whether political,social,educational or economic,which the creation of Pakistan has fostered,drew my attention to that major Muslim figure,Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. critical time for the services of Muslims and gave the right direction to them. Sir. Syed Ahmad “Sir Syed Ahmed Khan began his primary education under the. educational services of sir syed ahmed khan. 1. Pak. Studies: Sir Syed Ahmed Khan 28 December at Early Biography Details Sir.
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PDF | On Sep 10, , Umar Hashmi and others published Essay on Sir Syed Ahmed Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was also a great critique, Syed's personality which says to adopt modern education (have a conscience) an annual rental of more than a lac rupees, as a reward of my services, my heart. Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan's Framework for the Educational Uplift of the Indian . their language for all advancement in their services and as intellectual progress. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan turned his attention towards the educational uplift of his . It rendered great services in imparting modern education to the Muslims.
Nonetheless, this project was by In the same respect, according to Hafeez Malik, no means intended to serve as a way to discourage Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan was very concerned with the Muslim community from learning the English the mystery of the rise and fall of civilizations. To concretize this objective, Sir Sayyid Ah- merely "chronicled the kings' ascension to power mad Khan and his followers founded the Scien- and their deaths" Malik What he really wanted was a work that would analyse in detail tific Society on July 9th, , at Ghazipur, a town in northern India.
Ali Khan specific character of nations as well as their virtues and vices This was published in Oordoo. Those hitherto published have not clearly reflected in the following passage excerpted had the details well arranged, have been too brief and from his inaugural address to the Scientific Soci- their style has not been good. In my opinion Mill's ety: History of India is an excellent work.
It is in several volumes and if not too expensive ought to be gradually Looking at the state of my fellow countrymen's minds, published by our Society. From their ignorance of the events ety launched a journal called The Scientific Society of the past, and also of the events of the present - Paper, which later became known as the Aligarh from their not being acquainted with the manner and Institute Gazette.
This journal's primary objective means by which infant nations have grown into powerful was to familiarize the British Colonial Govern- and flourishing ones, and by which the present most advanced ones have beaten their competitors in the race for position among the magnates of the world - they 4 "Sir Syed's Speech at Scientific Society," quoted in Muhammad According to Shun Muhammad, James Mill and the most powerful in the history of their time, and was very critical of the British rule in India For the mad For instance, as a well as keep the latter informed about the methods token of recognition, the Colonial Government and policies of British rule.
Moreover, even the Duke of Argyll, the could find an Urdu text immediately followed by then first Secretary of State for India, extended his its English version Shabir and Khakan With regard to local Within a short period of time after its foun- support, probably the most significant contribution dation, the fruits of the efforts of the Scientific came from Raja Jeykishen Dass, a local Hindu of Society members could be seen on the ground.
Abbasi 19 , views with Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan.
About Raja about 25 books on various subjects, ranging from Jeykishen Dass, Shun Muhammad stated that "it electricity to agriculture, were translated into Urdu. With this increase in activity and staff, Sir Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan's positive opinion Sayyid Ahmad Khan thought it unwise to confine about Western education was further reinforced the work of the Scientific Society to the diffusion after the trip that he had made to Britain in , of modern knowledge by means of translation.
Syed Ahmad Khan
During his stay Thus, a new objective was to be adopted by the in London, Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan was fascinated members of the Society which included, among by the greatness and considerable refinement of the others, the improvement of agriculture in the South British social life which, he believed, was a result Asian subcontinent. This, Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan of the education of both men and women Hay thought, could be fulfilled by introducing the re- This can be found in one of the letters cently invented agricultural tools and instruments that he sent home, in which he declared: used in Europe Muhammad xiv.
Indeed, in Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan's opinion, Indian farmers All good things, spiritual and worldly, which should be had to acquaint themselves with the new methods found in man, have been bestowed by the Almighty on and modern innovations in agronomy, and hence, Europe, and especially on England. This is entirely towards this end, by September , he asked the due to the education of the men and women. Society could use as an experimental farm Malik In this respect, H.
