pdf. Desenvolvimento Como Liberdade Amartya Sen. 34 Pages Amartya Sen. Uploaded by. Priscila Palacci. connect to download. Get pdf. raudone.info AMARTYA SEN Desenvolvimento como liberdade 'Tradugao Laura Teixeira Motta Revisao técnica Ricardo Doninelli Mendes 62 reimpressao ComPANHIA Das. Introdução, 'Pobreza como privação de capacidades', 'A condição de agente das mulheres e a mudança social'raudone.info Uploaded by Rafael Soares. Copyright.
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View Notes - Resumo Amartya raudone.info from ICSA DECEA at Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto. Resumo Amartya Sen Desenvolvimento como Liberdade . 8 jun. Disponível em: raudone.info>. Acesso em: 27 abril Justiça e desenvolvimento no pensamento de Amartya Sen .. Já no prefácio de "Desenvolvimento como Liberdade", Sen explicita em que tipo de base moral.
Nor can the "advantage" of different persons or groups be ranked on the basis of the primary goods index, because of interpersonal variations in what people can do with primary goods, depending on biological, social, and other parameters. Sen, , pp. I have disputed the alleged adequacy, for a freedom-oriented assessment of justice, of this concentration on means to freedom, rather than on the extent of the freedom that a person actually has.
Since the conversion of these primary goods and resources into freedom of choice [ Sen, , p. Roemer , pp. Funcionamentos consistem nos estados e atividades que as pessoas valorizam em suas vidas. Aquilo que uma pessoa realiza pode ser considerado um vetor de funcionamentos. Rawls, , p. Para Rawls , p. Segundo Sen , p.
Em resposta a Rawls, ele escreve , p. Ainda assim, como bem aponta Sugden , p. The word "intrinsically" is significant.
Certain functionings, Sen is saying, just are valuable; such states of being are, therefore, also states of well-being. For Sen, evaluating a person's well-being is a matter of "reasoned assessment" [ In an earlier work he has declared his belief that a purely subjectivist view of well-being is "ultimately rejectable" and that 'the 'limits' of objectivity extend well into the assessment of well-being'.
Nem por isso, contudo, Rawls advoga a proposta de Sen por completo. Someone who is naturally manually dextrous can convert a given level of primary goods into a larger or better capability set than someone who is not and is in all other ways the same.
It is not clear what Sen wants to do about this source of inequality in capability sets or freedoms. It is not obvious that any simple adjustment to resources can eliminate this source of inequality in capabilities. My guess is that Sen would probably try to mitigate the effects of this inequality in some way, acknowledging that he cannot eliminate it.
But that is just what Rawls does.
Resumo Amartya Sen.pdf - Resumo Amartya Sen Desenvolvimento...
What is of urgent moral concern to us is not assuring equality of capability in some global way, in all of its dimensions, but the more modest goal of protecting individuals from certain impairments of their capabilities. Daniels, , p.
Hirschman , pp. Ainda assim, autores como Furtado afirmam que crescimento e desenvolvimento ocorrem sempre conjuntamente no mundo real. Como diz Sen b, pp. Expansion of freedom is viewed, in this approach, both as the primary end and as the principal means of development. Development consists of the removal of various types of unfreedoms that leave people with little choice and little opportunity of exercising their reasoned agency. The removal of substantial unfreedoms, it is argued here, is constitutive of development.
Sen, a, p. Como diz Vita , p. Sen a, pp. Elas seriam partes constitutivas do desenvolvimento a, p. A Economia do Subdesenvolvimento. The Journal of Philosophy , Vol. Ethics , Vol. Welfare, Resources, or Capabilities? Part 1: Equality of Welfare". Philosophy and Public Affairs , Vol. Part 2: Equality of Resources". Sovereign Virtue. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Salvo, M. Santa Cruz do Sul, RS: Unisc, pp.
