD drawings and budget data to generate new CAD drawings, costs estimation and tender documents for a new substation.
Flow diagram for traditional substations design at CFE 3 System Requirements CFE asked for several requirements to meet the needs of 13 distribution divisions.
The main solicited requirements were: R1. The system must consider the whole design process for KV substations. The system must be able to design 3D normalized arrangements H, ring, main bus and main-bus transfer-bus.
The system must have interoperability with costs engineering software in order to obtain the costs for building substations. The system must have 3D visualization and walkthrough to give information about equipments transformers, high-voltage circuit-breakers, etc.
The system must generate drawings, concepts catalogue and costs estimation documents. The system must generate a visualization file to share the substation with personnel without the necessity of having the system or any software used for development.
Puget and Enriquez dealt with several concepts related with good prac- tices for substations design  . However, due to complexity in designing an elec- trical substation the process can be tedious and time consuming; therefore the design time can be prohibitively long.
During these years, other industries have adopted three dimensional modeling for example: process plant design, mechanical design, manufacturing, architecture, civil engineering, medicine, etc.
There are a lot of software packages, hardware tools and information related to 3D and virtual environments . The benefits of 3D design and modeling in these in- dustries are well documented .
Reduction of change orders, concurrent engineering designs, elimination of interferences, increased quality of design, accurate material requirements, faster project throughput, visualization and construction sequencing have all shown quantifiable benefits . Aberden  describes in a full study the benefits obtained with the migration from 2D to 3D, mainly reducing the change of orders and reusing existing parts and morph- ing an existing part into a new one.
With respect to reusing parts in the design proc- ess, there are recent works which discuss problems involved in design reuse  .
However, most studies on the topic of reuse have predominately dealt with problems involving computer software and architectural reuse , , , . Griss and Nazareth have shown that reusing design components is useful to reduce costs and shrink development time  . In our approach, we reuse electrical and civil components as building blocks in order to ease the design process. Additionally the system estimates the costs for building new electrical substations.
In the engineering design module, human designers use the building blocks to design a new electrical substation, taking into account some topographical data.
Af- ter that, the cost of an electrical substation is estimated with the costs engineering module. Finally, with 3D visualization and walkthrough module, designers can make decisions about aspects related with construction, operations, maintenance and training. Schematic diagram at different abstraction levels E. The 3D models were associated at different levels of abstraction and stored in a library embedded in the design engineering module.
The schematic diagram of building blocks at different abstraction levels is shown in Figure 3. The more completely the overall operation can be broken down into individual units, the more accurately the total estimate labour can be determined for any given job. A basic unit is defined as the unit amount of total performance time expressed in hours determined to be consumed under favourable conditions, normal productivity and no lost time, applicable to given times of material.
The basic units therefore include pro-rata coverage of the intimately related labour functions as follows: Normal job installations related activity Normal installation layout Normal actual installation work. Each organisation has different efficiency levels depending on the make-up and experience of the human resource on the particular functional outcome at the time of execution; the basic labour units will need to be updated regularly through a feedback loop from current projects as the make up the human resource changes over time in organisations.
The efficiency level depends on the number of workers having the required skill level for each particular task. This is most accurate form of estimating as it creates a consistent benchmark for each individual component of the project. The advantage is that each labour unit rate can be easily modified if required to suit the different installation conditions. This type of pricing is quick, accurate, flexible and completely transparent. A design and construct project approach requires the team to be responsible for taking a concept that is developed with the owner, complete the detailed design, and then proceed with the electrical construction.
This is different than the conventional process, whereby contractors bid on a design that has been completed before their involvement. If they are the successful contractor, they will execute the project.
Design and construct estimates are often confused with budgets, but they are not the same. Because most owners have fiscal restraints that affect their capital investment, they depend heavily on the estimator to develop accurate cost forecasts at every stage of the project.Consider transferring direct quotations to Wikiquote.
For instance, if it is needed to change radically the design of a new substation an engineer can use basic elements from lower levels of abstraction transformers, high-voltage circuit- breakers, lightning rods, structures, foundations, ducts banks, etc. Remember me on this computer. Therefore using these building blocks, the engineer can design a great variety of electrical substations very quickly.
Order-of-Magnitude Estimates Class 5 [ edit ] An order-of-magnitude estimate is prepared when little or no design information is available for the project. Please select Ok if you would like to proceed with this request anyway.
Building Blocks at different levels of abstraction Because building blocks were obtained from experienced human designers; these were developed in such a way that these can be used in different types of arrange- ments ring, transfer bus, H, etc.