Malik quoted Sir He then added that "unless the education of the Sayyid Ahmad Khan 88 as saying that the masses is pushed on as it is here, it is impossible Scientific Society would use the land in order to: for a native to become civilized and honoured" Hay Towards this end, he organized a return for the Society. In fact, to Sir Sayyid committee whose task was to find out, objectively, Ahmad Khan's satisfaction, the Scientific Society why his coreligionists adopted a negative attitude received a very positive welcome from the British towards the Government sponsored system of ed- ucation, and to suggest ways and means to pop- 7 It should be noted that the Scientific Society was non- ularise the study of Western sciences among the communal in its character Abbasi Muslim community Muhammad xix.
Ac- 8 G. Ah Khan Describing this journal, Ghulam cording to Sanjay Seth 58 , this committee, Shabir and Baber Khakan stated that it was not "a news- whose name was the "Committee for the Better paper for bringing news of everyday occurrences to its readers," but rather, it "reflected Muslim sentiments and Diffusion and Advancement of Learning among point of view on religious, social and political aspects of Muhammadans of India" in Urdu: Khwastgaran- their lives" The essayists attributed this change Hafeez Malik asserted that 32 es- in the comportment of the Indian Muslim students says in total were submitted to the Select Com- to the fact that teachers could hardly manage to mittee, which was composed of 19 members, with have enough time to inculcate good manners and Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan as its secretary.
After moral principles in their students.
As a means for carefully scrutinizing the submissions, the Select this purpose, the essayists suggested the appoint- Committee ended up with a set of findings that ment of good-mannered teachers Malik were very similar to Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan's Some of the essayists attributed the almost To begin with, most of the essayists agreed total absence of the Muslim students from the on the fact that the Indian Muslims objected to Government-maintained schools to the economic sending their sons to British sponsored schools backwardness and widespread poverty among the due to the failure of the latter to dispense religious Muslim community Seth 59 f.
However, instructions, particularly in the elementary educa- the Select Committee cast doubt on this idea and tion Malik As a matter of fact, in commented that "'if Muslims could lavish large pre-British India, Muslim children always started sums in the celebration of absurd and unreasonable their learning process with the Holy Quran and ceremonies connected with their children,' then some other rituals for prayers Nevertheless, why could they not 'lay aside only one half of under the British rule, this was discontinued in such sums for the education of their children?
Christian scriptures, a move that worried Indian Actually, this opinion of the Select Committee Muslims a great deal Muhammad xix. In other tion in Government-maintained schools for fear words, some Muslim parents, particularly the rich of distorting Islam and thus producing "false no- ones, were reluctant to send their sons to schools as tions" Malik However, they deemed they could afford their schooling at home.
Others it necessary to make private arrangements for the believed that Muslim upper classes were generally study of Islam, given the fact that the English inclined to luxury and regarded it as a degrading education could produce disbelief in this religion behaviour to send their sons to schools.
Still others among young Muslim boys Seth Com- believed that the excessive love of Muslim parents menting on this point, Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan towards their sons made them unwilling to send stated that "he had never yet met a man who knew them to school Muhammad xix.
English and who had still full respect for all the Apart from that, it is interesting to note that a religious beliefs and venerations" quoted in Malik very few essayists, apparently applying the norm To back up his statement, Sir Sayyid of population ratio, denied the assumption that Ahmad Khan quoted Sir William Wilson Hunter the Indian Muslims were at all underrepresented as saying: "The luxurious religions of Asia shrivel in Government schools Seth 58 , on the into dry sticks when brought into contact with the grounds that the Muslim community constituted icy realities of Western sciences" As a matter of fact, this state- the majority of those who had submitted their ment was supported by some members of the essays to the Select Committee that the kind of Colonial Government.
For instance, Kempson, the education brought by the British would corrupt then Director of Public Instruction in colonial In- the morals and behaviour of the young Muslim dia, considered normal the paucity of Muslims in students as well as bring about the absence of Government-maintained schools when compared traditional politeness and courtesy among them to the Hindu attendance because of the fact that Malik In this respect, Hafeez Ma- the Muslim community was largely outnumbered lik remarked that "humility, good breeding, and by the Hindus Malik In order to sub- stantiate his opinion, Kempson based his argu- ment on the data provided by the census.
Moreover, Meanwhile, in the religious sphere, Muslim at other non governmental schools, Muslims rep- students in this new college were required to resented 32 percent of the total number of stu- perform the five prayers on a daily basis and to dents Malik Nonetheless, the Select fast the whole month of Ramadan. It is This led to providing students with a sense of Muslim identity, something which had deteriorated under British rule.