Abril Cultural. In Hirschman, A. Essays in Trespassing: Economics to Politics and Beyond. Cambridge University Press. Krugman, P. Development, Geography and Economic Theory.
The MIT Press. Chenery, H. The welfare state, together with changes in the capitalist economy after the war, endeavored to create this bridge. Even so, this type of pact or political agreement will always be in dispute. The harbingers of the free market economy, reinvigorated at the end of the twentieth century by the doctrine of neo-liberalism, view individualistic utilitarian ethics as self-sufficient.
Grassroots approach and resistance : upgrading the conception of sustainable development
They also believe that the very ideas of social rights and the egalitarian society, intimately related to welfare economics, can be dispensed with. The field of public policy, which has a strong influence on the economy, is the space in which social ethics appears, contraposing the closed principles of utilitarian individualism. It is necessary here to identify the limits of the public space in these economies and societies, dominated as they are by utilitarian culture, to uphold the principles of social equality within public policy sphere.
To formulate questions and criteria relative to the economy and society in the twenty-first century, it is necessary to go back to the originating sources of the signification of human life in society. Technical progress and inequality or reducing inequalities from the development perspective The theoretical construction of economic development took place within a specific historical setting —that of the industrial revolution, when the systemic bases for a persistent increase in labor productivity were coordinated by the industrial bourgeoisie, who also managed the technical and scientific innovations created during the Enlightenment to improve the production of goods.
A problem would arise however as to the distribution and ownership of the fruits of technical and scientific progress. Technical and scientific development in the former Soviet Union and China rather than being distinct from that of capitalist economies, imitated it. One problem underlies these four issues: social inequality.
These four problematizations of development theory, analyzed below, are historically dated second half of the twentieth century. They were formulated in an environment that is critical of the founding traditions of capitalist economic growth the classicists, Marxists, neo-classicists, Schumpeterians, and Keynesianists , not to create a revolutionary scission, as was the case of political Marxism in the twentieth century, but rather in pursuit of democratic reform or bourgeois democracy in Marxist jargon , and thus address the problem of inequality and, more recently, with the advent of ecological economics, environmental sustainability.
The Critical Field in development theories : Identities and Some diferences in Questions Relating to Equality and Technical Progress Development theorists describe four basic problematizations and their relationship to social equality and technical progress. These appear on the fringes of the dominant theory of economic development outlined above.
In capitalism, income distribution criteria presuppose that income inequality is an endogenous problem resulting from an unequal relationship between profit and salary. However, technical progress does not come into the discussion because improvements in labor productivity allow for, under pressure, a more equitable distribution of earnings. In turn, the creation of social and labor rights associated with the welfare state is also propitious to labor productivity growth. Other more recent theories of development, such as those linked to human development Amartya Sen Desenvolvimento como liberdade.
Furtado CM. Moreover, the founders of contemporary ecological economics and environmental sustainability call into question the widely-used standards for measuring technical progress, given the fundamental contradiction between these standards and the concept of ecological sustainability and the dissipation of useful low entropy energy. Nicholas Georgescu, one of the most influential founders of ecological economics Georgescu NR. Economia Ensaios ; 19 2 , calls the very concept of labor productivity in conventional economies into question.
However, they the ecologists are not primarily situated in the discussion of equality and distribution; although currently various multidisciplinary strands of integral ecology may be regarded as being part of a common field that deals with social equality. There is, therefore, an epistemological cut that goes beyond the problem of distribution and which needs to be explained. Desenvolvimento e subdesenvolvimento. Rio de Janeiro: Fundo de Cultura; According to A.
Sen, innate and acquired human capacities, endowed with an ensemble potential functionalities to act, are the key to development. When these capacities are used by individuals to achieve the ends they value —i. The capacity to act and liberty are, to some extent, synonymous. It can be observed that the dichotomy of technical progress versus social equality does not fit into this theory This is because, when the chains of potential functionalities are free of privations that blockade it, the exercise of capacities are released.