Ali Khan 64 , "Muslims might acquire which received the "blessings" of the Colonial an English education without prejudice to their re- Government,12 Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan's objec- ligion. About this institution, future Muslim leaders who would be as capable Sharif al-Mujahid wrote: as the Hindu majority and take the defence of the Muslim community Symonds 29 f. Be that The College was designed to give the Muslim youth as it may, Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan's ultimate ideal the benefits of modern education without impairing their was to see in his community young people imbibed faith, to meet their prejudice against missionary schools, with European ideas and principles, and fervent and to redress their complaint of the absence of a believers in Islam at the same time.
In this regard, steadying moral code in the universities. Asaduddin 45 quoted him as saying: According to Ruswan 35 f. In the first religion, Indian in blood and colour, but English in department all subjects were taught in the English tastes, in opinions, and in intellect.
On the other hand, in the At the same time, the college was to be a true second department, some subjects like literature replica of Oxford and Cambridge colleges. In and history were taught in Arabic and Persian, other words, as he had seen that in Britain, Sir while other subjects, like geography, mathematics, Sayyid Ahmad Khan intended this college to be arts, and sciences, were taught in Urdu. According to M. Karandikar, besides the Muslim 13 Regarding this objective Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan was and Hindu upper classes, the British as well as the local reassured.
In his opinion, the graduates of this college princes also contributed to the funds Ruswan community, and this could only be achieved "if the 37 described this institution: Muslim aristocracy sent their sons to the college" Corroborating this statement, Hafeez Malik According to Shun To conclude, the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental Muhammad xix , the reason behind this was College was a monument that embodied Sir Sayyid that Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan was convinced that Ahmad Khan's ideas with regard to Western ed- "parental affection generally marred the progress ucation.
In fact, he was wise enough to see the of these boys. Ali Khan danger that the Muslims of India faced unless they pointed out that Sir Sayyid Ahmad took to education. For him, the only way to bridge Khan set up a boarding house on the premises the wide gap and thaw the icy relations that exist- of the college so that parents could be reassured ed between his coreligionists and the colonizers that their children's conduct would be carefully was to acquire Western education.
In his view, supervised. Lending support to this statement, it would equip them with the necessary tools to Ruswan 37 stated that: communicate efficiently with the British as well as to make progress, as confirmed by the speech This residential system enabled authorities to monitor that he delivered on the occasion of the found- and isolate the student's daily activities from outside influences which might impede their studies.
In this magazine Sir Syed wrote that it was not against Islam to eat with the Christians on the same table. He gave references from the Quran and proved that it was not un-Islamic to eat with a nation who was the bearer of Holy book. In clear language, he pronounced that the Hindus and the Muslims were two different communities with different interests. After learning bitter lesson from the Hindi-Urdu controversy, he reached the conclusion that both the communities could not work together.
In a country like India where caste distinctions still exist, where there is no fusion of interests of various races, where religious differences are still violent, where education in the modern sense has not made an equal or proportionate progress among all sections of the population. I am convinced that the introduction of the principles of the election pure or simple by the representation of various interests in the local boards and district councils would be attended with the evils of greater significance than pure economic consideration.
According to V. His Movement was one of general reforms. It was inspired by the thought that the Muslims of India were separate people and nation who must not be absorbed with Hinduism.
O College later Aligarh University. The students of Aligarh College fired by the spirit of Muslim nationalism spread throughout the country and became the torch bearer of Two-Nation Theory.
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.
Thus, the quest of the Muslims for their national identity took the shape of a movement which resulted in the renaissance of the Muslims in the 19th century. This movement revolutionized the economic, social, and political status of the Muslims. However, Sir Syed was the chief architect of this movement.On the other hand the British rulers favoured the Hindus by granting them important government jobs in plenty.
In an undivided India under the British rule, he was worried about Muslim backwardness and unwillingness to adopt modern education. He released the second edition of Ansar-as-sanadid in Although he succeeded in rescuing his mother from the turmoil, she died in Meerut , owing to the privations she had experienced.
In: C. Muhammad ed.
Syed Ahmad Khan
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan turned his attention towards the educational uplift of his co-religionists. To hope that both could remain equal is to desire the impossible and the inconceivable.
Acquainted with high-ranking British officials, Sir Syed obtained close knowledge about British colonial politics during his service at the courts. He was greatly pained to see the miserable condition of the Muslims everywhere.
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