Then, intrinsically good actions are performed to free personal ethics rather than utilitarian compulsory imposed by the binomial of self- interest anchored in the criteria of labor productivity. Doyal L, Gough I. A Theory of human needs. London: Macmillan Education Palgrave; Its asserts that to meet needs governments should promote an agenda of technical progress and social demand, since these factors are essential for the full exercise of human rights.
Amartya Sen, a colleague of the Brazilian Celso Furtado at Cambridge in the s, took a similar path to that of Furtado and his critique of the theory of underdevelopment. The approaches adopted by Georgescu, Amartya Sen, Celso Furtado, Ian Gough and many other welfare state theorists are different in various aspects. However, when interpreted in the light of the antinomic relationship between technical progress and social equality, they yield important insights for addressing the problem in hand.
However, they map out the field of a sort of scientific revolution Perspectiva AS; The social equality approach From the above analysis it can be deduced that individualistic utilitarian ethics and narrowly conceived concepts of development based on the primacy of capital accumulation do not resolve the antinomy of technical and scientific progress and social equality.
On the contrary, they tend to deepen the divergence. John M.
However, where on the other hand there is a certain amount of agreement as to the correction of income inequality in the welfare state , there is no consensus between scholars regarding key concepts. Given the inherent individual and social diversity of the human condition, there are many forms of inequality age, sex, talents, wealth, genetic hereditariness, ethnicity, etc. By posing such questions, Amartya Sen Funcionamentos e capacidade.
In: Sem A. Desigualdade reexaminada. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Record; However, this freedom of choice is not defined by predetermined criteria or principles of value, as in the case of utility value in individualistic utilitarian ethics. To the contrary, the capacity to act once released from the chains of hardship that constrain this capacity is free, creative, and diverse, and eliminates all forms of social inequality that limit human development.
It requires a complex process to eliminate the array of social, economic, sanitary, educational, political and cultural hardships that impair the exercise of freedom of choice.
One of the fundamental points of the discussion of means are the policies designed to remove the constraints on human liberty — adequate health, nutrition, basic education, technical training, and social rights, always bearing in mind their role as mediating instruments.
However, regardless of whether this is the main approach adopted by the author or not, he nonetheless provides a major contribution in his critique of economic utilitarianism as a unifying criterion of social well-being. He further reveals that even in societies with a more equal distribution of wealth, fruit of a fairer distribution facilitated by the welfare state, many focuses of inequalities remain. Santillon F. Rio de Janeiro: Contraponto Ed. Drawing on theories put forward by these authors, the following section provides a theoretical-political synthesis of social policy as one way of moving from situations of backwardness and inequality towards development within the context of capitalism and democracy, the latter of which are underlying assumptions of these theories.
Social Policy, Equality and Development for Certain Theories of Justice The developmentalist thesis that is revisited here is completely different from the dualistic-modernizing view outlined above in referring to the conventional approach to development.
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As such, this thesis comprises a theoretical possibility to be considered when tackling poverty and inequality with political and economic policies supposedly designed to overcome this initial situation. On this point, this approach embodies a sense of equity and justice that is absent from conventional economics. Here, it is also necessary to draw on various concepts adopted in conventional theories of development.
These are significant ideas that deepen our understanding of development and can be reclaimed from literature otherwise regarded as liberal in the Anglo-Saxon sense or social democratic, whose origins goes back to continental Europe. Rawls J. In: Sen A. These concepts, each in its own way, embody the principles of equity as a political undertaking that shape the initial conditions of inequality.
Below, we draw on each of these concepts, appropriating from their different theoretical contexts that which is relevant to our explanatory framework. Public goods, such as education, health, housing, security, etc.
Felipe ST.In the absence of a sense of justice on everyone's part, there would be, it might be said, no objection to the utilitarian principle The Review of Economics and Statistics, v. New York and London: Garland Publishing, e.
Anchor Books. Fabricio Jonathas. The capacity to act and liberty are, to some extent, synonymous. Sen, a, p.